Municipal Solid Waste Management: Strategies and Technologies for Sustainable Solutions

Overview

The environmental impact of traditional waste management practice has become a central concern in industrialized countries. The past decades have seen a dramatic development in the technology for reducing air pollution caused by incineration as stipulated by clean air policies in industrialized countries. Toxic and/or valuable and rare elements are still dispersed into the environment under current practice for the disposal of treated or untreated waste materials. This book results from the discussion among ...
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Overview

The environmental impact of traditional waste management practice has become a central concern in industrialized countries. The past decades have seen a dramatic development in the technology for reducing air pollution caused by incineration as stipulated by clean air policies in industrialized countries. Toxic and/or valuable and rare elements are still dispersed into the environment under current practice for the disposal of treated or untreated waste materials. This book results from the discussion among scientists, engineers and authorities; and hopes to contribute towards the implementation of future sustainable waste management practices.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642628986
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 4/30/2013
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 2003
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 535
  • Sales rank: 1,160,030
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 1.14 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction.- 1.1 The Problem with Waste.- 1.1.1 Economic Aspects of Waste.- 1.1.2 Ecological Aspects of Waste.- 1.1.3 The Social Problem of Waste.- 1.2 History of Waste Management.- 1.3 Directing Material Flows.- 1.3.1 Preventing and Reducing Waste.- 1.3.2 The great R’s: Re-use, Recycle, Recover.- 1.3.3 Recovering Materials and Energy from Waste.- 1.4 Conclusions.- References.- 2 Waste Disposal: What are the Impacts?.- 2.1 The Diversity of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW).- 2.1.1 Quantities of MSW Collected.- 2.1.2 The Composition of MSW.- 2.2 Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills.- 2.2.1 Emission to the Atmosphere.- 2.2.2 Emissions to the Pedosphere and Hydrosphere.- 2.2.3 Problems in Predicting the Long-Term Behavior of Landfills.- 2.2.4 Conclusions.- 2.3 MSW Management and Technology in China.- References.- 3 Recycling, Thermal Treatment and Recovery.- 3.1 Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Zero Waste Approach.- 3.1.1 Zero Waste Theory.- 3.1.2 Zero Waste Analysis.- 3.1.3 Storage and Collection.- 3.1.4 Processing, Storage and Marketing.- 3.1.5 Appropriate Technology.- 3.1.6 Local Ordinances.- 3.1.7 Participant Education.- 3.1.8 Determining Costs and Benefits.- 3.1.9 Measuring Diversion.- 3.2 Mechanical Sorting Processes and Material Recycling.- 3.2.1 Glass Recycling.- 3.2.2 Recycling of Paper and Cardboard.- 3.2.3 Recycling of Light Weight Packaging with the Green Dot System.- 3.2.4 RDF-Production from Household Waste.- 3.3 Conventional Thermal Treatment Methods.- 3.3.1 Introduction.- 3.3.2 Process Control in Grate Systems.- 3.3.3 Examples and Results.- 3.4 Emissions from Incinerator Ash Landfills.- 3.4.1 Introduction.- 3.4.2 Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Landfill Leachates.- 3.4.3 Long-Term Predictions.- 3.4.4 Lessons to be Learned for Thermal Use and Treatment of MSW.- 3.5 Secondary Raw Materials from Waste.- 3.5.1 Introduction.- 3.5.2 Technical and Other Requirements for Construction Materials.- 3.5.3 Initial Experiences with Further Thermally Treated MSWI-Slags.- 3.5.4 Possible Applications of Further Thermally Treated MSWI-Slag.- 3.5.5 Conclusions and Outlook.- References.- 4 Biological and Bio-Mechanical Processes.- 4.1 Mechanical-Biological Treatment of Waste (MBP).- 4.1.1 Separation of Organic and RDF Fractions by Mechanical Processing.- 4.1.2 Case Study: RDF Separation by a Two-Step Mechanical Process.- 4.1.3 Improved Material Flows by the ‘Dry Stabilate’ Process.- 4.1.4 Biological Processing of Waste and Effects on Landfill Characters.- 4.2 Composting and Anaerobic Digestion.- 4.2.1 Overview of the Various Processes.