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UNIT 1 The Social Contexts of Multicultural Education
1. Five Trends for Schools, Shelley Lapkoff and Rose Maria Li, Educational Leadership, March 2007
The rapid demographic change in the current cultural population structure is remarkable. Enrollment patterns that are developing at the present time are documented. Demographic change in the United States is an astounding phenomenon. The effects of an ethnically changing population are being experienced in the United States. Linguistic diversity is a major social phenomenon (more than 19 percent of American school- age children speak a language other than English at home). Five trends of the effects of this phenomenon are described.
2. In Urban America, Many Students Fail to Finish High School, Karin Fischer, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 2006
This article by Karin Fischer examines the cultural issues influencing school drop-out rates in the urban setting.
3. In Rural America, Few People Harvest 4-Year Degrees, Sara Hebel, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 2006
Sara Hebel discusses cultural issues in rural school settings. Issues confronting African American, Latino, and English language learners as well as the impact of poverty on young people are discussed.
4. Colorblind to the Reality of Race in America, Ian F. Haney Lopez, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 3, 2006
The author provides an argument concerning the phenomenon of race relations in the United States and the “color blindness” of many white Americans and its effects on the lives of persons of color. He argues that there are efforts to ignore the reality of “race” in American life. Issues related to the concept of race continue to be litigated in the courts.
5. Metaphors of Hope, Mimi Brodsky Chenfeld, Phi Delta Kappan, December 2004
The author describes the promising examples of four wonderful teachers and how their students have responded to their teaching. Teaching since 1956, the author has traveled the nation observing students and teachers in classroom interaction.
6. Hitting the Ground Running, Marla I. Cruz-Janzen and Marilyn Taylor, Multicultural Education, Fall 2004
The authors discuss their rationales for the necessity of integrating a multicultural education focus into the introductory teacher education courses. They discuss their results from a research survey they conducted with their students in the courses they teach at their university. Extracts of students’ responses to their research are provided.
7. The Biology of Risk Taking, Lisa F. Price, Educational Leadership, April 2005
The author clearly discusses the physiological bases of adolescence. It is a very important essay on this matter. This article illuminates the wonders of puberty. Educators need to have a positive outlook on kids in early puberty.UNIT 2 Teacher Education in Multicultural Perspective
8. Dare to Be Different, Selma Wassermann, Phi Delta Kappan, January 2007
The author discusses the importance of daring to be different as teachers in teaching and schooling. She uses a school in Vancouver, British Columbia as a case study for her line of argument. She describes what she sees and hears from students and teachers in the school. She discusses issues related to professional politics in educational policy development.
9. The Cultural Plunge, Jesús Nieto, Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter 2006
The author addresses the fact that “the number of K–12 students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds” is continuing to grow, and he proposes a model to help becoming teachers have immersion “experiences” with students who are from culturally different backgrounds than their own. He refers to this practice as helping becoming teachers take “cultural plunges.”
10. Ain’t Nothin’ Like the Real Thing, Nancy Armstrong Melser, Childhood Education, Annual Theme 2006
The author discusses how students becoming teachers can learn to teach in multiculturally diverse urban school settings. She provides a brief overview as to how the American school populations are becoming more diverse while the American teaching cadre is witnessing a decline in the numbers of teachers from minority cultures. She describes an “urban semester program” in a particular teacher education program.
11. Collaborative Recruitment of Diverse Teachers for the Long Haul—TEAMS, Marci Nuñez and Mary Rose Fernandez, Multicultural Education, Winter 2006
The authors explore issues in teacher education and what it takes to achieve greater cultural diversity in the recruitment of new teacher education students. They argue the merits of cultural diversity in teacher recruitment, and they describe a program called TEAMS (Teacher Education for the Advancement of a Multicultural Society). What leads to culturally responsive pedagogy is discussed.
12. Asian American Teachers, Hema Ramanathan, Multicultural Education, Fall 2006
The author discusses the possible influence of Asian American teachers. She reports on the growing literature on Asian Americans and outlines the contributions they can make to the teaching profession. The author describes professional challenges Asian American teachers encounter as well as means by which they can meet those challenges. This essay is based on a research survey and conversations with Asian American teachers.UNIT 3 Multicultural Education as an Academic Discipline
13. The Human Right to Education, Caetano Pimentel, Multicultural Education, Summer 2006
The author discusses the right of all persons to access schools. He sees this as relevant to the empowerment of all. The author addresses the critical need to address the rights of women to schooling at all levels. A phenomenological method of inquiry is used in this study.
