Narratives of the New England Witchcraft Cases


Culminating in the notorious Salem witch trials of 1692, a rising tide of witchcraft hysteria flooded the Puritan communities of 17th-century New England. This volume recaptures the voices from both sides of the controversy with 13 original narratives by judges, ministers, the accused, and others involved in the trials and persecution of the accused.

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Culminating in the notorious Salem witch trials of 1692, a rising tide of witchcraft hysteria flooded the Puritan communities of 17th-century New England. This volume recaptures the voices from both sides of the controversy with 13 original narratives by judges, ministers, the accused, and others involved in the trials and persecution of the accused.

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Editorial Reviews

Originally published by Scribner (New York), in 1914, in a series "Original narratives of early American history." Comprises 13 original narratives by judges, ministers, government officials, and others involved in the trials and persecution of the accused during the Salem witch trials of 1692. Includes firsthand reports from men and women charged with sorcery, along with accounts of the evidence against them, tests for witchcraft, trials and executions, and related information. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486420554
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 2/29/2012
  • Pages: 512
  • Product dimensions: 5.30 (w) x 8.40 (h) x 1.10 (d)

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Narratives of the New England Witchcraft Cases

By George Lincoln Burr

Dover Publications, Inc.

Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-486-16738-1




INCREASE MATHER (1639—1723), divine, historian, college president, colonial statesman and diplomat, is a familiar figure to the student of American history. Born the youngest son of a religious leader known in Old England as well as New, and graduated from Harvard in 1656, while Puritanism was still dominant in the mother land, he had choice of two worlds for his career, and at first elected for the old, where two of his brothers were already prospering. First a student for his master's degree at Dublin, then a preacher in England and in the Channel Islands, he would gladly have remained beyond sea, but for the religious restrictions of the Restoration, which drove him home in 1661—though not until he had come into a permanent closeness of touch with British thought and feeling. In Boston he speedily became the minister of the new North Church, and he retained this pastorate throughout his life, though from 1685 to 1701 he added to its duties those of the presidency of Harvard.

But not his diligence as a student nor his devotion to his influential pulpit could blind him to the larger affairs of New England and of the Christian world. It was he who in 1679 stirred up his colleagues and the General Court to the convening of a synod of the clergy, which should consider what evils had "provoked the Lord to bring His Judgments on New-England" and what was to be done "that so these Evils may be Reformed"; and it was he who put into form the result of their deliberations. Some of the "judgments"—King Philip's war, the small-pox, the two great fires—he felt to call for lay activity as well as clerical; but the others complained of, the decay of piety and the departure from the fathers' ways, were ills for pastoral healing, and in 1681, the year that followed the final session of that "reforming synod," another general meeting of the ministers took, at his instance, that action for "the recording of illustrious providences" which is recounted in the following pages.

Such a method of arousing men to religion was nothing new in Christian history. So, a thousand years before, Pope Gregory, culling (precisely as did now the New England leader) the experiences of his fellow clerics, had compiled those Dialogues whose tales of vision and apparition served for centuries to make the invisible world as real as that of sight and touch; and from his day onward such "providences" had been to clerical historians the tissue of their story. In the later Middle Ages there multiplied collections of these exempla. Nor did the Reformation interrupt their use. Luther's own sermons and table talk were for Protestants a mine of "modern instances"; and out of such materials a Hondorff, a Lonicer, a Philip Camerarius, compiled their treasuries for the Lutheran pulpit, while their Zwinglian and Calvinistic neighbors were yet better equipped by the industry of Theodor Zwinger and Simon Goulart. Puritan England had found such purveyors in Beard and Taylor and Samuel Clarke. But it was of the nature of these attempts to keep abreast of the warnings of Heaven that they speedily went out of date. Only an enterprise like that devised by Matthew Poole for their continual registry could meet the needs of callous and forgetful man.

But the suggestion of Poole was twenty years old, and even the draft found in John Davenport's papers must for some years have been in Mather's hands: what new impulse stirred him now to action? It is not hard to guess. The group of Platonists who at Cambridge, the mother of New England Puritanism, had now inherited the spokesmanship of positive religion, laid the emphasis of their teaching on what they called "the spiritual world"; and since the Restoration they had found a notable ally. Joseph Glanvill, a young Oxford theologian, one of the keenest of English philosophic minds, and withal one of the most rational, had taken a brief for the defence, and in a brilliant essay on "the vanity of dogmatizing" had in 1661 turned the guns of the rationalists upon themselves. It was not the dogmatizing of theology, but that of the audacious rising science of things natural and human, whose premises he attacked and seemed to sweep away; and great was the applause of all committed to the "eternal verities." But he speedily discerned that the strength of his skeptical adversaries lay in their denial and ridicule of what they counted the "old wives' tales" of religion. "Atheism is begun in Sadducism. And those that dare not bluntly say, There is no God, content themselves (for a fair step, and Introduction) to deny there are Spirits, or Witches." Wherefore, with astounding boldness, he came in 1666 to the defence of ghosts and witches in an essay, oft reprinted, whose most telling title was A Blow at Modern Sadducism. He had now adopted to the full the tenets of the Cambridge Platonists, whose leader, Henry More, became his correspondent, almost his colleague, and like them he championed all old tales; but his keen sight discerned that "things remote, or long past, are either not believed, or forgotten," whereas "Modern Relations," "being fresh, and near, and attended with all the circumstances of credibility, it may be expected they should have more success upon the obstinacy of Unbelievers." To his essay he therefore now appended, and swelled with each successive edition, a "collection of modern relations," which should demonstrate from present experience "the real existence of apparitions, spirits and witches." This was indeed to carry the war into Africa, and the Africans rallied to their guns. John Wagstaffe in 1669 and 1671, the anonymous author of The Doctrine of Devils in 1676, John Webster in 1677, came to the defence of challenged incredulity. Glanvill died in 1680, leaving unfinished that enlarged edition which should be his reply; but in 1681 it was published by his friend Henry More (with additions of his own, including a mass of new "relations") under the aggressive title of Sadducismus Triumphatus.

