Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

4.0 1
by Paul Brinckmann
     
 

ISBN-10: 1588900800

ISBN-13: 9781588900807

Pub. Date: 04/26/2002

Publisher: Thieme

Orthopedic Biomechanics sheds light on an important and interesting discipline at the interface between medical and natural sciences. Understanding the effects of mechanical influences on the human body is the first step toward developing innovative treatment and rehabilitation concepts for orthopedic disorders. This book provides valuable information on

Overview

Orthopedic Biomechanics sheds light on an important and interesting discipline at the interface between medical and natural sciences. Understanding the effects of mechanical influences on the human body is the first step toward developing innovative treatment and rehabilitation concepts for orthopedic disorders. This book provides valuable information on the forces acting on muscles, tendons, and bones.

Beginning with the step-by-step fundamentals of physics and mechanics, it goes on to cover the function and loading of joints,
movement in two- and three-dimensions, and the properties of biological tissues.
This book explains the practical importance of biomechanics, including special chapters addressing the mechanical causes of disk prolapse, load on the spine in sitting and standing positions, and the correlation between mechanical loading and bone density.

Key Features:

  • Limited use of complex vector equations while providing in-depth treatment analysis
  • Exquisitely illustrated, detailed descriptions of the mechanical aspects of every major joint in the body: hip, shoulder, knee,
    and lumbar spine
  • Extensive references for further information
  • Valuable appendixes describing the interaction between mechanical and biological functions as well as mathematical tools necessary to understand technically demanding concepts

This book also analyzes techniques for changing the effects on bones and joints through therapy, training, external aids,
modified behavior, and ergonomic improvements. An essential resource for orthopedists and physical therapists alike, it will help you understand past and current scientific work in the field and how to apply state-of-the-art solutions to the problems you'll encounter on a daily basis.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781588900807
Publisher:
Thieme
Publication date:
04/26/2002
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
256
Product dimensions:
6.70(w) x 9.30(h) x 0.50(d)

