Nanofibers and Nanotechnology in Textiles

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Nanotechnology is revolutionising the world of materials. This important book reviews its impact in developing a new generation of textile fibers with enhanced functionality and a wide range of applications. The first part of the book reviews nanofiber production, discussing how different fiber types can be produced using electrospinning techniques. Part two analyses the production and properties of carbon nanotubes and polymer nanocomposites and their applications in such areas as aerospace engineering. The third part of the book considers ways of using nanotechnology to improve polymer properties such as thermal stability and dyeability. The final part of the book reviews the use of nanotechnology to modify textile surfaces, including the use of coatings and films, in order to improve hydrophobic, filtration and other properties.

Nanofibers and nanotechnology in textiles is a valuable reference in assessing and using a new generation of textile fibers in applications as diverse as tissue and aerospace engineering.

  • Nanotechnology is revolutionising the world of materials
  • Learn about a new generation of textile fibers that have a wide range of applications
  • Examines how to improve polymer properties
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Dr Phil Brown is an Assistant Professor in the School of Materials Science and Engineering at Clemson University.

Dr Kate Stevens is a Research Associate in the Center for Advanced Engineering Fibers and Films at Clemson University.

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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details xiii

Part I Nanofiber production

1 Electrospinning of nanofibers and the charge injection method D. R. Salem 3

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Principles of electrostatic atomization 3

1.3 Electrospraying and electrospinning by the capillary method 5

1.4 Electrospraying and electrospinning by the charge injection method 12

1.5 References 20

2 Producing nanofiber structures by electrospinning for tissue engineering F. K. Ko M. R. Gandhi 22

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds 28

2.3 Characterization of nanofibrous scaffolds 30

2.4 Cell-scaffold interaction 36

2.5 Summary and conclusion 42

2.6 Acknowledgments 43

2.7 References 43

3 Continuous yarns from electrospun nanofibers E. Smit U. Buttner R. D. Sanderson 45

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Using electrospun nanofibers: background and terminology 45

3.3 Controlling fiber orientation 48

3.4 Producing noncontinuous or short yarns 49

3.5 Producing continuous yarns 52

3.6 Summary and future trends 66

3.7 Sources of further information and advice 67

3.8 References 68

4 Producing polyamide nanofibers by electrospinning M. Afshari R. Kotek A. E. Tonelli D.-W. Jung 71

4.1 Introduction 71

4.2 The electrospinning process 71

4.3 Properties of electrospun nanofibers 73

4.4 Measuring the effects of different spinning conditions and the use of high molecular weight polymers on the properties of electrospun nanofibers 75

4.5 Improving the properties of electrospun nanofibers: experimental results 77

4.6 Conclusions 85

4.7 References 87

5 Controlling the morphologies of electrospun nanofibres T. Lin X. G. Wang 90

5.1 Introduction 90

5.2 Theelectrospinning process and fibre morphology 91

5.3 Polymer concentration and fibre diameter 93

5.4 Fibre bead formation and fibre surface morphology 96

5.5 Controlling fibre alignment and web morphologies 100

5.6 Bicomponent cross-sectional nanofibres 103

5.7 Future trends 107

5.8 Acknowledgements 108

5.9 References 108

Part II Carbon nanotubes and nanocomposites 111

6 Synthesis, characterization and application of carbon nanotubes: the case of aerospace engineering M. Regi 113

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 The development and structure of carbon nanotubes 115

