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This access code card gives you access to all of MyCommunicationLab’s grade-boosting resources. MyCommunicationLab is an interactive online solution for Communication courses that combines multimedia, tutorials, simulations, tests, and quizzes to make learning fun!

This book focuses on the key communication competencies recommended by the National Communication Association. Introduced at the beginning of each chapter and integrated throughout the book, these learning outcomes help focus readers as they study the theory and skills needed to become better, more effective communicators.

Well-written with interesting examples and a vibrant and engaging design, the book covers all the expected topics in an introductory course with a special appendix on interviewing. Each chapter begins with scenarios to which a reader can relate and then solve as they learn about the concepts discussed in each chapter. A concentrated focus on careers in communication, highlighted in a two-page spread near the end of each chapter, brings home the relevance of communication within the real world and helps the reader learn more about how studying communication can help them throughout their lives. Additional emphasis on topics such as ethics, culture, gender, and technology can be found throughout the book.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205782239
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 1/29/2010
  • Series: Mycommunicationlab Series
  • Edition description: Student
  • Product dimensions: 5.00 (w) x 7.00 (h) x 0.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Building Communication Foundations

Communication Defined

Communication Is a Transactional Process

Communication Occurs in a Context

Communication Involves Negotiated Meanings of Symbols

Communication Involves Shared Understanding
Types of Communication Contexts

Intrapersonal

Interpersonal/Dyad

Group

Organizational

Public

Mass Communication

• Developing Skills: How To Determine Your Confidence/Anxiety Levels
Basic Communication Process

Communication Models: A Brief Overview

Elements of the Basic Communication Model

Exploring the Communication Model: Special Concepts

Communication and Culture

Communication and Gender

Communication and Technology

Communication and Ethics

Communication Competencies

Benefits of Communication Skills

Increased Self-Awareness

Empowered Participation

Improved Relationships

Enhanced Professional Success

Improved Citizenship
Communication and Your Career

Chapter 2: Perception

Perception: Definitions and Steps

Step 1: Selecting Available Data

Step 2: Organizing Data into a Usable Form

Step 3: Interpreting the Data by Adding Meaning and Making Predictions

Factors That Lead to Differences in Perception

Physiological Factors in Perceptual Errors

Psychological Factors in Perceptual Errors

Cultural Factors in Perceptual Errors

Perception and Self

Self-Concept Defined

Barnlund’s “6 Person Concept”: A “Self” Orientation

Plus-2 Concept: An “Other” Orientation

Barriers to Accurate Self-Concept

Perception and Others

First Impressions

Stereotyping

Perceptual Constancy

Fundamental Attribution Error

Making Theory Practical: Attribution Theory

Projection

Developing Perceptual Skills

Using Perceptual Skills to Improve Self-Concept

Using Perceptual Skills to Improve Your Perception with Others

Perception and Your Career

Chapter 3: Listening

Listening Defined

General Definition

Stages of Listening

*Developing Skills: How To Improve Your Memory

Importance of Listening

Helps Us Develop and Maintain Our Mental Health

Helps Us Develop and Maintain Relationships

Helps Us in Our Careers

Helps Us Become Better citizens

Barriers to Listening

Noise

Information Processing

Cultural Differences

Gender Orientation

Poor Listening Habits

Making Theory Practical: Listening Styles Inventory

Informational Listening

Prepare to Listen

Avoid Pre-Judging

Mentally Organize, Summarize & Link Information

Personalize Information While Listening

Take Skillful Notes

Ask Questions & Paraphrase

Critical Listening

Listening Critically to Speaker Ethos

Listening Critically to Speaker Logos

Listening Critically to Speaker Pathos

Using Critical Listening Skills

Empathic Listening

Judging Response

Supportive Response

Interpreting Response

Advising Response

Listening and Your Career

Chapter 4: Verbal Communication

Nature of Language

Language and Verbal Communication Defined

Language and the Ability to Think

Language is Rule-governed

Language and Types of Meaning

Language and Culture

Language and Gender

Power of Language

Language has the power to influence our perceptions.

Making Theory Practical: Theory of Linguistic Relativity

Language has the power to reflect our attitudes to others.

Language has the power to affect others’ perceptions of us.

