Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect and Environmental Impact / Edition 2

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Overview

Since the publication of the first edition, important developments have emerged in modern mushroom biology and world mushroom production and products. The relationship of mushrooms with human welfare and the environment, medicinal properties of mushrooms, and the global marketing value of mushrooms and their products have all garnered great attention, identifying the need for an updated, authoritative reference.

Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition presents the latest cultivation and biotechnological advances that contribute to the modernization of mushroom farming and the mushroom industry. It describes the individual steps of the complex mushroom cultivation process, along with comprehensive coverage of mushroom breeding, efficient cultivation practices, nutritional value, medicinal utility, and environmental impact. Maintaining the format, organization, and focus of the previous edition, this thoroughly revised edition includes the most recent research findings and many new references. It features new chapters on medicinal mushrooms and the effects of pests and diseases on mushroom cultivation. There are also updated chapters on specific edible mushrooms, and an expanded chapter on technology and mushrooms.

Rather than providing an encyclopedic review, this book emphasizes worldwide trends and developments in mushroom biology from an international perspective. It takes an interdisciplinary approach that will appeal to industrial and medical mycologists, mushroom growers, botanists, plant pathologists, and professionals and scientists in related fields. This book illustrates that mushroom cultivation has and will continue to have a positive global impact on long-term food nutrition, health care, environmental conservation and regeneration, and economic and social change.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780849310430
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 3/28/2004
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 480
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Table of Contents

OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION
WHAT ARE MUSHROOMS?
Definition
Characteristics of Mushrooms
Categories of Mushrooms
Poisonous Mushrooms
MAGNITUDE OF MUSHROOM SPECIES
ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MUSHROOMS AND FUNGI IN GENERAL
COLLECTION AND CLASSIFICATION OF MUSHROOMS
Field Collection
Preserving the Collection
Precautions in the Use of Keys
JUSTIFICATION FOR THE TERM "MUSHROOM BIOLOGY"
IMPACT OF MUSHROOM BIOLOGY ON HUMAN WELFARE
MUSHROOM SCIENCE
Definition
Contributing Fields
Mushroom Cultivation Technology
Development of Mushroom Science
Mushroom Biotechnology
Nongreen Revolution
References

THE NUTRITIONAL ATTRIBUTES OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
INTRODUCTION
NUTRITIONAL ATTRIBUTES
Protein
Essential Amino Acids
Fat
Vitamins
Carbohydrates and Fiber
Minerals
Nucleic Acids
General Considerations
REFERENCES

MEDICINAL VALUES
INTRODUCTION
MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS
MEDICINAL EFFECTS OF THESE MUSHROOMS
Hematological
Antiviral
Antitumor
Antioxidant Activity
Cardiovascular and Renal
Carcinogenicity of Mushrooms
Allergic Reaction to Spores
General Considerations
REFERENCES

OVERVIEW OF THE BIOLOGY OF THE FUNGI
INTRODUCTION
THE FUNGI
Distinguishing Characteristics
Habitats
Role in Nature
Classification
VEGETATIVE STRUCTURE OF FUNGI
Hyphae
Organelles
Septal Structures
Secondary Mycelium of Basidiomycetes
Cell Walls
Unicellular Fungi
GROWTH
Growth Kinetics of Unicellular Fungi
Filamentous Fungi
SPECIALIZED VEGETATIVE STRUCTURES
SPECIALIZED REPRODUCTIVE STRUCTURES
Sexual
Non-sexual
REQUIREMENTS FOR GROWTH
Nutritional Requirements
Physical Requirements
Transport and Translocation
METABOLISM
Carbon
Nitrogen
Lipids
REPRODUCTION
Introduction
Sexual
Non-sexual
Spore Germination
RELATIONSHIP OF FUNGI WITH OTHER ORGANISMS - SYMBIOSES
Parasitism
Mutualism
Saprophytism
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FUNGI
Proximate Composition of Fungal Cells
Edible Mushrooms
REFERENCES

SUBSTRATE AND MYCELIAL GROWTH
INTRODUCTION
GENERAL NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR MUSHROOM GROWTH
PREPARATION OF SUBSTRATE
Composting
Microorganisms Involved During Composting
BREAKDOWN OF SUBSTRATES BY EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES OF MUSHROOM MYCELIUM
GENETIC IMPROVEMENT OF MUSHROOM CULTURE IN REGARD TO SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION BY INCREASED PRODUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES
REFERENCES

