Moving The Earth: The Workbook of Excavation Sixth Edition / Edition 6

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Overview

The definitive guide to earthmoving and machines—fully updated

"The most comprehensive source of basic excavation information available." — Construction Methods & Equipment

"The down-in-the-dirt standard work for the excavation industry." — Military Engineer

Completely revised throughout for the latest methods, equipment, and regulations, Moving the Earth, Sixth Edition is the industry-standard source of practical expertise for the excavation and construction industries. This all-inclusive workbook covers every aspect of site preparation and management, and details every machine and vehicle needed to perform each task.

The Sixth Edition includes new information on international developments in earthwork construction, updated OSHA excavation safety standards, and both SI and U.S. customary units. Detailed and comprehensive, this practical, on-the-job guide is as indispensable as your hard hat.

THE WORK:

  • Land clearing and controls
  • Surveys and measurements
  • Rock, soil, and mud
  • Basements
  • Ditching and dewatering
  • Ponds and earth dams
  • Landscaping and agricultural grading
  • Roadways
  • Blasting and tunneling
  • Pit operation
  • Costs and management

THE MACHINES:

  • Basic information
  • Revolving shovels and excavators
  • Conveyor machinery
  • Tractors and bulldozers
  • Front-end loaders
  • Scrapers and trucks
  • Grading and compacting machinery
  • Compressors and drills
  • Auxiliary equipment
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of a text on the excavation industry that introduces a new co-author and is updated to reflect methods used according to current requirements and regulations. The first 11 chapters discuss the work itself and the basic ways to do it, the machines and operation techniques, the problems that arise, the application of different types of equipment, and costs and management. The next 10 chapters focus on the machines themselves and operating techniques. Contains many b&w illustrations. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780071502672
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
  • Publication date: 5/14/2010
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 1232
  • Sales rank: 319,879
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Herbert L. Nichols, Jr., is a private excavation

consultant and the author of Excavator Operation and Heavy Equipment Repair.

David A. Day, P.E. is a consultant with ABCO Engineering Corporation.