14. Knowing, Valuing, and Shaping One's Culture, Elinor L. Brown, Multicultural Education, Fall 2006
The author examines the literature on how people learn their own cultures as well as how they can learn about the cultural values of others. How people learn about their own personal development is important. The author also stresses cross-cultural communication and its critical importance.
15. Beyond Promise: Autobiography and Multicultural Education, Hongyu Wang and Tianlong Yu, Multicultural Education, Summer 2006
The authors discuss the social politics of identity in this theoretical piece concerning their vision of multicultural education as an academic discipline. They describe how they use autobiography to teach students the values of multiculturalism. Social justice issues and issues of gender and social class are also addressed.
16. Expanding Appreciation for “Others” Among European-American Pre-Teacher Populations, Carolyn Slemens Ward, Multicultural Education, Winter 2003
The author focuses on the preparation of European-American Pre-Service teachers to teach students from differing cultural backgrounds. Specific teaching and learning strategies based on multiculturally relevant educational goals are described briefly.
17. Whose World Is This?, Jayne R. Beilke, Multicultural Education, Spring 2005
The author discusses issues in terms of how to improve the critical conscientiousness of students with reference to multicultural issues, and gives a case example of a project in Muncie, Indiana to enable people to develop more conscientiousness of the social and educational issues in intercultural relations in the community and issues relating to second education majors in a multicultural education class. Also discussed is what critical multicultural education must involve and how this relates both to teacher education as well as to pedagogical practice in elementary and secondary schools. Therefore, the author takes the critical pedagogy point of view of educational theory.UNIT 4 Identity and Personal Development: A Multicultural Focus
18. A Developing Identity, Roberto Suro, Carnegie Reporter, Spring 2006
The author provides an excellent discussion of Hispanic identity development in the United States. A unique Hispanic group identity as a cultural group within American society is in formation. Fast-growing and continuing to grow, American Hispanics (Latinos) can greatly influence the direction of American policy. The author discusses models of identity development.
19. Making Connections with the Past, Gary Stiler and Lisa Allen, International Journal of Learning, Summer 2006
The authors present an informative account of how an African American-developed community center is helping to instill in African American youth and adults a sense of their unique historical identity. The work of the Carver Community Center in Evansville, Indiana is described.
20. Affirming Identity in Multilingual Classrooms, Jim Cummins et al, Educational Leadership, September 2005
The authors describe how students can learn multiple national models for identifying themselves as citizens of a new country. They discuss the immigrant experience into a new nation focusing on how young people adapt in schools. The locale of this group is the greater Toronto area in Canada.
21. Myths and Stereotypes about Native Americans, Walter C. Fleming, Phi Delta Kappan, November 2006
Native American identity development is the overriding theme of this essay. The author also clarifies some points regarding Native American history. He identifies and critiques negative stereotypes of Native Americans.
22. Transcending Spaces: Exploring Identity in a Rural American Middle School, Jean Ketter and Diana Buter, English Journal, July 2004
The authors describe attempts to help students at the middle school level explore and develop their identities as persons. They do this in a rural American middle school. This is the only example of a study in a rural American school. It is from a whole issue of articles on rural America and issues related to multicultural personality development. The authors describe the challenges they faced and how they effectively used multicultural literature. They describe the development of a unit of instruction that was specifically designed to help students develop their personal identity and understand other cultures to bridge their own life experiences and to compare them with others.UNIT 5 Curriculum and Instruction in Multicultural Perspective
23. As Diversity Grows, So Must We, Gary R. Howard, Educational Leadership, March 2007
The author argues that all educators who teach in school classrooms must be willing to appreciate the cultural values of their diverse student cultural backgrounds. He further argues that all teachers need to grow in their cultural knowledge and sensitivity as teachers face rapidly growing, culturally diverse student bodies. He makes suggestions for how to do this.
24. Arts in the Classroom: ‘La Llave’ (The Key) to Awareness, Community Relations, and Parental Involvement, Margarita Machado-Casas, Journal of Thought, Winter 2004
The author discusses how the arts can be used in classroom instruction and how she attempted to implement Freire ideas about critical theory in education as well as the theories of others in teaching students.
25. Rewriting “Goldilocks” in the Urban, Multicultural Elementary School, Heather Lotherington and Sandra Chow, The Reading Teacher, November 2006
The authors describe how teachers can use classic English language children’s literature and make it relevant to cultural minority students by encouraging them to rewrite the literature in terms of their own respective cultural identities and life experiences. This is a very fine example of multicultural curriculum and instruction in classroom settings.
