Nanotechnology for the Energy Challenge

Overview

With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry.

This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to ...

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Overview

With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry.

This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy.

Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts:

Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells.

Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen storage.

Part III Energy Sustainability shows how nanotechnology helps to use energy more efficiently, and the mitigation of impacts to the environment, with special emphasis on energy savings through green nanofabrication, advanced catalysis, nanostructured light-emitting and eletrochromic devices and CO2 capture by nanoporous materials .

An essential addition to any bookshelf, it will be invaluable to a variety of research fields including materials science, chemical engineering, solid state, surface, industrial, and physical chemistry, as this is a subject that is very interdisciplinary.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“In this regard, the present book is a significant contribution to the hope that a solution to the energy problem is possible.”  (Materials Views, 3 December 2013)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783527333806
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 8/5/2013
  • Edition description: Revised
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 664
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.70 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Javier Garcia-Martinez is Director of the Molecular Nanotechnology Lab at the University of Alicante, Spain. He has published extensively in the areas of nanomaterials and energy and is the author of more than 25 patents. He is a cofounder of Rive Technology, Inc. (Boston, MA), a venture capital-funded Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) spin-off commercializing advanced nanomaterials for energy applications. He has received the Europe Medal in 2005, the Silver Medal of the European Young Chemist Award in 2006, and the TR 35 Award from MIT's Technology Review magazine; in 2009, he was selected as a Young Global Leader. Since 2010, he is member of the World Economic Forum Council on Emerging Technologies. He is Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, member of the Global Young Academy and Bureau member of the IUPAC.

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Table of Contents

Foreword XV

Preface to the 2nd Edition XVII

Preface to the 1st Edition XIX

List of Contributors XXI

Part One Sustainable Energy Production 1

1 Nanotechnology for Energy Production 3
Elena Serrano, Kunhao Li, Guillermo Rus, and Javier García-Martínez

1.1 Energy Challenges in the Twenty-first Century and Nanotechnology 3

1.2 Nanotechnology in Energy Production 6

1.2.1 Photovoltaics 6

1.2.2 Hydrogen Production 14

1.2.3 Fuel Cells 20

1.2.4 Thermoelectricity 27

1.3 New Opportunities 28

1.4 Outlook and Future Trends 33

Acknowledgments 34

References 34

2 Nanotechnology in Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Devices 41
Augustin J. McEvoy and Michael Grätzel

2.1 Introduction 41

2.2 Semiconductors and Optical Absorption 42

2.3 Dye Molecular Engineering 46

2.4 The Stable Self-Assembling Dye Monomolecular Layer 48

2.5 The Nanostructured Semiconductor 50

2.6 Recent Research Trends 52

2.7 Conclusions 54

References 54

3 Thermal-Electrical Energy Conversion from the Nanotechnology Perspective 57
Jian He and Terry M. Tritt

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Established Bulk Thermoelectric Materials 58

