MRI in Practice / Edition 4

MRI in Practice / Edition 4

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by Catherine Westbrook, Carolyn Kaut Roth
     
 

Since the first edition was published in 1993, MRI in Practice has become the standard text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists and even sales representatives on the subject of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This text is essential reading on undergraduate and postgraduate MRI courses. Furthermore MRI in Practice has

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Overview

Since the first edition was published in 1993, MRI in Practice has become the standard text for radiographers, technologists, radiology residents, radiologists and even sales representatives on the subject of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This text is essential reading on undergraduate and postgraduate MRI courses. Furthermore MRI in Practice has come to be known as the number one reference book and study guide in the areas of MR instrumentation, principles, pulse sequences, image acquisition, and imaging parameters for the advanced level examination for MRI offered by the American Registry for Radiologic Technologists (ARRT) in the USA.

The book explains in clear terms the theory that underpins magnetic resonance so that the capabilities and operation of MRI systems can be fully appreciated and maximised. This fourth edition captures recent advances, and coverage includes: parallel imaging techniques and new sequences such as balanced gradient echo.

Building on the success of the first three editions, the fourth edition has been fully revised and updated. The book now comes with a companion website at www.wiley.com/go/mriinpractice which hosts animated versions of a selection of illustrations in the book that are used on the MRI in Practice Course. These animations and accompanying text are aimed at helping the reader’s comprehension of some of the more difficult concepts. The website also hosts over 200 interactive self-assessment exercises to help the reader test their understanding.

MRI in Practice features:

  • Full color illustrations
  • Logical presentation of the theory and applications of MRI
  • A new page design
  • A companion website at www.wiley.com/go/mriinpractice featuring interactive multiple choice questions, short answer questions PLUS animations of more complex concepts from the book

For more information on the MRI in Practice Course and other learning resources by Westbrook and Talbot, please visit www.mrieducation.com

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781444337433
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
07/12/2011
Pages:
456
Sales rank:
82,822
Product dimensions:
7.40(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.00(d)

Meet the Author

Catherine Westbrook MSc, FHEA, PgC (HE), DCRR, CTCert, is a Senior Lecturer and postgraduate pathway leader at The Faculty of Health & Social Care, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK where she is responsible for the postgraduate course in MRI. Catherine is also an independent teaching consultant lecturing on the MRI in Practice Course and other renowned international courses and conferences. She is also the author of Handbook of MRI Technique and MRI at a Glance, both published by Wiley.

Carolyn Kaut Roth RT (R) (MR) (CT) (M) (CV), FSMRT, is the CEO of Imaging Education Associates, Berwyn, Pennsylvania, USA, delivering a wide variety of learning resources in MRI and other imaging modalities.

John Talbot MSc, FHEA, PgC (HE), DCRR, is Senior Lecturer at The Faculty of Health & Social Care,
Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK, where he is responsible for delivery of undergraduate and postgraduate modules. John is also an independent teaching consultant lecturing on the MRI in Practice Course and developing the companion website animations.

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Table of Contents

Foreword.

Preface to the Fourth Edition.

Acknowledgments.

Chapter 1 Basic principles.

Introduction.

Atomic structure.

Motion in the atom.

MR active nuclei.

The hydrogen nucleus.

Alignment.

Precession.

The Larmor equation.

Resonance.

The MR signal.

The free induction decay signal (FID).

Relaxation.

T1 recovery.

T2 decay.

Pulse timing parameters.

Chapter 2 Image weighting and contrast.

Introduction.

Image contrast.

Contrast mechanisms.

Relaxation in different tissues.

T1 contrast.

T2 contrast.

Proton density contrast.

Weighting.

T2* decay.

Introduction to pulse sequences.

Chapter 3 Encoding and image formation.

Encoding.

Introduction.

Gradients.

Slice selection.

Frequency encoding.

Phase encoding.

Sampling.

Data collection and image formation.

Introduction.

K space description.

K space filling.

Fast Fourier transform (FFT).

Important facts about K space.

K space traversal and gradients.

Options that fill K space.

Types of acquisition.

Chapter 4 Parameters and trade-offs.

Introduction.

Signal to noise ratio (SNR).

Contrast to noise ratio (CNR).

Spatial resolution.

Scan time.

Trade-offs.

Decision making.

Volume imaging.

Chapter 5 Pulse sequences.

Introduction.

Spin echo pulse sequences.

Conventional spin echo.

Fast or turbo spin echo.

Inversion recovery.

Fast inversion recovery.

STIR (short tau inversion recovery).

FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery).

IR prep sequences.

Gradient echo pulse sequences.

Conventional gradient echo.

The steady state and echo formation.

Coherent gradient echo.

Incoherent gradient echo (spoiled).

Steady state free precession (SSFP).

Balanced gradient echo.

Fast gradient echo.

Single shot imaging techniques.

Parallel imaging techniques.

Chapter 6 Flow phenomena.

Introduction.

The mechanisms of flow.

Flow phenomena.

Time of flight phenomenon.

Entry slice phenomenon.

Intra-voxel dephasing.

Flow phenomena compensation.

Introduction.

Even echo rephasing.

Gradient moment rephrasing (nulling).

Spatial pre-saturation.

Chapter 7 Artefacts and their compensation.

Introduction.

Phase mismapping.

Aliasing or wrap around.

Chemical shift artefact.

Out of phase artefact (chemical misregistration).

Truncation artefact.

Magnetic susceptibility artefact.

Cross-excitation and cross-talk.

Zipper artefact.

Shading artefact.

Moiré artefact.

Magic angle.

Chapter 8 Vascular and cardiac imaging.

Introduction.

Conventional MRI vascular imaging techniques.

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

Cardiac MRI.

Cardiac gating.

Peripheral gating.

Pseudo-gating.

Multiphase cardiac imaging.

Ciné.

SPAMM.

Chapter 9 Instrumentation and equipment.

Introduction.

Magnetism.

Permanent magnets.

Electromagnets.

Superconducting electromagnets.

Fringe fields.

Shim coils.

Gradient coils.

Radio frequency (RF).

Patient transportation system.

MR computer systems and the user interface.

Chapter 10 MRI safety.

Introduction.

Government guidelines.

Safety terminology.

Hardware and magnetic field considerations.

Radio frequency fields.

Gradient magnetic fields.

The main magnetic field.

Projectiles.

Siting considerations.

MRI facility zones.

Safety education.

Protecting the general public from the fringe field.

Implants and prostheses.

Devices and monitors in MRI.

Pacemakers.

Patient conditions.

Safety policy.

Safety tips.

Reference.

Chapter 11 Contrast agents in MRI.

Introduction.

Mechanism of action of contrast agents.

Molecular tumbling.

Dipole–dipole interactions.

Magnetic susceptibility.

Relaxivity.

Gadolinium safety.

Other contrast agents.

Current applications of gadolinium contrast agents.

Conclusion.

Chapter 12 Functional imaging techniques.

Introduction.

Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI).

Perfusion imaging.

Susceptibility weighting (SWI).

Functional imaging (fMRI).

Interventional MRI.

MR spectroscopy (MRS).

Whole body imaging.

MR microscopy (MRM).

Glossary.

Index.

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