Morality And Machines: Perspectives On Computer Ethics / Edition 2

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This text helps students explore the wider field of computer ethics, including discussion of key topics such as privacy, software protection, artificial intelligence, workplace issues, virtual reality, and cybersex.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780763717674
  • Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
  • Publication date: 5/1/2002
  • Edition description: 2E
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 522
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface v
Introduction 1
Computer Ethics? 1
Is There Really a Need for Ethics in Computing? 4
Endnotes 7
References and Recommended Readings 8
Part 1 Ethical Foundations 11
Chapter 1 Ethical Decision Making 13
Making Moral Decisions 15
Views on the Nature of Reason 22
The Modern View of Reason 22
The Ancient View of Reason 23
Which View of Reason Is Correct? 25
Chapter 2 Is Ethics Possible? 33
Some Bad Reasons for Saying Ethics Has No Basis 33
Some More Thoughtful Defenses of Ethical Skepticism 37
Coda 46
Chapter 3 The Search for a Basis for Ethics 55
Ethical Egoism 56
Pleasure- and Pain-Based Theories of Ethics 58
Classical Utilitarianism 58
Updated Utilitarianism 61
Act Utilitarianism 61
Rule Utilitarianism 62
Cost-Benefit Analysis 62
Intentions, Freedom, and Universality 63
Stoicism 63
The Theories of Immanuel Kant 64
Imperatives 66
Virtue Ethics 70
The Form of the Good 72
Plato and the Form of the Good 73
G.E. Moore and the Indefinability of the Good 75
Butchvarov and the Order of Goods 76
Conclusion 78
Approaching Ethical Analysis 79
Part 2 Ethics Applied to a Computerized World 97
Chapter 4 Software Piracy, Property, and Protection 99
A Brief History of Hardware 99
A Brief History of Software 102
Euclidean Algorithm for Greatest Common Divisor 106
Software Piracy 107
What Is Software Piracy? 107
How Can Software Rights Be Protected? 117
Arguments for Private Property 117
Arguments against Private Property 121
Intellectual Property 122
Software Protection 123
Trade Secrets 123
Trademarks 125
Copyrights 126
Digital Millennium Copyright Act 130
Licensing and Copyprotection 131
Patents 134
The Opposition to Legal Protection of Software 147
What Is Reasonable and Fair? 149
New Issues Raised by the Internet 154
Chapter 5 Computer Crime 167
Kinds of Computer Crime 168
Crimes against Computers 168
Damage to Computers 168
Crimes Using Computers 172
Embezzlement by Computer 172
Theft of Services 176
Theft of Information 177
Fraud 178
Organized ("Mob") Computer Crime 182
Counterfeiting 184
Computer Crime Victims 187
Computer Criminals 188
Computer Crime Stoppers 188
Failure to Report Computer Crimes 190
The European Cybercrime Treaty 190
Observations 191
Chapter 6 Computer Intruders, Viruses, and All That 201
More Ways to Steal Using Computers 201
Thefts of Money 202
Roundoff Errors 202
The Salami Technique 203
Rounded-Down Bank Interest 204
Breaking In and Entering 204
Phreaking Then and Now 204
Tampering with Communication Signals 206
A "Hacker" by Any Other Name 207
The Original, "Good" Hackers 207
The New Breed of Destructive Hackers 208
Scanning 209
Cracking Passwords 209
Espionage 210
Other Methods of Illegal Access 211
Potentially Destructive Activities 212
Vengeance Is the Computer's 212
Trojan Horse 213
The Christmas Tree Trojan Horse 213
The Cookie Monster 213
The "Twelve Tricks Trojan" Horse 214
The AIDS Virus (Trojan Horse) 215
The Burleson Blackmail 215
Other "Bombs" 216
Worms 216
More and More Worms 222
Virus 223
Brain Virus 225
Lehigh Virus 225
The Israeli Virus 225
The Malta Disk Destroyer 226
The Ping-Pong Virus 226
The Datacrime Virus 226
The Bulgarian Dark Avenger 226
The Michelangelo Virus 227
Macintosh Viruses 227
The Health-Care Plan Virus 227
Operation Moon Angel 228
Kevin Mitnick 228
Melissa Virus 228
Chernobyl Virus 229
The Love Bug 229
Viruses Make It to the Big Screen 229
Misuse of the (Electronic) Mail 229
Is Hacking Moral, Value-Neutral, or Bad? 232
Hacking as Civil Disobedience 234
