Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons / Edition 1

Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons / Edition 1

by Gary C. Young
     
 

ISBN-10: 0470539674

ISBN-13: 9780470539675

Pub. Date: 05/24/2010

Publisher: Wiley

Intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers and academics to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons reviews the current state of the solid waste disposal industry. It details how the proven plasma gasification technology can be used to

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Overview

Intended for a wide audience ranging from engineers and academics to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors, Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Conversion Processes: Economic, Technical, and Renewable Comparisons reviews the current state of the solid waste disposal industry. It details how the proven plasma gasification technology can be used to manage Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and to generate energy and revenues for local communities in an environmentally safe manner with essentially no wastes.

Beginning with an introduction to pyrolysis/gasification and combustion technologies, the book provides many case studies on various waste-to-energy (WTE) technologies and creates an economic and technical baseline from which all current and emerging WTE technologies could be compared and evaluated.

Topics include:

Pyrolysis/gasification technology, the most suitable and economically viable approach for the management of wastes

Combustion technology

Other renewable energy resources including wind and hydroelectric energy

Plasma economics

Cash flows as a revenue source for waste solids-to-energy management

Plant operations, with an independent case study of Eco-Valley plant in Utashinai, Japan

Extensive case studies of garbage to liquid fuels, wastes to electricity, and wastes to power ethanol plants illustrate how currently generated MSW and past wastes in landfills can be processed with proven plasma gasification technology to eliminate air and water pollution from landfills.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780470539675
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
05/24/2010
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
396
Product dimensions:
6.40(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Professional Biography

1 Introduction to Gasification/Pyrolysis and Combustion Technology(s) 1

Historical Background and Perspective 1

Introduction 2

What is Pyrolysis? 3

What is Pyrolysis/Gasification? 5

What is Conventional Gasification? 6

What is Plasma Arc Gasification? 8

What is Mass Burn (Incineration)? 9

Which Thermal Process Technology is the Most Efficient and Economical? 10

Performance/Thermal Efficiency of Technologies 10

What is the Economic Comparison Between the Thermal Processes? 10

References 15

2 How Can Plasma Are Gasification Take Garbage to Electricity and a Case Study? 16

Basis 19

Economic Cases 19

Logical Approach for Future Progress 20

References 21

3 How Can Plasma Arc Gasification Take Garbage to Liquid Fuels and Case Studies? 23

MSW To Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Chemistry (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis) and a Case Study 23

Basis 26

Economic Case 27

Logical Approach for Future Progress 28

MSW to Syngas to Liquid Fuel via Biochemistry and a Case Study 29

Basis and Economics 31

References 33

4 Plasma Economics: Garbage/Wastes to Electricity, Case Study with Economy of Scale 35

Conclusions and Recommendations (Opinions) 39

References 40

5 Plasma Economics: Garbage/Wastes to Power Ethanol Plants and a Case Study 41

Basis 44

Economic Cases 45

Logical Approach for Future Progress 46

References 47

6 From Curbside to Landfill: Cash Flows as a Revenue Source for Waste Solids-to-Energy Management 49

References 123

7 Plasma Economics: Garbage/Wastes to Power, Case Study with Economics of a 94 ton/day Facility 124

More Recent Events About the Project 126

References 128

8 Plant Operations: Eco-Valley Plant in Utashinai, Japan: An Independent Case Study 129

References 133

9 Municipal Solid Waste and Properties 135

What is Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and How Much is Generated in the United States? 135

MSW Properties 137

References 153

10 MSW Processes to Energy with High-Value Products and Specialty By-Products 155

Production of Ammonia (NH3) from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route 157

Production of Gas to Liquids from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route 158

Production of Methanol (CH3OH) from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route 164

Production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route 167

Production of Hydrogen (H2) from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route(s) 169

Gasifier 172

Air Separation Unit (ASU) 172

Hot Gas Cleanup System 173

Sulfuric Acid Plant 173

CO2-Rich Separated Gas Stream/Conventional Turbine Expander 173

Production of Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) from Syngas via Chemical Synthesis Route 175

Production of Ethanol and Methanol from Syngas using Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Process 175

Production of Ethanol from Syngas via a Bio-Chemical Synthesis Route 178

Production of Ethanol via a Combination of Chemical and Bio-Chemical Synthesis Routes Using Biomass (Cellulosic Material) 181

Oxosynthesis (Hydroformylation): Syngas and Olefinic Hydrocarbons and Chemical Synthesis 186

Slag or Vitrified Slag or Ash from Gasification Reactor and Specialty By-Product Options 188

Vitrified Slag, Slag, and Ashes: Research and Development (R&D), Marketing, and Sales 192

Process for Resolving Problems with Ashes 192

Production of Road Material from Slag and Vitrified Slag 196

Production and Uses of Rock Wool, Stone Wool, and Mineral Wool 197

Production of Aggregate 200

Production of Flame-Resistant Foam 200

Destruction of Asbestos Wastes via Vitrification 201

Discussion of Potential Markets for the Vitrified Slag 202

References 204

11 MSW Gasifiers and Process Equipment 208

Conventional Gasifiers/Gasification Reactors 210

Chevron Texaco Entrained-Flow Gasifier 212

E-Gas™ Entrained-Flow Gasifier 213

Shell Entrained-Flow Gasifier 214

Lurgi Dry-Ash Gasifier and British Gas/Lurgi Gasifier 215

Prenflo Entrained Bed Gasifier 217

Noell Entrained Flow Gasifier 218

High-Temperature Winkler Gasifier 218

KRW Fluidized Bed Gasifier 219

Plasma Arc Gasification Technology 221

Alter Nrg Plasma Gasifier (Westinghouse Plasma Corporation) System 222

EUROPLASMA, Plasma Arc System 223

Phoenix Solutions Plasma Arc Torches, Phoenix Solutions Company (PSC) 226

PyroGenesis Plasma-Based Waste to Energy 227

Integrated Environmental Technologies, LLC (InEnTec) 227

Other Gasification Technology 230

Thermoselect Process by Interstate Waste Technologies 230

Primenergy's Gasification System at Moderate Temperatures 231

Nexterra's Gasification System at Moderate Temperatures 234

Other Process Equipments 234

Candle Filter 234

Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) Units 235

Mercury Removal Systems 236

Main Sulfur Removal Technologies 236

Combustion Turbine for Syngas and Gas Engine for Syngas 237

Siemens-Westinghouse Syngas Combustion Turbine for Syngas 237

General Electric (GE) Combustion Turbine for Syngas 238

GE Gas Engine for Syngas 240

Noncontact Solids Flow Meter for Waste Solids (RayMas® Meter) 241

References 251

12 Other Renewable Energy Sources 255

Wind Energy: Introduction 255

Big Wind Systems to Energy 258

Economic Example and Cases 259

Discussion of Economics For the Large Wind Farm Cases 266

Economy of Scale Associated With Wind Farms 270

Small Wind Systems to Energy 272

Discussion of Economics for the Small Wind Farm Cases 279

Hydroelectric Energy: Introduction 280

Hydroelectric Mill Dam: Nashua, Iowa 283

Discussion of the Nashua Hydroelectric Economic Analyses 285

Hydroelectric Mill Dam: Delhi, Iowa 293

Discussion of the Delhi Hydroelectric Economic Analyses 294

Hydroelectric Mill Dam: Fort Dodge, Iowa 298

Discussion of the Fort Dodge Hydroelectric Economic Analyses 305

Daily Flow and Production Methodology, Fort Dodge Mill Dam Hydroelectric Facility 316

References 360

13 Waste Energy to Recycled Energy 362

Introduction 362

References 378

Index 379

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