Table of Contents

1Musculoskeletal Biomechanics, an Important and Interesting Discipline at the Interface between Medical and Natural Sciences1
2Basic Concepts from Physics and Mechanics4
Force4
Moment8
Pressure11
Mechanical stress13
Mechanical work, energy and power14
Stability and instability16
3Vector Algebra17
The trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and tangent17
Representation of vectors19
Addition of vectors: graphical procedure in the two-dimensional case21
Addition of vectors: numerical procedure24
Decomposition of a vector into vector addends25
Multiplication of vectors: scalar product and vector product25
4Translation and Rotation in a Plane28
Translation28
Rotation29
Combined translation and rotation29
Instantaneous center of rotation31
Error influences when describing a motion32
5Mechanical Equilibrium35
Conditions of static mechanical equilibrium35
Example: calculation of an unknown moment in the state of static equilibrium36
Example: calculation of an unknown force in the state of static equilibrium36
Example: calculation of the joint force of a beam balance in static equilibrium37
6Material Properties of Solid Materials40
Elongation and compression40
Shear42
Elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation42
Hardness44
Friction45
Fracture45
7Deformation and Strength of Structures48
Experimental determination of deformation and strength49
Deformation and strength of beam-like structures52
Deformation of a beam under tension or compression53
Bending of a beam fixed at one end53
Torsion of a beam around its long axis54
8Estimation of the Load Transmitted by Joints of the Human Locomotor System by Means of a Biomechanical Model Calculation57
Calculation of a joint load in the static case, illustrated with the example of the elbow joint58
Determination of the joint force in the dynamic case, illustrated with the example of the ankle joint61
Determination of the joint force if more than one muscle or ligament force has to be taken into account66
9Mechanical Aspects of the Hip Joint69
Load on the hip joint in the stance phase of slow gait69
Influencing the load on the hip joint by gait technique, walking aids, or surgical interventions72
Determination of the load on the hip joint by gait analysis74
Measurement of the load on the hip joint by instrumented joint replacement77
Determination of the stress distribution on the surface of the hip joint78
Measurement of the pressure distribution on the surface of the hip joint82
Pressure on the articular surface as a primary cause of arthrosis of the hip joint83
10Mechanical Aspects of the Knee85
Features common to all joints, illustrated by the example of the knee joint85
Motion of the knee joint88
Load on the femorotibial and femoropatellar joint90
Pressure distribution in the femoropatellar joint96
Loading of the cruciate ligaments97
11Mechanical Aspects of the Lumbar Spine105
Rotational and translational motion of the vertebrae in flexion and extension105
Calculation of the loading of the lumbar spine: two-dimensional model106
The role of intra-abdominal pressure108
Calculation of the loading of the lumbar spine: three-dimensional model110
Determination of the loading of the lumbar spine from measurements of intradiskal pressure110
Determination of the load on the lumbar spine from measurements of stature change112
Recommendations for carrying and lifting113
Mechanical properties of lumbar intervertebral disks117
Deformation of disks under load117
Pressure distribution over the vertebral endplates118
Intradiskal pressure and mechanical function of the disk119
Compressive strength of lumbar vertebrae120
Fracture of the vertebral arch124
Sequence of events: overload injury--low back pain--work loss--disability? A warning125
12Mechanical Aspects of the Shoulder129
Joints of the shoulder girdle129
Loading of the glenohumeral joint131
Stability of the glenohumeral joint132
13Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle136
Skeletal muscle morphology136
The force--length relationship138
The force--velocity relationship140
Theoretical modeling of skeletal muscle behavior141
Mechanical properties of tendons142
Force regulation in skeletal muscles143
Relationship between force and electromyography (EMG)146
Muscle architecture147
Skeletal muscle mechanics150
14Mechanical Properties of Bones155
Architecture of the bone tissue155
Stress and strain of inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials156
Material properties of cortical bone158
Architecture and material properties of trabecular bone159
Measurement of bone density and bone mineral content in vivo161
Determination of the fracture risk of proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae in vivo163
Adaptation of bones to mechanical demands165
15Mechanical Aspects of Skin169
Anatomical basics169
Material properties170
Reaction of the skin to mechanical factors173
Appendix177
A1Loading of the Lumbar Spine when Sitting or Standing178
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined by measurement of intradiskal pressure178
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined from measurement of stature change180
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined by an EMG-assisted model calculation182
Biomechanical model comparing spinal loading in sitting and standing182
Conclusions183
A2What do we Know about Primary Mechanical Causes of Lumbar Disk Prolapse?185
Studies in vitro185
Influence of posture on disk bulge and prolapse186
Epidemiological studies of the relation between heavy physical exertions and the prevalence of lumbar disk prolapse186
Conclusions and outlook188
A3Influence of Physical Activity on Architecture and Density of Bones. An Overview of Observations in Humans190
Methods for measuring bone density and bone mineral content190
Effects of increased mechanical loading191
Effects of reduced mechanical loading194
Summary and outlook197
B1Mathematical Description of Translation and Rotation in a Plane199
Cartesian coordinates199
Translation199
Rotation200
Motion combining translation and rotation201
Determination of the imaging parameters from two points and their images202
Matrix notation203
B2Mathematical Description of Translation and Rotation in Three-Dimensional Space205
Is it really necessary to deal with the description of three-dimensional rotations in the context of orthopedic biomechanics?205
Matrix notation209
Coordinates and vectors210
Coordinate transformations212
Translation in three-dimensional space213
Rotation in three-dimensional space213
Rotations about the coordinate axes213
Combined rotation made up of a sequence of rotations214
Euler and Bryant-Cardan angles216
Rotation about an arbitrary axis218
Motion in three-dimensional space, combined from rotation and translation. Chasles' Theorem218
Calculation of the parameters of rotation and translation in three-dimensional space from the coordinates of reference points and their images220
Parameters of the motion of a body observed in a laboratory coordinate system221
Parameters describing the relative motion of two bodies224
B3Dealing with Errors227
Mean and variance227
Biological variance228
Comparing precision among measuring methods or among investigators229
Error propagation230
Calculation of a propagated error using the example of an angle defined by the end points of two straight lines231
Method of least squares232
Regression line232
Fit of two sets of points by translation and rotation234
Designations and Units237
Index239

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