Morality And Machines: Perspectives On Computer Ethics / Edition 2

Morality And Machines: Perspectives On Computer Ethics / Edition 2

by Stacey L Edgar
     
 

ISBN-10: 0763717673

ISBN-13: 9780763717674

Pub. Date: 05/01/2002

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

This text helps students explore the wider field of computer ethics, including discussion of key topics such as privacy, software protection, artificial intelligence, workplace issues, virtual reality, and cybersex.
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Overview

This text helps students explore the wider field of computer ethics, including discussion of key topics such as privacy, software protection, artificial intelligence, workplace issues, virtual reality, and cybersex.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780763717674
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date:
05/01/2002
Edition description:
2E
Pages:
522
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacev
Introduction1
Computer Ethics?1
Is There Really a Need for Ethics in Computing?4
Endnotes7
References and Recommended Readings8
Part 1Ethical Foundations11
Chapter 1Ethical Decision Making13
Making Moral Decisions15
Views on the Nature of Reason22
The Modern View of Reason22
The Ancient View of Reason23
Which View of Reason Is Correct?25
Chapter 2Is Ethics Possible?33
Some Bad Reasons for Saying Ethics Has No Basis33
Some More Thoughtful Defenses of Ethical Skepticism37
Coda46
Chapter 3The Search for a Basis for Ethics55
Ethical Egoism56
Pleasure- and Pain-Based Theories of Ethics58
Classical Utilitarianism58
Updated Utilitarianism61
Act Utilitarianism61
Rule Utilitarianism62
Cost-Benefit Analysis62
Intentions, Freedom, and Universality63
Stoicism63
The Theories of Immanuel Kant64
Imperatives66
Virtue Ethics70
The Form of the Good72
Plato and the Form of the Good73
G.E. Moore and the Indefinability of the Good75
Butchvarov and the Order of Goods76
Conclusion78
Approaching Ethical Analysis79
Part 2Ethics Applied to a Computerized World97
Chapter 4Software Piracy, Property, and Protection99
A Brief History of Hardware99
A Brief History of Software102
Euclidean Algorithm for Greatest Common Divisor106
Software Piracy107
What Is Software Piracy?107
How Can Software Rights Be Protected?117
Arguments for Private Property117
Arguments against Private Property121
Intellectual Property122
Software Protection123
Trade Secrets123
Trademarks125
Copyrights126
Digital Millennium Copyright Act130
Licensing and Copyprotection131
Patents134
The Opposition to Legal Protection of Software147
What Is Reasonable and Fair?149
New Issues Raised by the Internet154
Chapter 5Computer Crime167
Kinds of Computer Crime168
Crimes against Computers168
Damage to Computers168
Crimes Using Computers172
Embezzlement by Computer172
Theft of Services176
Theft of Information177
Fraud178
Organized ("Mob") Computer Crime182
Counterfeiting184
Computer Crime Victims187
Computer Criminals188
Computer Crime Stoppers188
Failure to Report Computer Crimes190
The European Cybercrime Treaty190
Observations191
Chapter 6Computer Intruders, Viruses, and All That201
More Ways to Steal Using Computers201
Thefts of Money202
Roundoff Errors202
The Salami Technique203
Rounded-Down Bank Interest204
Breaking In and Entering204
Phreaking Then and Now204
Tampering with Communication Signals206
A "Hacker" by Any Other Name207
The Original, "Good" Hackers207
The New Breed of Destructive Hackers208
Scanning209
Cracking Passwords209
Espionage210
Other Methods of Illegal Access211
Potentially Destructive Activities212
Vengeance Is the Computer's212
Trojan Horse213
The Christmas Tree Trojan Horse213
The Cookie Monster213
The "Twelve Tricks Trojan" Horse214
The AIDS Virus (Trojan Horse)215
The Burleson Blackmail215
Other "Bombs"216
Worms216
More and More Worms222
Virus223
Brain Virus225
Lehigh Virus225
The Israeli Virus225
The Malta Disk Destroyer226
The Ping-Pong Virus226
The Datacrime Virus226
The Bulgarian Dark Avenger226
The Michelangelo Virus227
Macintosh Viruses227
The Health-Care Plan Virus227
Operation Moon Angel228
Kevin Mitnick228
Melissa Virus228
