MyThinkingLab -- Standalone Access Card -- for Critical Thinking: Consider the Verdict / Edition 6

MyThinkingLab -- Standalone Access Card -- for Critical Thinking: Consider the Verdict / Edition 6

by Bruce N. Waller

ISBN-10: 0205159990

ISBN-13: 9780205159994

Pub. Date: 07/29/2011

Publisher: Pearson

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For undergraduate courses in Critical Thinking, Informal Logic, and Critical Writing, as well as introductory or advanced argumentation courses.

Organized around lively and authentic examples drawn from jury trials, contemporary political and social debate, and advertising, this introduction shows students how to detect fallacies and how to examine, and construct cogent arguments. Accessible and reader friendly—yet thorough and rigorous—it shows how to integrate all logic skills into the critical decision-making process.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

1 Introduction
Critical Thinking in Everyday Life
Play Fair

Seating a Jury
Jury Research: Eliminating or Selecting Bias?
Impartial Critical Thinking

Adversarial Critical Thinking

Cooperative Critical Thinking

Additional Reading
Online Resources

2 A Few Important Terms

Exercise 2-1
Premises and Conclusions

Exercise 2-2
Deductive and Inductive Arguments

Exercise 2-3
Deduction, Validity, and Soundness
Induction, Strong Arguments, and Cogent Arguments

Exercises 2-4, 2-5

Review Questions

Online Resources

3 Ad Hominem Arguments
The Ad Hominem Fallacy
Nonfallacious Ad Hominem Arguments
Ad Hominem and Testimony
Distinguishing Argument from Testimony

Exercise 3-1
Tricky Types of Ad Hominem
Bias Ad Hominem
Inconsistency and Ad Hominem
Psychological Ad Hominem

Inverse Ad Hominem
Attacking Arguments
Exercises 3-2

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Internet Resources

4 The Second Deadly Fallacy: The Strawman Fallacy
The Principle of Charity
The Strawman Fallacy
Special Strawman Varieties

Limits on Critical Thinking

Exercises 4-1 and 4-2

Additional Reading

5 What’s the Question?
Determine the Conclusion
What Is the Exact Conclusion?

Exercises 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4

Review Question

6 Relevant and Irrelevant Reasons
Premises Are Relevant or Irrelevant Relative to the Conclusion
Irrelevant Reason Fallacy
The Red Herring Fallacy

Exercises 6-1 and 6-2

Review Questions

Additional Reading

7 Analyzing Arguments
Argument Structure
Convergent Arguments
Linked Arguments

Exercises 7-1, 7-2 and 7-3
Assumptions: Their Use and Abuse
Legitimate Assumptions
Illegitimate Assumptions

Exercise 7-4

Review Questions

Additional Reading

8 The Burden of Proof
Who Bears the Burden of Proof?
Appeal to Ignorance
The Burden of Proof in the Courtroom
Presumption of Innocence
When the Defendant Does Not Testify
Juries and the Burden of Proof
Unappealing Ignorance

Exercises 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6, 8-7

Review Questions

Additional Reading

9 Language and its Pitfalls
Stipulative Definitions
Controversial Definitions

Deceptive Language

The Fallacy of Ambiguity


Exercises 9-1, 9-2, and 9-3

Additional Reading

Internet Resources

10 Appeal to Authority
Authorities as Testifiers
Conditions for Legitimate Appeal to Authority
Popularity and Tradition
Exercise 10-1

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Cumulative Exercises One
(Chapters 1 through 10)

11 Arguments by Analogy
Figurative Analogy
Deductive Argument by Analogy

Exercise 11-1
The Fallacy of Faulty Analogy

Exercises 11-2 and 11-3
Analyzing a Deductive Argument by Analogy

Deductive Arguments by Analogy and Cooperative Critical Thinking
The Fallacy of Analogical Literalism
Caution! Watch for Analogies That Look Like Slippery Slopes!
Inductive Arguments by Analogy