3.3 Selection Criteria for Bulk Thermoelectric Materials 61

3.4 Survey of Size Effects 63

3.4.1 Classic Size Effects 64

3.4.2 Quantum Size Effects 65

3.4.3 Thermoelectricity of Nanostructured Materials 66

3.5 Thermoelectric Properties on the Nanoscale: Modeling and Metrology 68

3.6 Experimental Results and Discussions 70

3.6.1 Bi Nanowire/Nanorod 70

3.6.2 Si Nanowire 72

3.6.3 Engineered “Exotic” Nanostructures 74

3.6.4 Thermionics 76

3.6.5 Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: a New Paradigm 78

3.7 Summary and Perspectives 83

Acknowledgments 84

References 84

4 Piezoelectric and Piezotronic Effects in Energy Harvesting and Conversion 89
Xudong Wang

4.1 Introduction 89

4.2 Piezoelectric Effect 90

4.3 Piezoelectric Nanomaterials for Mechanical Energy Harvesting 91

4.3.1 Piezoelectric Potential Generated in a Nanowire 92

4.3.2 Enhanced Piezoelectric Effect from Nanomaterials 94

4.3.3 Nanogenerators for Nanoscale Mechanical Energy Harvesting 96

4.3.3.1 Output of Piezoelectric Potential from Nanowires 96

4.3.3.2 The First Prototype Nanogenerator Driven by Ultrasonic Waves 98

4.3.3.3 Output Power Estimation 99

4.3.4 Large-Scale and High-Output Nanogenerators 101

4.3.4.1 Lateral ZnO Nanowire-Based Nanogenerators 101

4.3.4.2 Piezoelectric Polymer Thin Film-Based Nanogenerators 104

4.4 Piezocatalysis – Conversion between Mechanical and Chemical Energies 109

4.4.1 Fundamental Principles of Piezocatalysis 109

4.4.2 Piezocatalyzed Water Splitting 110

4.4.3 Basic Kinetics of Piezocatalyzed Water Splitting 112

4.5 Piezotronics for Enhanced Energy Conversion 114

4.5.1 What is the Piezotronic Effect? 115

4.5.2 Band Structure Engineering by Piezotronic Effect 115

4.5.2.1 Remnant Polarization in Strained Piezoelectric Materials 115

4.5.2.2 Interface Band Engineering by Remnant Piezopotential 116

4.5.2.3 Quantitative Study of Interface Barrier Height Engineering 118

4.5.3 Piezotronics Modulated Photovoltaic Effect 120

4.5.3.1 Principle of Piezotronic Band Structure Engineering 120

4.5.3.2 Piezoelectric Polarization-Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance 122

4.6 Perspectives and Conclusion 125

Acknowledgments 127

References 127

5 Graphene for Energy Production and Storage Applications 133
Dale A.C. Brownson, Jonathan P. Metters, and Craig E. Banks

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Graphene Supercapacitors 135

5.3 Graphene as a Battery/Lithium-Ion Storage 147

5.4 Graphene in Energy Generation Devices 158

5.4.1 Fuel Cells 158

5.4.2 Microbial Biofuel Cells 161

5.4.3 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 166

5.5 Conclusions/Outlook 167

References 168

6 Nanomaterials for Fuel Cell Technologies 171
Antonino Salvatore Aricò, Vincenzo Baglio, and Vincenzo Antonucci

6.1 Introduction 171

6.2 Low-Temperature Fuel Cells 172

6.2.1 Cathode Reaction 172

6.2.2 Anodic Reaction 178

6.2.3 Practical Fuel Cell Catalysts 180

6.2.4 Nonprecious Catalysts 189

6.2.5 Electrolytes 189

6.2.6 High-Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membranes 191

6.2.7 Membrane–Electrode Assembly 196

6.3 High-Temperature Fuel Cells 198

6.3.1 High-Temperature Ceramic Electrocatalysts 201

6.3.2 Direct Utilization of Dry Hydrocarbons in SOFCs 204

6.4 Conclusions 205

References 207

7 Nanocatalysis for Iron-Catalyzed Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis: One Perspective 213
Uschi M. Graham, Gary Jacobs, and Burtron H. Davis

7.1 Introduction 213

7.2 Nanocatalyst–Wax Separation 213

7.2.1 Commercial Nanosized Iron Oxide 215

7.2.2 Nanosized Iron Oxide by Gas Phase Pyrolysis 218

7.2.3 Spray-Dried Clusters of Nanosized Iron Oxide 218

7.2.4 Precipitation of Unsymmetrical Nanosized Iron Oxide 220

7.2.5 Supported Iron Oxide Nanoparticles 221

7.2.6 Precipitation of Nanosized Iron Oxide Particles 225

7.3 Summary 229

References 229

8 The Contribution of Nanotechnology to Hydrogen Production 233
Sambandam Anandan, Jagannathan Madhavan, and Muthupandian Ashokkumar

8.1 Introduction 233

8.2 Hydrogen Production by Semiconductor Nanomaterials 235

8.2.1 General Approach 235

8.2.2 Need for Nanomaterials 236

8.2.3 Nanomaterials-Based Photoelectrochemical Cells for H2 Production 237

8.2.4 Semiconductors with Specific Morphology: Nanotubes and Nanodisks 239

8.2.5 Sensitization 245

8.3 Summary 253

Acknowledgments 254

References 254

Part Two Efficient Energy Storage 259

9 Nanostructured Materials for Hydrogen Storage 261
Saghar Sepehri and Guozhong Cao

9.1 Introduction 261

9.2 Hydrogen Storage by Physisorption 262

9.2.1 Nanostructured Carbon 263

9.2.2 Zeolites 264

9.2.3 Metal – Organic Frameworks 265

9.2.4 Clathrates 265

9.2.5 Polymers with Intrinsic Microporosity 266

9.3 Hydrogen Storage by Chemisorption 266

9.3.1 Metal and Complex Hydrides 266

9.3.2 Chemical Hydrides 269

9.3.3 Nanocomposites 270

9.4 Summary 273

References 273

10 Electrochemical Energy Storage: the Benefits of Nanomaterials 277
Patrice Simon and Jean-Marie Tarascon

10.1 Introduction 277

10.2 Nanomaterials for Energy Storage 280

10.2.1 From Rejected Insertion Materials to Attractive Electrode Materials 280

10.2.2 The Use of Once Rejected Si-Based Electrodes 282

10.2.3 Conversion Reactions 283

10.3 Nanostructured Electrodes and Interfaces for the Electrochemical Storage of Energy 285

10.3.1 Nanostructuring of Current Collectors/Active Film Interface 285

10.3.1.1 Self-Supported Electrodes 285

10.3.1.2 Nano-Architectured Current Collectors 285

10.3.2 Nanostructuring of Active Material/Electrolyte Interfaces 290

10.3.2.1 Application to Li-Ion Batteries: Mesoporous Chromium Oxides 290

10.3.2.2 Application to Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors 291

10.4 Conclusion 296

Acknowledgments 297

References 297

11 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage 299
Elzbieta Frackowiak and François Béguin