Obstacles to Effective Verbal Encoding

Insufficient Vocabulary

Jargon

Euphemisms

Trigger Words

Abstracting and Allness

Polarizing Terms

Imprecise Language and Relative Terms

* Developing Skills: How To Read a Journal Article

Overcoming Obstacles to Effective Verbal Encoding

Expanding a Poor Vocabulary

Avoiding Jargon

Using Euphemisms with Care

Being Alert to Trigger Words

Being Conscious of Abstracting and Allness

Using Dating and Indexing

Defining and Describing with Care

Language and Your Career

Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication

What is Nonverbal Communication

Key Communication Concepts

Nonverbal Communication Defined
The Nature of Nonverbal Communication
Percent of Meaning
Ambiguous Meaning

Nonverbal Expectations

Making Theory Practical: Expectancy Violation Theory

Categories of Nonverbal Communication

Kinesics

Proxemics
Haptics

Chronemics

Artifacts
Paralanguage

Functions of Nonverbal Messages

Can Replace Verbal Messages
Can Repeat Verbal Messages
Can Reinforce Verbal Messages

Can Regulate Verbal Messages
Can Reveal Verbal Messages

Can Reverse Verbal Messages
Can Reflect Unconscious Needs

Improving Nonverbal Encoding

Use Self-Monitoring

Check for Cultural Meanings

Check for Content

Check for Personal Differences

Ask for Feedback

Nonverbal Messages and Your Career

Chapter 6: Building Interpersonal Relationships

Interpersonal Communication

General Definition

Interpersonal vs. Impersonal Communication

Interpersonal Relationships: Getting Needs Met
Personal Needs and Wants

* Developing Sills: How To Determine Needs and Wants

Inclusion Needs (Extrovert-Introvert)

Control Needs (Dominant-Submissive)

Openness Needs (Discloser-Withholder)

Contradictory Needs (Dialectics)

Interpersonal Relationships: Gaining Rewards and Minimizing Costs

Gathering Information and Using Effective Conversation

Gathering Information to Reduce Uncertainty

Using Effective Conversation

Improving Self-Disclosure:
True Self-Disclosure

Self-Disclosure and Culture/Gender/ Technology/Ethics

Making Theory Practical: Face-Negotiation Theory

Disclosure and the Model of Social Penetration

Appropriate Self-Disclosure

Interpersonal Communication and Your Career

Chapter 7: Managing Interpersonal Relationships and Conflict

Relationship Stages

Stages of Relationship Development

Stages of Relationship Deterioration

Relationships and Conflict

Conflict Defined

Conflict Escalators

Conflict Styles

The Passive Style

The Aggressive Style

The Passive-Aggressive Style

The Assertive Style

Conflict Outcomes

Win-Win

Compromise

Win-Lose (Equitable)

Lose-Lose

Special Issues in Conflict and Relational Communication

Relationships and Family

Relationships and Romance

Relationships and Ethics

Relationships and Technology

* Making Theory Practical: Dispute-Exacerbating Model of Email (DEME)

Relationships and E-Dating.

Relationships and Your Career

Chapter 8: Communicating in Problem-Solving Groups

The Nature of Groups

What Makes a Group?

Teams and Virtual Teams

Groups and Gender/Ethics/Technology

Types of Groups

• Developing Skills: How To Organize a Service-Learning Project

Individual verses Group Decisions

When Individual Decisions Work Best

When Group Decisions Work Best

Characteristics of Successful Small Groups

Optimum Size

Decision-Making Methods

Group Cohesiveness

Cultural Diversity

Absence of Groupthink

Making Theory Practical: Groupthink Theory

Rules, Norms, and Phases of Successful groups

Rules

Norms

Phases

Group Problem-Solving Process

Step 1: Identify and Define the Problem

Step 2: Analyze the Problem

Step 3: Establish and Rank Criteria

Step 4: Generate Possible Solutions

Step 5: Apply Criteria to Select Best Solution(s)

Step 6: Implement and Follow-Up

Groups and Your Career


Chapter 9: Becoming Effective Group Members and Leaders

Characteristics of Effective Group Members

Becoming an Effective Member

Performing Formal Roles

Performing Task Roles

Performing Maintenance Roles

Avoiding Dysfunctional Roles

• Developing Skills: How To Work with Dysfunctional Members

Characteristics of Effective Group Leadership

Using Power Effectively

Sharing Responsibility

Benefiting from Culture/Gender/Technology/Ethics

Becoming an Effective Leader

Leaderships Traits

Leadership Functions

Leadership Power

Leadership Styles

Situational Leadership

Transformational Leaders

Making Theory Practical: Transformational Leadership Theory

Leadership and Your Career

Chapter 10: Public Speaking: Getting Started

Understanding the Nature of Anxiety

What is Speaker Anxiety?

What Causes Speaker Anxiety?