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Table of Contents

Preface to Sixth Edition

Acknowledgments

Introduction to First Edition

Part 1 The Work

Chapter 1. Land Clearing and Controls 3

Machines and Workers 3

Erosion Control 3

Disposal 4

Contaminated Ground 8

Brush Clearing 9

Tree Removal 12

Dangers 15

Stumps 20

Pushing and Digging Out 20

Pulling Stumps 22

Winches 26

Multiple Lines 31

Wood Disposal 34

Burning Stumps 35

Burning Brush 36

Fire Control 40

Boulders and Buildings 44

Chapter 2. Surveys and Measurements 2

General Considerations 1

Telescopic Levels 1

Self-Leveling Level 7

Leveling Rod 7

Use of Level 10

Locations 15

Instrument Adjustments 22

Laser 24

Lasers above Ground 25

Global Positioning System 29

Grading Instruments on Equipment 30

Distance Meters 32

Minor Instruments 33

Stringline 36

Measures of Production

In-Place Measurements 38

Production Measurements 41

Types of Production 43

Swell and Shrinkage 44

Containers 47

Output 50

Chapter 3. Rock, Soil, and Mud 3

Soil and Rock 1

Traction 7

Flotation 9

Compaction 11

Mud

Nature of Mud 16

Equipment for Mud 18

Temporary Roads 19

Platforms 22

Wet Digging 29

Mud Blasting for Fill Settlement 32

Stabilization 32

Fills 33

Stuck Machinery

Trucks 35

Crawler Tractors 38

Shovels 42

Hydraulic Backhoes 45

Jumping the Track 45

Chapter 4. Basements 4

Preliminary Work 1

Digging 3

Open-Front Method 3

Front-End Loader 10

Backhoe Excavator 11

Other Shovel Rigs 15

Multiple Basements 16

Contractor's Setup 18

Haulaway Digging 18

Deep Building Basement 19

Shovel Teams 23

Backhoe Excavation 25

Groundwater 25

Shoring 28

Rock 33

Hillside Sites 33

Chapter 5. Ditching and Dewatering 5

Ditching

Ditching with a Backhoe 2

Other Shovel Rigs 7

Other Ditchers 8

Rock 9

Caving of Banks 9

Stream Crossing 14

Permanent Ditches 15

Pipe and Conduit Trenches 17

Backfilling 19

Dewatering

Drainage 20

Bridges 24

Culvert Design 25

Laying Corrugated Pipe 30

Laying Concrete Pipe 32

Other Forms of Construction 34

Backfill 35

Fords and Dips 37

Soil Moisture 37

Subsurface Drainage 38

Tile Drains 44

Vertical Drains 50

Excavations 52

Pumping 52

Basement Drainage 56

Chapter 6. Ponds and Earth Dams 6

Wetlands 1

Swamp Reclamation 2

Dragline Size 9

Stream Control 12

Shores 15

Special Problems 17

Dams 20

Drains 25

Spillways 28

Water Supply and Losses 30

Pond Maintenance 32

Hydraulic Dredges 38

Chapter 7. Landscaping and Agricultural Grading 7

Landscaping

Choosing the Site 1

Shaping the Land 4

Finishing Off 9

Tree Protection and Removal 11

Driveways 13

Agricultural Grading

Need for Grading 16

Terracing 16

Gullies 20

Control 22

Land Leveling 24

Irrigation Drainage 28

Chapter 8. Roadways 8

Road Types 1

Roadway Layout 5

Stakes 7

Gravel Roads 12

Sidehill Cuts 16

Bank Slopes 21

Through Cuts 25

Scrapers 26

Pusher 29

Work Patterns 34

Shovel Cuts 39

Loader Cuts 40

Fills 41

Scraper Fills 44

Drainage 45

Job Study 48

Yardage Calculation 49

Chapter 9. Blasting and Tunneling 9

Purposes of Rock Excavation 1

Borehole Patterns 4

Controlled Blasting 11

Explosives 13

Ammonium Nitrate 16

Slurry (Water Gel) 20

Initiators 21

Priming 25

Handling Explosives 29

Loading 30

Lighting Fuses 33

Electrical Firing 34

Light blasting 41

Rock Mechanics 43

Damage 44

Digging Underground

Tunnel Work 47

Hand Tunneling 49

Microtunneling 49

Large Tunnels 49

Shafts 53

Headings 58

Mucking 61

Boring 62

Hauling 62

Water 65

Rock Support 67

Soft Ground Tunneling 73

Mining 80

Room-and-Pillar Excavation 83

Stoping 84

Block Caving 89

Forecasting Rockfalls 90

Chapter 10. Pit Operation 10

Stripping Overburden 1

Sidecasting 2

Haul-Away Stripping 10

Topsoil 14

Gravel, Sand, and Clay 21

Loading out of the Bank 23

Level Digging 31

Surface Water 32

Groundwater 32

Pit Planning 35

Processing Plants 38

Hauling 39

Selective Digging 39

Stockpiling 41

Segregation 43

Refuse Disposal 45

Pit Linings 47

Sanitary Fill 47

Chapter 11. Costs and Management 11

Bookkeeping 1

Definition of Costs 2

Receivables 3

Machinery Purchase 6

Depreciation 7

Depreciation Schedules 10

Depreciation Reserve 13

Investment 15

Interest 16

Financing 18

Other Ownership Costs 18

Web Collaboration for Construction 21

Equipment Work Hours 21

Operating Expense 24

Maintenance and Repair 26

Tires 31

Labor 32

Working Time 33

Equipment Selection 35

Equipment Rental 35

Estimating 38

Contracts 41

Critical-Path Scheduling 44

Causes of Failure 50

Accidents 50

Insurance 53

Bonds 56

Part 2 The Machines

Chapter 12. Basic Information 12

Principles of Leverage 3

Gears 5

Shafts 9

Bushings and Bearings 12

Transmission 13

Chain Drives 16

Belt Drives 19

Inclined Planes 21

Controls 25

Electric Drive 27

Wheel Steering 29

Brakes 31

Clutch 34

Fluid Drives 37

Torque Converter 37

Air Motors 43

Cable (Wire Rope) 45

Cable Systems 52

Chain 54

Hydraulics 54

Pumps 57

Valves 60

Lines and Fittings 62

Reservoir 64

Cylinders and Motors 65

Seals and Filters 67

Maintenance 69

Lubricants 70

Cabs 72

Power Plants 72

Governor 76

Gasoline Power 78

Diesel Engines 80

Exhaust Conditioners 86

Fuel Consumption 89

Power 90

Hauler Power Train 93

Travel Resistance 97

Tires 100

Tire Wear 105

Tire Life 107

Tire Ballast 109

Tire Chains 110

Operator Responsibility 111

Prestart Check 112

Starting the Engine 114

Stopping 117

Safety 118

Chapter 13. Revolving Shovels and Excavators 13

Background 1

Basic Shovel 1

Revolving Unit 3

Crawler Travel Unit 12

Rubber Mountings 15

Hydraulic Full-Revolving Excavators 19

Hydraulic System 21

Travel Unit 25

Backhoe Attachment 26

Gradall 30

Excavator for Pipelaying 32

Compact or Mini-Excavators 32

Dragline 34

Walking Draglines 43

Clamshell 45

Dipper Shovel Attachment 51

Electric Shovels 55

Mining Shovel 57

Operating and Maintaining a Shovel 60

Partial-Swing Shovels 65

Other Attachments 66

Operation of Full-Swing Hoes 68

Tractor-Mounted Backhoe 72

Operation 74

Chapter 14. Conveyor Machinery 14

Conveyors

Conveyor Belts 1

Stacker 14

Belt Loaders 14

Portable Belt Loaders 16

Wheel Excavator with Boom 17

Blade-Fed Belts 18

Machinery for Use Underground 20

Ditchers

Wheel Ditchers 23

Chain or Drag Trenchers 28

Pump Excavators

Hydraulic Dredges 29

Operation 36

Hydraulic Fills 40

Cleanup Dredge 42

Spoil Separation 43

Hydraulicking 45

Chapter 15. Tractors and Bulldozers 15

Tractors

Crawler Tractors 1

Operation---Mechanical Drive 8

Operation---with Torque Converter 11

Different Control Systems 12

Wheel Tractors 14

Four-Wheel Drive 15

Two-Wheel Drive 18

Three-Point Hitch 22

Bulldozers

General Descripiton 24

Bulldozer Used for Grading 29

Pushers 29

Dozer Repairs and Costs 30

Bulldozer Operation 30

Special Constructions 39

Chapter 16. Front-End Loaders 16

Front Loader 1

Crawler Mounting 1

Wheel Mountings 6

Skid Steer 7

Compact Loaders and Excavators 9

Compact Equipment Attachments 10

Two-Wheel Drive 11

Digging 11

Truck Loading 15

Operation---Two-Wheel-Drive 19

Loader Hauling 19

Handling Oversize 22

Bulldozer Work 23

Multipurpose (4-in-1) Bucket 24

Other Special Buckets 26

Overshot Mucker 27

Chapter 17. Scrapers 17

Place in Earthmoving 1

Tractor-Scraper 1

Scraper 2

Tractor 5

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