Naive Semantics for Natural Language Understanding / Edition 1

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Table of Contents

I. Naive Semantics.- 1. Naive Semantics.- 1.1. Using Naive Semantics to Interpret “The Programmer”.- 1.2. Compositional Semantics.- 1.3. The Classical Theory of Word Meaning.- 1.4. Word Meanings as Concepts.- 1.5. Other Decompositional Approaches.- 1.6. Computational Approaches to Word Meaning.- 1.7. Naive Semantics.- 1.8. Basis of Naive Semantics in Cognitive Psychology.- 1.9. Comparison of NS with Computational Models.- 1.10. Limitations of NS.- 1.11. Organization of the Book.- 2. Noun Representation.- 2.1. The Ontological Schema.- 2.2. Mathematical Properties of the Ontology.- 2.3. Ontological Categories.- 2.4. Nominal Terminal Nodes.- 2.5. Construction of the Ontology.- 2.6. Other Ontologies.- 2.7. Generic Knowledge.- 2.8. Word Senses.- 2.9. Feature Types.- 2.10. Conclusion.- 3. Kinds, Kind Terms and Cognitive Categories.- 3.1. The Realist Basis of NS and Kind Terms.- 3.2. Kind Types.- 3.3. Kind Types as Metasorts.- 3.4. Another Approach.- 3.5. Summary.- 4. Verb Representation.- 4.1. Ontological Representation.- 4.2. Placing Verbs in the Main Ontology.- 4.3. Sub-Classification of the TEMPORAL/RELATIONAL Node.- 4.4. The Vendler Verb Classification.- 4.5. Psycholinguistic Categories.- 4.6. Cross-Classification.- 4.7. Parallel Ontologies.- 4.8. Non-Categorial Features.- 4.9. Generic Representation.- 4.10. Feature Types Associated with Relational Terms.- 4.11. Conclusion.- 5. The Functioning of the Kind Types System.- 5.1. Complete and Incomplete Knowledge.- 5.2. Queries to the System.- Inspecting the Textual Database.- Inspecting the Ontology.- Inspecting the Generic Database.- Inspecting Feature Types.- 5.3. Anaphors.- 5.4. PP Attachment.- 5.5. Word Sense Disambiguation.- 5.6. Discourse Reasoning.- 5.7. Kind Types Reasoning.- 5.8. Summary of Inference Mechanism.- 6. Prepositional Phrase Disambiguation.- 6.1. Semantically Implausible Syntactic Ambiguities.- 6.2. Using Commonsense Knowledge to Disambiguate.- 6.3. Commonsense Knowledge used in the Preference Strategy.- Ontological Class of Object of the Preposition.- Ontological Class of The Direct Object.- Ontological Class of Verb.- Generic Information.- Syntax.- 6.4. Success Rate of the Preference Strategy.- 6.5. Implementation.- 6.6. Other Approaches.- 6.7. Conclusion.- 7. Word Sense Disambiguation.- 7.1. Approaches to Word Sense Disambiguation.- 7.2. Local Combined Ambiguity Reduction.- 7.3. Test of Hypothesis.- 7.4. Noun Disambiguation.- Fixed and Frequent Phrases.- Syntactic Tests.- Commonsense Knowledge.- 7.5. Verb Sense Disambiguation.- Frequent Phrases in Verb Disambiguation.- Syntactic Tests in Verb Disambiguation.- Commonsense in Verb Disambiguation.- 7.6. Interaction of Ambiguous Verb and Noun.- 7.7. Feasibility of the Method.- 7.8. Syntactic and Lexical Ambiguity.- 7.9. Intersentential Reasoning.- 7.10. Disambiguation Rules.- 7.11. Efficiency and Timing.- 7.12. Problems for the Method.- 7.13. Other Approaches.- 7.14. Conclusion.- 8. Discourse Coherence.- 8.1. Background.- Coherence Relations.- Discourse Segments.- Genre-Relativity of Discourse Structure.- The Commentary Genre.- Compendium of Discourse Relations.- 8.2. Modularity and Discourse.- Modelling the Recipient.- Discourse Events.- Coherence as Compositional Semantics?.- Coherence as Naive Inference.- Discourse Cues.- Parallelism.- Facts Explained by the Parallel, Modular Model.- 8.3. Syntactic and Semantic Tests for Discourse Relations.- Main Clause.- Not Nominalized.- Active voice.- Tense and Aspect.- Transitivity Test.- Weak Predictions of Coherence Relations.- 8.4. Parallelism in Coherence Exemplified.- Using Commonsense Knowledge to Segment Discourse.- Empirical Study of Discourse Hierarchy.- 8.5. Other Models.- 8.6. Conclusion.- References.

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