SEXUALITY AND THE GENETICS OF BASIDIOMYCETES
DISCOVERY OF SEXUALITY BY KNIEP AND BENSAUDE
Tetrapolarity
Clamp Connection Formation
OTHER EARLY FINDINGS IN SEXUALITY IN BASIDIOMYCETES
Results of Tetrad Analysis
"Geographical Races"
Bipolarity
Illegitimate Matings
"Buller Phenomenon" (=Di-Mon Mating)
REACTIONS OTHER THAN THOSE FORMING DIKARYON
GENETICS OF THE MATING TYPE LOCI AND SEXUAL MORPHOGENESIS IN SCHIZOPHYLLUM COMMUNE
Schizophyllum commune
The A Locus of S. commune
The Two-Locus Mating Type Factor Occurs Elsewhere
Findings from Molecular Genetic Studies
Sexual Morphogenesis
GENETICS OF FUNGI
Induction of Mutants
Isolation of Mutants
Characterization of Mutants
Utilization of Methods of Molecular Biology in Genetic Studies of Fungi
REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL, NUTRITIONAL, AND CHEMICAL FACTORS
INTRODUCTION
DEVELOPMENT OF FRUITING BODIES
Role of Fruiting Bodies
Variation in Fruiting Body Structure
Primordium Function
Primordium Development
Types of Hyphae in Fruiting Bodies
Growth of Agaricus
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AND FRUITING
Hydrogen Ion Concentration (pH)
Temperature
Aeration
Light
Gravity
NUTRITIONAL FACTORS AND FRUITING
Concentration of Nutrients
Nature of Carbohydrate
Nitrogen
Mineral Nutrition
Vitamins
CHEMICAL FACTORS AND FRUITING
Melanin Production and Perithecial Development in Podospora
Morphogenesis in Schizophyllum commune
Effect of Cyclic AMP
SUMMARY
REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF GENETIC FACTORS; BREEDING
INTRODUCTION
GENETIC FACTORS FOR FRUITING IMPOSED UPON THE MATING TYPE REQUIREMENTS
Schizophyllum commune
Lentinula
GENETICS OF FRUITING OF POLYPORUS CILIATUS
No Subunits of Incompatibility Factors
Genetic Control of Monokaryotic Fruiting
MONOKARYOTIC FRUITING
Species in Which Monokaryotic Fruiting Has Been Reported
Induction
Relationship with Dikaryotic Fruiting
Potential in Mushroom Cultivation
BREEDING FOR DESIRED MUSHROOM FEATURES
Extension of Temperature Range
Utilization of substrates
Sporeless Fruiting Bodies
General Techniques of Breeding For Strain Improvement
REFERENCES

MUSHROOM FORMATION: EFFECTS OF PESTS AND DISEASES IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
History of Mushroom Cultivation and Diseases
VIRAL DISEASES
History
Symptoms
Diagnosis
Virus morphology
Epidemiology
Patch Diseases
BACTERIAL DISEASES
Introduction and Various Mushroom Diseases Caused by Bacteria
Management For Control of Burkholderia gladioli pv agaricicola
FUNGAL DISEASES
Introduction
Mycoparasites
Competitor Weed Fungi
NEMATODE DISEASES
Types of Nematodes
INSECT DISEASES
Introduction
Insects That Serve As Agents of Diseases in Mushroom Houses
ACTIVITY OF MITES IN MUSHROOM CULTIVATION
Genera Found During Mushroom Cultivation
Economic Importance
REFERENCES

CULTURE PRESERVATION
INTRODUCTION
OBJECTIVES
METHODS
Short Term Storage
Long Term Storage
A Useful Technique in Genetic Studies
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

WORLD PRODUCTION OF EDIBLE MUSHROOMS
INTRODUCTION
SPECIES CULTIVATED COMMERCIALLY
Agaricus bisporus
Lentinula edodes
Volvariella volvacea
Flammulina velutipes
Auricularia spp.
Pleurotus spp.
Pholiota nameko
Tremella fuciformis
Recently commercially Cultivated Mushroom Species
Mycorrhizal Fungi - Tuber, Tricholoma
GENERAL KNOWLEDGE WHICH MUSHROOM GROWERS SHOULD POSSESS
TRENDS
Production methods breaking the barriers of climate and geography
World production of mushrooms
Utilization of various wastes as substrates
Ten Key Guidelines for Mushroom Farming
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES

AGARICUS - THE LEADER IN PRODUCTION AND TECHNOLOGY
INTRODUCTION
DEVELOPMENT IN THE INDUSTRY
France
Great Britain
The Netherlands
The United States
Italy
Ireland
Taiwan
South Korea
China
General Remarks
COMPOST MATERIALS AND COMPOSTING
Compost Materials
Amount of Compost Material
Composting
SPAWN AND SPAWNING
Definition
Preparation of Spawn
Spawning
CASING
HARVESTING
REFERENCES