Chernobyl Virus229
The Love Bug229
Viruses Make It to the Big Screen229
Misuse of the (Electronic) Mail229
Is Hacking Moral, Value-Neutral, or Bad?232
Hacking as Civil Disobedience234
The Sorcerer's Apprentice235
What Is to Be Done?236
Chapter 7Privacy253
Why Is Privacy of Value?254
"I'll Be Watching You"256
Some Noteworthy Violations of Privacy Involving Computers257
A National Computerized Criminal History System?262
The FBI Wiretap Law264
The Clipper Chip Proposal264
Computerized Credit265
Caller ID267
Computer Matching268
How the Internet Complicates Privacy Considerations271
Cookies272
Communications Decency Act (CDA) and CDA II (COPA)272
Carnivore273
The Worst Scenario274
What Protections Are There for Privacy?276
Warren and Brandeis Make a Case for Privacy277
Existing Privacy Legislation279
The Importance of Privacy281
Chapter 8Errors and Reliability293
Errors293
Some Noteworthy Computer-Related Errors296
Defense296
Space Exploration298
Commercial Airlines299
Medical Risks300
Robot Errors and Robots as Threats300
Nuclear Energy Threats302
Computerized Translation302
Mistaken Identities303
Billing and Record-Keeping Errors303
Automatic Payments305
More "Dead Souls in the Computer"305
Military Dangers305
"Surplus" Computers Sold with Sensitive Information Still in Them306
Miscellaneous Computer-Related Errors306
Two More Software Fiascos308
Y2K Bugs308
Follow-up308
Reliability308
Program Verification311
Software Engineering311
Program Testing313
Structured Walkthroughs313
When All Is Said and Done314
Observation314
Chapter 9The Computer World of Work323
The Control Revolution323
Evolution of Systems325
Three Functions of DNA326
The Industrial Revolution Crisis of Control327
Data Processing and an Information Bureaucracy328
Information Theory and Communication329
Levels of Problems in Communication330
The Information Workplace331
Loss of Jobs, or Just Relocation?335
The End of Work?338
"Technostress"?339
"Technomalady"?340
Job Monitoring341
Women in the Computer Workplace343
Does Gender Matter in Computing?345
Increased Access for Disabled Workers347
Telecommuting348
Changing Job Panorama352
Employees and Employers353
Loyalty353
Whistle-Blowing356
Who Owns Your Ideas?358
Chapter 10Responsibility, Liability, Law, and Professional Ethics375
Responsibility375
Liability377
Computers and the Law380
Professional Ethics383
Professional Codes of Ethics385
What About Microsoft?387
Are Science and Technology Morally Neutral?387
Chapter 11Computers, the Government, and the Military399
Information and Power399
Big Government400
Record-Keeping and Surveillance400
Government Applications of Computers402
The National Security Agency403
Other Agency Restrictions on Freedoms406
Blame the Computer!406
Big Business Influences Big Government407
Environmental Impact of Computers409
Centralization Versus Decentralization of the Government410
The Information Superhighway411
Goals411
A Comparison of Concrete and Electronic Highways412
The Vision of the Government for NII413
Manufacturing and Commerce414
Health Care414
Education414
Environment416
Libraries416
Some Dissenting Voices418
Nuclear Threats420
Computers and Nuclear Power421
Computers and the Military422
Simulations423
"War Games"425
False Alarms425
"Star Wars" by Any Other Name427
Chapter 12The Artificial Intelligensia and Virtual Worlds443
Artificial Intelligence--Some General Background443
Expert Systems445
Game-Playing447
Theorem-Proving447
The Turing Test447
The Imitation Game449
Objections450
ELIZA452
The Chinese Room453
Artificial Intelligence and Ethics454
Consciousness456
Kurzweil's "Age of Spiritual Machines"457
Hawking's Perspective457
The Eco-Computer457
Cybersex458
Virtual Worlds460
Virtual Reality462
Appendix A477
Paper #1--Computer Ethics477
Computer Ethics Term Paper Topics478
Directions for Students478
Appendix B485
ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct485
General Moral Imperatives486
More Specific Professional Responsibilities489
Organizational Leadership Imperatives492
Compliance with the Code493
Appendix C495
IEEE Code of Ethics495
Bibliography497
Index507

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