Exercises 11-4, 11-5, 11-7, 11-7, 11-8, 11-9, and 11-10

Review Questions

12 S ome Distinctive Arguments and Potential Pitfalls: Slippery Slope, Dilemma, and Golden Mean Arguments
Slippery Slope
Separating Slippery Slopes from Strawmen

T he Slippery Slope Fallacy
Genuine Slippery Slopes
Exercises 12-1and 12-2

Dilemmas, False and True
Genuine Dilemmas
False Dilemmas

Dilemmas in Conditional Form
False Dilemma Combined with Strawman
Consider the Possibilities

Exercise 12-3
Golden Mean
The Golden Mean Fallacy
Constructing Golden Mean Fallacies
Exercise 12-4

Review Questsions

Additional Reading

Additional Reading

Internet Resources

13 Begging the Question
The Problem with Question-Begging Arguments

A New and Confusing Use of “Begs the Question”
Subtle Forms of Question Begging
Synonymous Begging the Question
Generalization Begging the Question
Circular Begging the Question

False Charges of Begging the Question
Self-Sealing Arguments
Complex Questions

Exercises 13-1 and 13-2

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Cumulative Exercises Two
(Chapters 1 through 13)

14 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Necessary Conditions
Distinguishing Necessary from Sufficient Conditions
Sufficient Conditions
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Ordinary Language

Ex Exercises 14-1, 14-2, and 14-3
Conditional Statements
Alternative Ways of Stating Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Both Necessary and Sufficient

Exe Exercises 14-4 and 14-5
Valid Inferences from Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Modus Ponens
Modus Tollens
Fallacies Based on Confusion between Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
The Fallacy of Denying the Antecedent
The Fallacy of Affirming the Consequent
Detecting Argument Forms
Exercises 14-6, 14-7, and 14-8

Review Questions

15 Scientific and Causal Reasoning
Distinguishing Causation from Correlation

Exercise 15-1
The Questionable Cause Fallacy

Exercise 15-2
The Method of Science
Randomized Studies and Prospective Studies
Making Predictions
When Predictions Go Wrong
Faulty “Scientific” Claims

Occam’s Razor

Confirmation Bias

Scientific Integrity, Scientific Cooperation, and Research Manipulation

Exercise 15-3

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Internet Resources

16 The Truth, the Whole Truth, and Nothing but the Truth
Eyewitness Testimony
Potential Sources of Eyewitness Error
Judging the Honesty of a Witness

Exercise 16-1
The Whole Truth
Are the Premises True?
Digging for Truth
Consider the Source

Exercise 16-2

Review Questions

Additional Reading

Online Resources

Cumulative Exercises Three
Chapters 1 through 16)

17 Thinking Critically about Statistics
All Children Are Above Average
Empty Statistics
Finding the Appropriate Context
Caught Off Base
Statistical Apples and Oranges
Statistical Half-Truths
Sample Size and “Statistical Significance”

How to Make Your Study Yield the Results You Want

Exercises 17-1


Exercise 17-2

Additional Reading

Online Resources

18 Symbolic Sentential Logic
Truth-Functional Definitions
Material Implication

Exercise 18-1
Testing for Validity and Invalidity

Exercise 18-2

Exercise 18-3
The Truth-Table Method of Testing for Validity

ExExercise 18-4
The Short-Cut Method for Determining Validity or Invalidity

Exercises 18-5, 18-6, and 18-7

Review Questions

19 Arguments about Classes
Types of Categorical Propositions

Exercise 19-1
Relations among Categorical Propositions
Venn Diagrams
Diagramming Statements
Diagramming Arguments

Exercise 19-2
Translating Ordinary-Language Statements into Standard-Form Categorical Propositions

Exercise 19-3
Reducing the Number of Terms

Exercises 19-4 and 19-5

Review Questions

Consider Your Verdict
Comprehensive Critical Thinking in the Jury Room
Case One: Commonwealth v. Moyer
Judge Carroll’s Summation and Charge to the Jury
Case Two: State v. Ransom
Judge Schwebel’s Summation and Charge to the Jury
Key Terms
Answers to Selected Exercises

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