6.3 Synthesis of carbon nanotubes 124

6.4 Characterization techniques 140

6.5 Purification techniques 152

6.6 The use of carbon nanotubes in aerospace engineering 157

6.7 Nanostructured composite materials for aerospace applications 162

6.8 Nanostructured solid propellants for rockets 170

6.9 Frequency selective surfaces for aerospace applications 175

6.10 Other aerospace applications of carbon nanotubes 182

6.11 Conclusions 184

6.12 Acknowledgments 184

6.13 References 185

7 Carbon nanotube and nanofibre reinforced polymer fibres M. S. P. Shaffer J. K. W. Sandler 194

7.1 Introduction 194

7.2 Synthesis and properties of carbon nanotubes 197

7.3 Developing nanotube/nanofibre-polymer composites 201

7.4 Adding nanotubes and nanofibres to polymer fibres 206

7.5 Analysing the rheological properties of nanotube/nanofibre-polymer composites 208

7.6 Analysing the microstructure of nanotube/nanofibre-polymer composites 212

7.7 Mechanical, electrical and other properties of nanocomposite fibres 216

7.8 Future trends 221

7.9 References 222

8 Structure and properties of carbon nanotube-polymer fibers using melt spinning R. E. Gorga 235

8.1 Introduction 235

8.2 Producing carbon nanotube-polymer fibers 236

8.3 Thermal characterization 237

8.4 Fiber morphology 238

8.5 Mechanical properties of fibers 245

8.6 Conclusions and future trends 251

8.7 Sources of further information and advice 252

8.8 Acknowledgments 252

8.9 References 253

9 Multifunctional polymer nanocomposites for industrial applications S. J. Bull 256

9.1 Introduction 256

9.2 The development of functional polymer nanocomposites 257

9.3 Improving the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites 258

9.4 Improving the fire-retardant properties of polymer nanocomposites 260

9.5 Improving the tribological properties of polymer nanocomposites 262

9.6 Case-study: development of a nanocomposite sliding seal ring 265

9.7 Enhancing the functionality of polymer nanocomposites 273

9.8 Conclusions 275

9.9 Acknowledgements 275

9.10 References 275

10 Nanofilled polypropylene fibres M. Sfiligoj Smole K. Stana Kleinschek 281

10.1 Introduction 281

10.2 Polymer layered silicate nanocomposites 282

10.3 The structure and properties of layered silicate polypropylene nanocomposites 284

10.4 Nanosilica filled polypropylene nanocomposites 289

10.5 Calcium carbonate and other additives 291

10.6 Conclusion 293

10.7 References 293

Part III Improving polymer functionality 299

11 Nanostructuring polymers with cyclodextrins A. E. Tonelli 301

11.1 Introduction 301

11.2 Formation and characterization of polymer-cyclodextrin-inclusion compounds 302

11.3 Properties of polymer-cyclodextrin-inclusion compounds 304

11.4 Homo- and block copolymers coalesced from their cyclodextrin-inclusion compounds 308

11.5 Constrained polymerization in monomer-cyclodextrin-inclusion compounds 310

11.6 Coalescence of common polymer-cyclodextrin-inclusion compounds to achieve fine polymer blends 311

11.7 Temporal and thermal stabilities of polymers nanostructured with cyclodextrins 312

11.8 Cyclodextrin-modified polymers 313

11.9 Polymers with covalently bonded cyclodextrins 314

11.10 Conclusions 316

11.11 References 316

12 Dyeable polypropylene via nanotechnology Q. Fan G. Mani 320

12.1 Introduction 320

12.2 Dyeing techniques for unmodified polypropylene 321

12.3 Modified polypropylene for improved dyeability using copolymerization and other techniques 323

12.4 Polyblending and other techniques for improving polypropylene dyeability 324

12.5 Dyeing polypropylene nanocomposites 326

12.6 Using X-ray diffraction analysis and other techniques to assess dyed polypropylene nanocomposites 334

12.7 Conclusions 345

12.8 Acknowledgments 346

12.9 References 346

13 Polyolefin/clay nanocomposites R. A. Kalgaonkar J. P. Jog 351

13.1 Introduction 351

13.2 Organomodification of clays 354

13.3 Polymer/clay nanocomposites 356

13.4 Polypropylene/clay nanocomposites 360

13.5 Polyethylene/clay nanocomposites 367

13.6 Higher polyolefin/clay nanocomposites 372

13.7 Conclusions 374

13.8 References 381

14 Multiwall carbon nanotube-nylon-6 nanocomposites from polymerization Y. K. Kim P. K. Patra 386

14.1 Introduction 386

14.2 Nanocomposite synthesis and production 387

14.3 Characterization techniques 388

14.4 Properties of multiwall carbon nanotube-nylon-6 nanocomposite fibers 391

14.5 Conclusions 404

14.6 Acknowledgments 405

14.7 References 406

Part IV Nanocoatings and surface modification techniques 407

15 Nanotechnologies for coating and structuring of textiles T. Stegmaier M. Dauner V. Von Arnim A. Scherrieble A. Dinkelmann H. Planck 409

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 Production of nanofiber nonwovens using electrostatic spinning 410

15.3 Anti-adhesive nanocoating of fibers and textiles 417

15.4 Water- and oil-repellent coatings by plasma treatment 418

15.5 Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surfaces 421

15.6 Sources of further information and advice 427

15.7 References 427

16 Electrostatic self-assembled nanolayer films for cotton fibers G. K. Hyde J. P. Hinestroza 428

16.1 Introduction 428

16.2 Principles of electrostatic self-assembly for creating nanolayer films 428

16.3 Advantages and disadvantages of electrostatic self-assembly 431

16.4 Substrates used for electrostatic self-assembly 432

16.5 Polyelectrolytes used for electrostatic self-assembly 434

16.6 Analyzing self-assembled nanolayer films on cotton 436

16.7 Conclusions: functional textiles for protection, filtration and other applications 439

16.8 References 440

17 Nanofabrication of thin polymer films I. Luzinov 448

17.1 Introduction 448

17.2 Macromolecular platform for nanofabrication 449

17.3 'Grafting from' technique for synthesis of polymer films 451

17.4 'Grafting to' technique for synthesis of polymer films 455

17.5 Synthesis of smart switchable coatings 458

17.6 Synthesis of ultrahydrophobic materials 464

17.7 Conclusions 466

17.8 Acknowledgments 466

17.9 References 467

18 Hybrid polymer nanolayers for surface modification of fibers S. Minko M. Motornov 470

18.1 Introduction: smart textiles via thin hybrid films 470

18.2 Mechanisms of responsive behavior in thin polymer films 471

18.3 Polymer-polymer hybrid layers 478

18.4 Polymer-particles hybrid layers 484

18.5 Hierarchical assembly of nanostructured hybrid films 485

18.6 Future trends 489

18.7 Sources of further information and advice 490

18.8 Acknowledgment 490

18.9 References 490

19 Structure-property relationships of polypropylene nanocomposite fibres C. Y. Lew G. M. McNally 493

19.1 Introduction 493

19.2 Materials, processing and characterisation techniques 495

19.3 Structure and morphology 497

19.4 Phase homogeneity and spinline stability 502

19.5 Optical birefringence and infrared activation 505

19.6 Crystallisation behaviour and mechanical performance 509

19.7 Exfoliation by extensional flow deformation 513

19.8 Conclusions 514

19.9 References 515

Index 519

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