Nanostructures And Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, And Applications (2Nd Edition) / Edition 2

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More About This Textbook

Overview

This is the 2nd edition of the original "Nanostructures and Nanomaterials" Written by Guozhong Cao and published by Imperial College Press in 2004.

This important book focuses not only on the synthesis and fabrication of nanostructures and nanomaterials, but also includes properties and applications of nanostructures and nanomaterials, particularly inorganic nanomaterials. It provides balanced and comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals and processing techniques with regard to synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of nanostructures and nanomaterials. Bothe chemical processing and lithographic techniques are presented in a systematic and coherent manner for the synthesis and fabrication of 0-D, 1-D, and 2-D nanostructures, as well as special nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes and ordered mesoporous oxides. The book will serve as a general introduction to nanomaterials and nanotechnology for teaching and self-study purposes.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9789814324557
  • Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/3/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 581
  • Sales rank: 931,986
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition v

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Emergence of Nanotechnology 4

1.3 Bottom-Up and Top-Down Approaches 8

1.4 Challenges in Nanotechnology 10

1.5 Scope of the Book 13

References 15

Chapter 2 Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces 19

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Surface Energy 21

2.3 Chemical Potential as a Function of Surface Curvature 32

2.4 Electrostatic Stabilization 38

2.4.1 Surface charge density 38

2.4.2 Electric potential at the proximity of solid surface 39

2.4.3 Van der Waals attraction potential 43

2.4.4 Interactions between two particles: DLVO theory 45

2.5 Steric Stabilization 50

2.5.1 Solvent and polymer 51

2.5.2 Interactions between polymer layers 53

2.5.3 Mixed steric and electric interactions 57

2.6 Summary 57

References 57

Chapter 3 Zero-Dimensional Nanostructures: Nanoparticles 61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Nanoparticles Through Homogeneous Nucleation 63

3.2.1 Fundamentals of homogeneous nucleation 63

3.2.2 Subsequent growth of nuclei 69

3.2.2.1 Growth controlled by diffusion 70

3.2.2.2 Growth controlled by surface process 71

3.2.3 Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles 75

3.2.3.1 Influences of reduction reagents 80

3.2.3.2 Influences by other factors 83

3.2.3.3 Influences of polymer stabilizer 86

3.2.4 Synthesis of semiconductor nanoparticles 93

3.2.5 Synthesis of oxide nanoparticles 102

3.2.5.1 Introduction to sol-gel processing 102

3.2.5.2 Forced hydrolysis 106

3.2.5.3 Controlled release of ions 108

3.2.6 Vapor phase reactions 110

3.2.7 Solid-state phase segregation 112

3.3 Nanoparticles Through Heterogeneous Nucleation 116

3.3.1 Fundamentals of heterogeneous nucleation 116

3.3.2 Synthesis of nanoparticles 118

3.4 Kinetically Confined Synthesis of Nanoparticles 119

3.4.1 Synthesis inside micelles or using microemulsions 121

3.4.2 Aerosol synthesis 123

3.4.3 Growth termination 124

3.4.4 Spray pyrolysis 126

3.4.5 Template-based synthesis 126

3.5 Epitaxial Core-Shell Nanoparticles 127

3.6 Summary 130

References 131

Chapter 4 One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Nanowires and Nanorods 143