11.1 Introduction 299

11.2 Nanotexture and Surface Functionality of sp2 Carbons 299

11.3 Supercapacitors 302

11.3.1 Principle of a Supercapacitor 302

11.3.2 Carbons for Electric Double-Layer Capacitors 304

11.3.3 Carbon-Based Materials for Pseudo-Capacitors 307

11.3.3.1 Pseudo-Capacitance Effects Related with Hydrogen Electrosorbed in Carbon 307

11.3.3.2 Pseudo-Capacitive Oxides and Conducting Polymers 310

11.3.3.3 Pseudo-Capacitive Effects Originated from Heteroatoms in the Carbon Network 312

11.4 Lithium-Ion Batteries 316

11.4.1 Anodes Based on Nanostructured Carbons 317

11.4.2 Anodes Based on Si/C Composites 318

11.4.3 Origins of Irreversible Capacity of Carbon Anodes 321

11.5 Conclusions 323

References 324

12 Nanotechnologies to Enable High-Performance Superconductors for Energy Applications 327
Claudia Cantoni and Amit Goyal

12.1 Overcoming Limitations to Superconductors’ Performance 327

12.2 Flux Pinning by Nanoscale Defects 329

12.3 Grain Boundary Problem 330

12.4 Anisotropic Current Properties 332

12.5 Enhancing Naturally Occurring Nanoscale Defects 335

12.6 Artifi cial Introduction of Flux Pinning Nanostructures 337

12.7 Self-Assembled Nanostructures 338

12.8 Effect of Local Strain Fields in Nanocomposite Films 344

12.9 Control of Epitaxy Enabling Atomic Sulfur Superstructure 347

Acknowledgments 349

References 350

Part Three Energy Sustainability 355

13 Green Nanofabrication: Unconventional Approaches for the Conservative Use of Energy 357
Darren J. Lipomi, Emily A. Weiss, and George M. Whitesides