LENTINULA - A MUSHROOMING MUSHROOM
INTRODUCTION
EARLY HISTORY OF CULTIVATION
MAJOR DEVELOPMENTAL EVENTS OF CULTIVATION
GENERAL REVIEW OF PRODUCTION
CULTIVATION IN WOOD LOGS
Preparation of Logs
Preparation of Spawn
Inoculation of Spawn into Logs
Laying Logs for Mycelial Running
Management of the Raising Yard for Fruiting
Cropping
CULTIVATION IN POLYPROPYLENE BAGS ("BAG LOG" CULTIVATION)
Materials
Inoculation
Incubation
Fruiting
Proper Care of the Bag Log
SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICES
Taiwan
China
FRUITING IN LIQUID MEDIA
Experiments with Lentinula
Generalizations
DRYING AND STORAGE
REFERENCES

VOLVARIELLA - A HIGH TEMPERATURE CULTIVATED MUSHROOM
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Morphological Characteristics
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for fruiting body formation
CULTIVATION METHODS
Production of Spawn
Mushroom Production
HARVESTING AND PROCESSING
Harvesting
Processing
SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICE
Rural Spawn Station in Ping-shan County, Hebei Province, China
Technique of Cultivation of Straw Mushrooms in Green Poplar Village, Ping-shang County, Hebei Province, China
SOME SPECIAL METHODS AND THEIR RATIONALE
The Phenomenon of Early Fruiting
Insect Enemy of Straw Mushrooms - Nematodes
Coprinus - Fungal Competitor of Volvariella
REFERENCES

FLAMMULINA AND PHOLIOTA LOW TEMPERATURE CULTIVATED MUSHROOMS
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLAMMULINA
Morphology
Natural History
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PHOLIOTA
Morphology
Natural History
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation
CULTIVATION METHODS
Flammulina
Pholiota
REFERENCES

PLEUROTUS - A MUSHROOM OF BROAD ADAPTABILITY
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Morphology of Sporophores
Sexuality
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation
NUTRITIONAL VALUES AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Nutritional Values
Medicinal Properties
CULTIVATION METHODS
Production of Spawn
Production of Mushrooms
HARVESTING AND PROCESSING
SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICE
REFERENCES

TREMELLA - INCREASED PRODUCTION BY A MIXED CULTURE TECHNIQUE
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Morphology
Natural History
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for Fruiting Body Formation
CULTIVATION METHODS
Wood Log Culture
Plastic Bag Culture
SPECIAL CULTIVATION PRACTICES
Cultivation on Cottonseed Hulls in Gutian County, Fujian Province, China
Mixed Culture Cultivation of the "Golden Ear" Mushroom
HARVESTING AND PROCESSING
REFERENCES

DICTYOPHORA - FORMERLY FOR THE FEW
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Morphology
Natural History
Requirements for Mycelial Growth
Requirements for Fu\ruiting Body Formation
CULTIVATION METHODS
Cultivation in Forests
Indoor Cultivation
HARVESTING AND PROCESSING
Harvest Time and Method
Rapid Drying
Grading and Packaging
REFERENCES

GANODERMA LUCIDUM - A LEADER OF MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Taxonomic Characteristics
Morphological Characteristics
Growth Parameters
CULTIVATION OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM
TRADITIONAL USES
BIOLOGICAL COMPOUNDS
Triterpenes/Triterpenoids
Polysaccharide
Fungal Immunomodulatory Protein (Fip)
Steroids
CONTEMPORARY USES
PRODUCTS OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM
MARKET VALUE OF GANODERMA LUCIDUM PRODUCTS
A PROTOCOL FOR QUALITY MUSHROOM NUTRICEUTICALS
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

Agaricua blazei and Grifola frondosa - Two Important Medicinal Mushrooms
INTRODUCTION
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AGARICUS BLAZEI
History
Morphology
Requirements for Growth
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF GRIFOLA FRONDOSA
History
Morphology
Requirements for Growth
CULTIVATION METHODS
Agaricus blazei
Grifola frondosa
NUTRITIONAL CONTENT AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES
Agaricus blazei
Grifola frondosa
REFERENCES

OTHER CULTIVATED MUSHROOMS - THEIR NUMBER GROWS
INTRODUCTION
AURICULARIA
HERICIUM
BRIEFLY MENTIONED
Mycorrhizal Mushrooms
Species With Regional Appeal
REFERENCES

TECHNOLOGY AND MUSHROOMS
INTRODUCTION
MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
What is Biotechnology?
Lignocellulose Degradation and Utilization
BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE MUSHROOM INDUSTRY
General Review of Mushroom Production
Major Steps of Mushroom Technology
SOME FUNGAL GENETIC TECHNIQUES AND THEIR POSSIBLE APPLICATIONS
Protoplast Fusion for Genetic Manipulation
Di-Mon Matings and Sporeless Mutants
Breeding for High-Temperature Strains
Conservation of Germplasm
POTENTIAL USE OF MUSHROOM MYCELIUM
SOME OBSERVATIONS AND CONSIDERATIONS
Mushroom Cultivation
Criteria for Study of Major Phases of Cultivation
Problems in Cultivation in Developing Countries
Prospects for Mushroom Cultivation in Developing Countries
REFERENCES

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