4.1 Introduction 143

4.2 Spontaneous Growth 145

4.2.1 Evaporation (dissolution)-condensation growth 146

4.2.1.1 Fundamentals of evaporation (dissolution)-condensation growth 146

4.2.1.2 Evaporation-condensation growth 154

4.2.1.3 Dissolution-condensation growth 159

4.2.2 Vapor (or solution)-liquid-solid (VLS or SLS) growth 164

4.2.2.1 Fundamental aspects of VLS and SLS growth 164

4.2.2.2 VLS growth of various nanowires 170

4.2.2.3 Control of the size of nanowires 172

4.2.2.4 Precursors and catalysts 177

4.2.2.5 Solution-liquid-solid growth 180

4.2.3 Stress-induced recrystallization 183

4.3 Template-Based Synthesis 183

4.3.1 Electrochemical deposition 184

4.3.2 Electrophoretic deposition 196

4.3.3 Template filling 204

4.3.3.1 Colloidal dispersion filling 204

4.3.3.2 Melt and solution filling 206

4.3.3.3 Chemical vapor deposition 207

4.3.3.4 Deposition by centrifugation 207

4.3.4 Converting through chemical reactions 208

4.4 Electrospinning 213

4.5 Lithography 215

4.6 Summary 219

References 219

Chapter 5 Two-Dimensional Nanostructures: Thin Films 229

5.1 Introduction 229

5.2 Fundamentals of Film Growth 230

5.3 Vacuum Science 235

5.4 Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) 240

5.4.1 Evaporation 240

5.4.2 Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) 243

5.4.3 Sputtering 245

5.4.4 Comparison of evaporation and sputtering 247

5.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) 248

5.5.1 Typical chemical reactions 248

5.5.2 Reaction kinetics 251

5.5.3 Transport phenomena 251

5.5.4 CVD methods 254

5.5.5 Diamond films by CVD 258

5.6 Atomic Layer Deposition 260

5.7 Superlattices 265

5.8 Self-Assembly 267

5.8.1 Monolayers of organosilicon or alkylsilane derivatives 270

5.8.2 Monolayers of alkanethiols and sulfides 273

5.8.3 Monolayers of carboxylic acids, amines, and alcohols 276

5.9 Langmuir-Blodgett Films 277

5.10 Electrochemical Deposition 282

5.11 Sol-Gel Films 284

5.12 Summary 289

References 289

Chapter 6 Special Nanomaterials 297

6.1 Introduction 297

6.2 Carbon Fullerenes and Nanotubes 297

6.2.1 Carbon fullerenes 298

6.2.2 Fullerene-derived crystals 300

6.2.3 Carbon nanotubes 300

6.3 Micro and Mesoporous Materials 308

6.3.1 Ordered mesoporous structures 308

6.3.2 Random mesoporous structures 320

6.3.3 Crystalline microporous materials: Zeolites 324

6.4 Core-Shell Structures 333

6.4.1 Metal-oxide structures 334

6.4.2 Metal-polymer structures 336

6.4.3 Oxide-polymer nanostructures 338

6.5 Organic-Inorganic Hybrids 339

6.5.1 Class 1 hybrids 340

6.5.2 Class 2 hybrids 341

6.6 Intercalation Compounds 344

6.7 Nanocomposites and Nanograined Materials 346

6.8 Inverse Opals 350

6.9 Bio-Induced Nanomaterials 353

6.10 Summary 354

References 354

Chapter 7 Nanostructures Fabricated by Physical Techniques 369

7.1 Introduction 369

7.2 Lithography 371

7.2.1 Photolithography 371

7.2.2 Phase-shifting photolithography 375

7.2.3 Electron beam lithography 377

7.2.4 X-ray lithography 379

7.2.5 Focused ion beam (FIB) lithography 381

7.2.6 Neutral atomic beam lithography 384

7.3 Nanomanipulation and Nanolithography 386

7.3.1 Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) 387

7.3.2 Atomic force microscopy (AFM) 389

7.3.3 Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) 391

7.3.4 Nanomanipulation 394

7.3.5 Nanolithography 400

7.4 Soft Lithography 405

7.4.1 Microcontact printing 405

7.4.2 Molding 408

7.4.3 Nanoimprint 408

7.4.4 Dip-pen nanolithography 411

7.5 Assembly of Nanoparticles and Nanowires 412

7.5.1 Capillary forces 413

7.5.2 Dispersion interactions 416

7.5.3 Shear-force-assisted assembly 417

7.5.4 Electric-field-assisted assembly 418

7.5.5 Covalently linked assembly 418

7.5.6 Gravitational-field-assisted assembly 419

7.5.7 Template-assisted assembly 419

7.6 Other Methods for Microfabrication 420

7.7 Summary 422

References 422

Chapter 8 Characterization and Properties of Nanomaterials 433

8.1 Introduction 433

8.2 Structural Characterization 434

8.2.1 X-ray diffraction (XRD) 435

8.2.2 Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) 436

8.2.3 Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) 441

8.2.4 Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 444

8.2.5 Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) 445

8.2.6 Gas adsorption 450

8.3 Chemical Characterization 452

8.3.1 Optical spectroscopy 452

8.3.2 Electron spectroscopy 457

8.3.3 Ion spectrometry 459

8.4 Physical Properties of Nanomaterials 461

8.4.1 Melting points and lattice constants 462

8.4.2 Mechanical properties 467

8.4.3 Optical properties 472

8.4.3.1 Surface plasmon resonance 473

8.4.3.2 Quantum size effects 478

8.4.4 Electrical conductivity 483

8.4.4.1 Surface scattering 483

8.4.4.2 Change of electronic structure 488

8.4.4.3 Quantum transport 488

8.4.4.4 Effect of microstructure 492

8.4.5 Ferroelectrics and dielectrics 493

8.4.6 Superparamagnetism 496

8.5 Summary 498

References 499

Chapter 9 Applications of Nanomaterials 509

9.1 Introduction 509

9.2 Molecular Electronics and Nanoelectronics 510

9.3 Nanobots 512

9.4 Biological Applications of Nanoparticles 514

9.5 Catalysis by Gold Nanoparticles 516

9.6 Bandgap Engineered Quantum Devices 518

9.6.1 Quantum well devices 518

9.6.2 Quantum dot devices 521

9.7 Nanomechanics 522

9.8 Carbon Nanotube Emitters 524

9.9 Energy Applications of Nanomaterials 527

9.9.1 Photoelectrochemical cells 527

9.9.2 Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries 530

9.9.3 Hydrogen storage 535

9.9.4 Thermoelectrics 538

9.10 Environmental Applications of Nanomaterials 540

9.11 Photonic Crystals and Plasmon Waveguides 542

9.11.1 Photonic crystals 542

9.11.2 Plasmon waveguides 544

9.12 Summary 546

References 546

Appendices 561

Index 569

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