Building Speaker Confidence
Be Prepared
Engage in Skills Training
Use Positive Imagery

Enjoy Breathing and Relaxation
Apply Cognitive Restructuring

Become Audience-Centered

Making Theory Practical: Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Practice Speaking Often

An Overview: Five Steps in Preparing a Successful Speech
Step 1: Analyzing Your Audience (demographics, attitudes, situation)
Step 2: Developing Your Topic, Purpose, and Thesis
Step 3: Gathering materials
Step 4: Organizing
Step 5: Practicing

Audience Analysis: A More Detailed Look

Demographic Analysis

Attitude Analysis

--Attitudes Toward Your Topic
--Attitudes Toward You (the speaker)

--Attitudes Toward Being There

Situational Analysis

• Developing Skills: How To Conduct an Audience Analysis

Speaking Skills and Your Career

Chapter 11: Selecting a Topic and Gathering Supporting Materials

Developing Your Topic, Purpose and Thesis

Topic Selection

Purpose

Thesis Statement

Gathering Materials: Begin with a Rough Draft

A Rough Draft Saves Valuable Time

A Rough Draft Makes Getting Opinions from Others Easier

Researching for Supporting Materials

Personal Information

Print Sources

Electronic Databases
Internet Sources

Interviews

Types and Uses of Supporting Materials

Definitions
Explanations

Examples and Illustrations

Making Theory Practical: Fisher’s Narrative Paradigm

Comparisons (Literal and Figurative)

Quotations (Personal Testimony from Experts)

Statistics

Quality Supporting Materials and Careers

Chapter 12: Organizing For Informative Speaking

Begin by Expanding and Revising Your Rough Draft Outline

Organizational Patterns for Informative Speeches

Chronological
Spatial (Geographical)
Topical
Causal (Usually Cause-Effect)

Problem-Solution
Speech Organization and Cultural Issues

Speech Introductions

Catch Audience Attention

Build Rapport

Establish Credibility

Point Out Benefits to Audience

Clarify Central Idea with Thesis and Preview of Main Points

When Each Function Should Be Used

Speech Conclusions

Summary of Main Points

Memorable Ending

Questions and Answers (Q&A)

Speech Transitions

Speech Outlining

Why Bother With Outlines?

Outlining Principles

--Principle #1: Use main points of relatively equal value

--Principle #2: Include at least two items per level

--Principle #3: Use parallel structure

--Principle #4: Don’t use Roman numerals for Introduction, Body, or Conclusion

--Principle #5: Use standard outline numbering

--Principle #6: Use generous indentations

Types of Outlines

--Rough-draft Outlines

--Formal Outlines

--Speaking Outlines

Informative Presentations and Your Career

Chapter 13: Adding Visuals and Practicing Your Presentation

Preparing Quality Visual Aids

Types of Visual Aids

Guidelines for Using Visual Aids with Success

* Making Theory Practical: Basic Design Principles

Using PowerPoint Successfully

Preparing for a Specific Audience
Identify Audience Type

Select Best Delivery Method

Practice Your Verbal and Nonverbal Delivery

Pick Words Carefully
Use Direct Eye Contact
Use Effective Facial Expressions

Monitor Gestures, Posture, and Movement

Monitor Clothing and Grooming

Practice Your Vocal Delivery (Paralanguage)

Pitch

Rate

Volume

Emphasis

Vocal Quality

Articulation

Pronunciation

Vocal dysfluencies (interferences)

Practice Citing Your Sources

* Developing Skills: How To Cite Sources During Your Presentation

Final Preparations before Your Speech

Delivery and Your Career

Chapter 14: Persuasive Speaking

Understanding Persuasion

Differences between Persuasive and Informative Speeches

Making Theory Practical: Social Judgment Theory

Factors that Affect Persuasion

Types of Persuasive Speeches

Speech to Convince

Speech to Actuate

Persuasive Appeals that Really Persuade
Speaker Credibility (Ethos)

Evidence and Reasoning (Logos)

Emotional Appeal (Pathos)

Persuasive Organizational Patterns

Persuasive Patterns for Arguments–Statement of Logical Reasons

Persuasive Patterns for Problems and Solutions

• Developing Skills: How To Use Inoculation Theory

Persuasive Pattern for Policy and Action–Motivated Sequence

Adapting Organizational Patterns to Audiences

When Audience Favors Your Position

When Audience Opposes Your Position

When Audience is Neutral toward Your Position

When Audience Exposed to Counter-Persuasion

When You Want Your Audience to Take Action

When Audience Opinions Vary Widely

Sample Student Speech: Emylee Pinero

Final Thoughts from the Authors

Persuasion and Your Career

Appendix A: Communicating Successfully in the Interviewing Context

Interviewing: An Overview

What makes a Quality Interview?

Interviewer and Interviewee Responsibilities

Informational Interviewing

What is an Informational Interview?

Benefits of Informational Interviewing

Employment Interviewing

Interviewer Responsibilities

Interviewee Responsibilities

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