13.1 Introduction 357

13.1.1 Motivation 358

13.1.2 Energetic Costs of Nanofabrication 359

13.1.3 Use of Tools 360

13.1.4 Nontraditional Materials 362

13.1.5 Scope 362

13.2 Green Approaches to Nanofabrication 364

13.2.1 Molding and Embossing 364

13.2.1.1 Hard Pattern Transfer Elements 364

13.2.1.2 Soft Pattern Transfer Elements 366

13.2.1.3 Outlook 369

13.2.2 Printing 370

13.2.2.1 Microcontact Printing 370

13.2.2.2 Dip-Pen Nanolithography 371

13.2.2.3 Outlook 372

13.2.3 Edge Lithography by Nanoskiving 372

13.2.3.1 The Ultramicrotome 374

13.2.3.2 Nanowires with Controlled Dimensions 374

13.2.3.3 Open- and Closed-Loop Structures 374

13.2.3.4 Linear Arrays of Single-Crystalline Nanowires 375

13.2.3.5 Conjugated Polymer Nanowires 378

13.2.3.6 Nanostructured Polymer Heterojunctions 379

13.2.3.7 Outlook 384

13.2.4 Shadow Evaporation 385

13.2.4.1 Hollow Inorganic Tubes 385

13.2.4.2 Outlook 387

13.2.5 Electrospinning 389

13.2.5.1 Scanned Electrospinning 390

13.2.5.2 Uniaxial Electrospinning 391

13.2.5.3 Core/Shell and Hollow Nanofibers 391

13.2.5.4 Outlook 393

13.2.6 Self-Assembly 393

13.2.6.1 Hierarchical Assembly of Nanocrystals 394

13.2.6.2 Block Copolymers 395

13.2.6.3 Outlook 397

13.3 Future Directions: Toward “Zero-Cost” Fabrication 397

13.3.1 Scotch-Tape Method for the Preparation of Graphene Films 397

13.3.2 Patterned Paper as a Low-Cost Substrate 398

13.3.3 Shrinky-Dinks for Soft Lithography 398

13.4 Conclusions 400

Acknowledgments 401

References 401

14 Nanocatalysis for Fuel Production 407
Gary Jacobs and Burtron H. Davis

14.1 Introduction 407

14.2 Petroleum Refining 408

14.3 Naphtha Reforming 408

14.4 Hydrotreating 420

14.5 Cracking 425

14.6 Hydrocracking 427

14.7 Conversion of Syngas 427

14.7.1 Water–Gas Shift 427

14.7.2 Methanol Synthesis 438

14.7.3 Fischer–Tropsch Synthesis 442

14.7.4 Methanation 451

14.8 Nanocatalysis for Bioenergy 454

14.9 The Future 461

References 462

15 Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Catalysts towards Biofuel Applications 473
Brian G. Trewyn

15.1 Introduction 473

15.1.1 “Single Site” Heterogeneous Catalysis 474

15.1.2 Techniques for the Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts 475

15.2 Immobilization Strategies of Single Site Heterogeneous Catalysts 476

15.2.1 Supported Materials 476

15.2.2 Conventional Methods of Functionalization on Silica Surfaces 478

15.2.2.1 Noncovalent Binding of Homogeneous Catalysts 478

15.2.2.2 Surface Immobilization of Catalysts through Covalent Bonds 480

15.2.3 Alternative Synthesis of Immobilized Complex Catalysts on the Solid Support 487

15.3 Design of More Efficient Heterogeneous Catalysts with Enhanced Reactivity and Selectivity 488

15.3.1 Surface Interaction of Silica and Immobilized Homogeneous Catalysts 488

15.3.2 Reactivity Enhancement of Heterogeneous Catalytic System Induced by Site Isolation 491

15.3.3 Introduction of Functionalities and Control of Silica Support Morphology 494

15.3.4 Selective Surface Functionalization of Solid Support for Utilization of Nanospace Inside the Porous Structure 497

15.3.5 Cooperative Catalysis by Multifunctionalized Heterogeneous Catalyst System 503

15.3.6 Tuning the Selectivity of Multifunctionalized Heterogeneous Catalysts by the Gatekeeping Effect 504

15.3.7 Synergistic Catalysis by General Acid and Base Bifunctionalized MSN Catalysts 507

15.4 Other Heterogeneous Catalyst Systems on Nonsilica Supports 512

15.5 Conclusion 512

References 513

16 Nanotechnology for Carbon Dioxide Capture 517
Richard R. Willis, Annabelle Benin, Randall Q. Snurr, and Özgür Yazaydýn

16.1 Introduction 517

16.2 CO2 Capture Processes 522

16.3 Nanotechnology for CO2 Capture 524

16.4 Porous Coordination Polymers for CO2 Capture 529

References 553

17 Nanostructured Organic Light-Emitting Devices 561
Juo-Hao Li, Jinsong Huang, and Yang Yang

17.1 Introduction 561

17.2 Quantum Confinement and Charge Balance for OLEDs and PLEDs 563

17.2.1 Multilayer Structured OLEDs and PLEDs 563

17.2.2 Charge Balance in a Polymer Blended System 564

17.2.3 Interfacial Layer and Charge Injection 569

17.2.3.1 I–V Characteristics 570

17.2.3.2 Built-in Potential from Photovoltaic Measurement 571

17.2.3.3 XPS/UPS Study of the Interface 573

17.2.3.4 Comparison with Cs/Al Cathode 578

17.3 Phosphorescent Materials for OLEDs and PLEDs 579

17.3.1 Fluorescence and Phosphorescent Materials 579

17.3.2 Solution-Processed Phosphorescent Materials 580

17.4 Multi-Photon Emission and Tandem Structure for OLEDs and PLEDs 586

17.5 The Enhancement of Light Out-Coupling 587

17.6 Outlook for the Future of Nanostructured OLEDs and PLEDs 589

17.7 Conclusion 590

References 590

18 Electrochromics for Energy-Effi cient Buildings: Nanofeatures, Thin Films, and Devices 593
Claes-Göran Granqvist

18.1 Introduction 593

18.2 Electrochromic Materials 595

18.2.1 Functional Principles and Basic Materials 595

18.2.2 The Role of Nanostructure 598

18.2.3 The Cause of Optical Absorption 600

18.2.4 Survey over Transparent Conducting Thin Films 603

18.2.5 Electrolyte Functionalization 605

18.3 Electrochromic Devices 607

18.3.1 Six Challenges 607

18.3.2 Practical Constructions of Devices: a Brief Survey 608

18.3.3 Data on Foil-Based Devices with W Oxide and Ni Oxide 609

18.4 Conclusions and Remarks 612

References 613

Index 619

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