- 4.2.2 Prospects: What Should be Improved for a Sustainable Development?.- 4.3 Active Landfill Control and Stabilization of MSW.- 4.3.2 How to Proceed in ACLSM?.- 4.3.3 Conclusions.- 4.4 Biotechnology for the Treatment of Inorganic Wastes.- 4.4.1 Biogeochemical Element Cycles.- 4.4.2 Organic Aspects: Mechanical-Biological Waste Pre-treatment.- 4.4.3 Inorganic Aspects: Microbe-Metal-Interactions.- 4.4.4 Biological Treatment of Heavy Metal Rich Wastes.- 4.4.5 Conclusions.- References.- 5 Advanced Thermal Treatment Processes.- 5.1 Energy Recovery from Waste.- 5.1.1 Waste to Energy: New Integrated Concepts.- 5.1.2 High Efficiency Waste-to-Energy Concept.- 5.1.3 Using Substitute Fuels in the Basic Materials Industry.- 5.1.4 Hydrothermal Processes.- 5.2 Optimizing Incineration for Heavy Metal Recovery.- 5.2.1 Heavy Metal Volatilization During MSW Incineraton.- 5.2.2 Detoxification of Filter Ash.- 5.2.3 PECK Incineration Technology.- 5.3 High-Temperature Melting of Municipal Solid Waste.- 5.3.1 Development of High-Temperature Melting Technologies.- 5.3.2 Material and Energy Balances of High-Temperature Melting.- 5.3.3 Persistent Chemicals in High-Temperature Melting Processes.- 5.4 The Characteristics, Behavior and Durability of High Temperature Materials.- 5.4.1 Frame of the Study.- 5.4.2 Characteristics of HT Materials: The Static Picture.- 5.4.3 Behavior of HT Materials: The Dynamic Picture.- 5.4.4 Durability of HT Materials: The Thermodynamic Picture.- 5.4.5 From Facts to Policy.- 5.5 Separate Treatment of Hazardous MSW Components.- 5.5.1 Optimized Disposal of Automotive Shredder Residues.- 5.5.2 Disposal and Thermal Treatment of Spent Batteries.- 5.5.3 Disposal of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment.- References.- 6 Ecology: Which Technologies Perform Best?.- 6.1 Assessment Tools for Waste Treatment Systems.- 6.2 An Introduction to Life-Cycle Assessment.- 6.2.1 Definition of the Goal and Scope.- 6.2.2 Life-Cycle Inventory Analysis (LCI).- 6.2.3 Life-Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA).- 6.2.4 Interpretation.- 6.3 Case Study: An LCA of Waste Treatment Processes.- 6.3.1 System Description (Goal and Scope and Inventory Analysis).- 6.3.2 Impact Assessment.- 6.3.3 Interpretation.- 6.4 Long-Term versus Short-Term Impacts.- 6.4.1 The Economical Background of Discounting.- 6.4.2 Discounting and the Environment: Motivations and Objections.- 6.4.3 Application of Discounting to LCA of Waste Treatment Technologies.- 6.5 Conclusions.- References.- 7 Assessing and Improving Social Compatibility.- 7.1 An Introduction to “Social Compatibility”.- 7.2 The Tool “Social Compatibility Analysis SCA”.- 7.3 Instruments for Improving Social Compatibility.- 7.3.1 Policy Approaches.- 7.3.2 Financial Incentives.- 7.3.3 Participatory Processes.- 7.4 Siting Waste Facilities: Case Studies.- 7.4.1 Local Opposition against a Waste Disposal Plant in Switzerland.- 7.4.2 Local Mobilizations against Waste Incinerators in England.- 7.4.3 Public Participation for a Waste Management Plan in Germany.- 7.4.4 Public Influence on Siting Waste Facilities in California.- 7.4.5 Conclusions of the Case Studies.- 7.5 Conclusions.- References.- 8 Towards Sustainable Waste Management.- 8.1 Sustainability of Waste Management and Treatment.- 8.1.1 Definition of “Sustainable Development”.- 8.1.2 Definition of Integrated Waste Management.- 8.1.3 Target System: Goals for a Sustainable Waste Management.- 8.1.4 Comparison of the Sustainability Targets with Current Governmental Targets and Established Law in Switzerland.- 8.1.5 The Target System as Planning Instrument for Authorities.- 8.2 Scenarios for a Future Waste Management and Treatment.- 8.2.1 Terminology and Methods.- 8.2.2 Description of Scenarios.- 8.2.3 Evaluation of Scenarios.- 8.3 Case studies.- 8.3.1 Aim of the Case Studies.- 8.3.2 Material Flow Analysis as a Base for a Sustainable Waste Management.- 8.3.3 Scenario “Better Products” - The example of the Personal Computer.- 8.3.4 The Influence of an Ecological Tax Reform on Waste Management.- 8.3.5 Development Towards Sustainable Waste Management in China.- 8.4 Recommendations for Development Towards Sustainability.- 8.4.1 Conditions for a Sustainable Waste Management.- 8.4.2 Strategies, Measures and Procedures.- 8.5 Summary and Conclusions.- References.- 9 Concluding Remarks.
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