26. Assessing English Language Learners’ Content Knowledge in Middle School Classrooms, N. Eleni Pappamihiel and Florin Mihai, Middle School Journal, September 2006
The authors describe innovative curriculum and instruction classroom teaching strategies for use by middle school teachers to assess English language learners (ELLs). The authors ask questions about assessing English language learners in sets of nontraditional methods of assessment to determine students’ progress in this area. Suggestions are offered for the types of activities content area teachers can do.
27. Promoting School Achievement among American Indian Students throughout the School Years, Kristin Powers, Childhood Education, International Focus Issue, 2005
The author reports on a preliminary research study of Native American students’ perceptions of their schooling experience in two midwestern cities and how they perceive their relationships with their teachers. The author offers suggestions for how Native American students may improve their school achievement levels in the later school grades and recommendations for how teachers in the later grades may improve their relations with Native American students.
28. Family and Consumer Sciences Delivers Middle School Multicultural Education, Barbara A. Clauss, Middle School Journal, March 2006
The author discusses an approach to multicultural education that focuses on a program called Family and Consumer Sciences (FACS) in the middle school years. The program integrates multicultural attitudes and values into family and consumer education. Teaching strategies are given.UNIT 6 Special Topics in Multicultural Education
29. Public Education in Philadelphia, Suzanne Blanc and Elaine Simon, Phi Delta Kappan, March 2007
The authors describe efforts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to face the social challenges of changing demographic realities in this great city over the years. The authors provide a historical background to how educators and community members are creating strategies to build civic capacity for the future.
30. Assessing English-Language Learners in Mainstream Classrooms, Susan Davis Lenski et al, The Reading Teacher, September 2006
The authors describe ways in which alternative methods of assessing English language learners (ELLs) can be developed. They argue that as the numbers of english language learners continue to increase, we will need to find effective alternative methods to assist them in learning English. Examples of such alternative assessment methods are provided.
31. Standards-Based Planning and Teaching in a Multicultural Classroom, Chinaka S. DomNwachukwu, Multicultural Education, Fall 2005
The author discusses standards-based planning for multicultural education. He notes some of the differing meanings of “standards based” curriculum and instruction. Drawing upon James Banks’ four-level model of multicultural education, he prefers the third and fourth levels of instruction. He provides examples of lessons teachers can use in the classroom curriculum.
32. Programming for Participation: Building Partnerships with the Immigrant Newcomer Community, Chryss Mylopoulos, Multicultural Review, Summer 2004
The author describes a program based in Toronto, Canada, which helps recent immigrants to settle in Canada. The linkage of the Public library and the schools in providing information to children and teenagers as well as their families has helped greatly to assist immigrant families in adjusting to life in a new country and learning a new language.
33. Protecting Educational Rights of the Aboriginal and Indigenous Child, Jyotsna Pattnaik, Childhood Education, International Focus Issue, 2005
The author provides an international view of attempts by governments and others to honor the rights to education of native (aboriginal) peoples. The world-wide perspective provided here helps us to improve our understanding of efforts to educate native (aboriginal) peoples.
34. Why Are “Bad Boys” Always Black?, Carla R. Monroe, The Clearing House, September/October 2005
The author addresses a critically important educational issue as to how the racial stereotyping of Black (African-American) males in schools frequently leads to them receiving harsher disciplinary treatment and more frequent inappropriate school assignments. The author makes recommendations for what educators can do to correct this situation.UNIT 7 For Vision and Voice: A Call to Conscience
35. The Culturally Responsive Teacher, Ana Maria Villegas and Tamara Lucas, Educational Leadership, March 2007
The authors offer their understanding of what it means to be a “culturally responsive teacher.” They offer a framework and a vision for what teachers need to believe and do with students of different cultures than their own. Beliefs, attitudes, and values are imbedded in their definition. An affirmative response by teachers to their students’ cultural diversity is needed.
36. Toward a Pedagogy of Transformative Teacher Education, Judith Reed and Deborah J. Black, Multicultural Education, Winter 2006
The authors discuss the idea of “World Educational Links” as they envision a process of teacher education that will enable teachers to practice transformative, libratory pedagogies in their classrooms. They make an argument for reconstructing our conceptions of teaching to focus on learning with an emphasis on equity (fairness), social responsibility, and social justice.
37. Researching Historical Black Colleges, Matthew J. Paris and Marybeth Gasman, Multicultural Review, Summer 2006
The authors provide a well-written summary history of historically Black colleges in the United States. It is very informative, and it offers a vision of the significant contributions of these colleges in the past to American society as well as a glimpse into their promise for the future.
Posted October 6, 2009
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