The Sorcerer's Apprentice 235
What Is to Be Done? 236
Chapter 7 Privacy 253
Why Is Privacy of Value? 254
"I'll Be Watching You" 256
Some Noteworthy Violations of Privacy Involving Computers 257
A National Computerized Criminal History System? 262
The FBI Wiretap Law 264
The Clipper Chip Proposal 264
Computerized Credit 265
Caller ID 267
Computer Matching 268
How the Internet Complicates Privacy Considerations 271
Cookies 272
Communications Decency Act (CDA) and CDA II (COPA) 272
Carnivore 273
The Worst Scenario 274
What Protections Are There for Privacy? 276
Warren and Brandeis Make a Case for Privacy 277
Existing Privacy Legislation 279
The Importance of Privacy 281
Chapter 8 Errors and Reliability 293
Errors 293
Some Noteworthy Computer-Related Errors 296
Defense 296
Space Exploration 298
Commercial Airlines 299
Medical Risks 300
Robot Errors and Robots as Threats 300
Nuclear Energy Threats 302
Computerized Translation 302
Mistaken Identities 303
Billing and Record-Keeping Errors 303
Automatic Payments 305
More "Dead Souls in the Computer" 305
Military Dangers 305
"Surplus" Computers Sold with Sensitive Information Still in Them 306
Miscellaneous Computer-Related Errors 306
Two More Software Fiascos 308
Y2K Bugs 308
Follow-up 308
Reliability 308
Program Verification 311
Software Engineering 311
Program Testing 313
Structured Walkthroughs 313
When All Is Said and Done 314
Observation 314
Chapter 9 The Computer World of Work 323
The Control Revolution 323
Evolution of Systems 325
Three Functions of DNA 326
The Industrial Revolution Crisis of Control 327
Data Processing and an Information Bureaucracy 328
Information Theory and Communication 329
Levels of Problems in Communication 330
The Information Workplace 331
Loss of Jobs, or Just Relocation? 335
The End of Work? 338
"Technostress"? 339
"Technomalady"? 340
Job Monitoring 341
Women in the Computer Workplace 343
Does Gender Matter in Computing? 345
Increased Access for Disabled Workers 347
Telecommuting 348
Changing Job Panorama 352
Employees and Employers 353
Loyalty 353
Whistle-Blowing 356
Who Owns Your Ideas? 358
Chapter 10 Responsibility, Liability, Law, and Professional Ethics 375
Responsibility 375
Liability 377
Computers and the Law 380
Professional Ethics 383
Professional Codes of Ethics 385
What About Microsoft? 387
Are Science and Technology Morally Neutral? 387
Chapter 11 Computers, the Government, and the Military 399
Information and Power 399
Big Government 400
Record-Keeping and Surveillance 400
Government Applications of Computers 402
The National Security Agency 403
Other Agency Restrictions on Freedoms 406
Blame the Computer! 406
Big Business Influences Big Government 407
Environmental Impact of Computers 409
Centralization Versus Decentralization of the Government 410
The Information Superhighway 411
Goals 411
A Comparison of Concrete and Electronic Highways 412
The Vision of the Government for NII 413
Manufacturing and Commerce 414
Health Care 414
Education 414
Environment 416
Libraries 416
Some Dissenting Voices 418
Nuclear Threats 420
Computers and Nuclear Power 421
Computers and the Military 422
Simulations 423
"War Games" 425
False Alarms 425
"Star Wars" by Any Other Name 427
Chapter 12 The Artificial Intelligensia and Virtual Worlds 443
Artificial Intelligence--Some General Background 443
Expert Systems 445
Game-Playing 447
Theorem-Proving 447
The Turing Test 447
The Imitation Game 449
Objections 450
The Chinese Room 453
Artificial Intelligence and Ethics 454
Consciousness 456
Kurzweil's "Age of Spiritual Machines" 457
Hawking's Perspective 457
The Eco-Computer 457
Cybersex 458
Virtual Worlds 460
Virtual Reality 462
Appendix A 477
Paper #1--Computer Ethics 477
Computer Ethics Term Paper Topics 478
Directions for Students 478
Appendix B 485
ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct 485
General Moral Imperatives 486
More Specific Professional Responsibilities 489
Organizational Leadership Imperatives 492
Compliance with the Code 493
Appendix C 495
IEEE Code of Ethics 495
Bibliography 497
Index 507
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