It was for a share in this battle royal, to which his book makes many allusions, that Increase Mather now marshalled the hosts of New England orthodoxy. Their broadside, delivered in 1684, was this Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences Almost at the same time (1685) George Sinclar, professor at Glasgow, brought out in Scotland the "choice collection of modern relations" which he called Satan's Invisible World Discovered. How English Puritanism echoed we shall see betimes.

Mather's book was forthwith welcome. It went through two or three impressions in 1684—at least the title-page was thus often reprinted—and a part of the copies went to the London market, equipped with the imprint of an English bookseller. The book is best known, not by the long title of its title-page, but by its running caption of "Remarkable Providences—already his son quotes it by this name—and it was under this title, Remarkable Providences illustratiuve of the Earlier Days of American Colonisation, that a convenient little reprint, "with introductory preface by George Offor," was published at London in 1856 (as a volume in John Russell Smith's "Library of Old Authors"), and again in 1890.


An Essay For the Recording of Illustrious Providences, Wherein an Account is given of many Remarkable and very Memorable Events, which have happened in this last Age; Especially in New-England.

By Increase Mather, Teacher of a Church at Boston in New-England. Psal. 107. 5. Oh that men would praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the Children of Men. Psal. 145. 4. One Generation shall praise thy works to another, and shall declare thy mighty acts.

Boston in New-England, Printed by Samuel Green for Joseph Browning, And are to be sold at his Shop at the corner of the Prison Lane. 1684.

The Preface.

ABOUT six and twenty years ago, a Design for the Recording of illustrious Providences was under serious consideration among some eminent Ministers in England and in Ireland. That motion was principally set on foot by the Learned Mr. Matthew Pool, whose Synopsis Criticorum, and other Books by him emitted, have made him famous in the World. But before any thing was brought to effect, the Persons to have been imployed, had their thoughts diverted another way. Nevertheless, there was a MSS. (the Composer whereof is to me unknown) then written, wherein the Subjects proper for this Record, and some Rules for the better managing a design of this nature, are described. In that MSS. I find notable Stories related and attested, which elsewhere I never met with. Particularly, the Story of Mr. Earl of Colchester, and another mentioned in our subsequent Essay. And besides those, there are some very memorable Passages written, which have not as yet been published, so far as I understand. There are in that MSS. several Remarkables about Apparitions, e. g. It is there said, that Dr. Frith, (who was one of the Prebends belonging to Windsor) lying on his Bed, the Chamber Doors were thrown open, and a Corps with attending Torches brought to his Bed-side upon a Bier; The Corps representing one of his own Family: After some pause, there was such another shew, till he, the said Dr., his Wife and all his Family were brought in on the Bier in such order as they all soon after died. The Dr. was not then sick, but quickly grew Melancholly, and would rising at Midnight repair to the Graves and monuments at Eaton Colledge; saying, that he and his must shortly take up their habitation among the Dead. The Relater of this Story (a Person of great integrity) had it from Dr. Frith's Son, who also added, My Fathers Vision is already Executed upon all the Family but my self, my time is next, and near at hand.

In the mentioned MSS. there is also a marvelous Relation concerning a young Scholar in France: For, it is there affirmed, that this prophane Student, having by extravagant courses outrun his means, in his discontent walking solitarily, a Man came to him, and enquired the cause of his sadness. Which he owning to be want of Money, had presently a supply given him by the other. That being quickly consumed upon his Lusts, as soon as his Money was gone his Discontent returned; and in his former Walk, he met with his former Reliever, who again offered to supply him; but askt him to contract with him to be his, and to sign the contract with his Blood. The woful wretch consented: but not long after, considering that this contract was made with the Devil, the terrors of his Conscience became insupportable; so as that he endeavoured to kill himself to get out of them. Some Ministers, and other Christians, being informed how matters were circumstanced, kept dayes of Prayer for him and with him: and he was carefully watched that so he might be kept from Self-Murder. Still he continued under Terror, and said he should do so, as long as the Covenant which he had signed, remained in the hands of the Devil. Hereupon, the Ministers resolve to keep a day of Fasting and Prayer in that very place of the Field where the distressed creature had made the woful Bargain, setting him in the midst of them. Thus they did, and being with special actings of Faith much enlarged to pray earnestly to the Lord to make known his power over Satan, in constraining him to give up that contract, after some hours continuance in Prayer, a Cloud was seen to spread it self over them, and out of it the very contract signed with the poor creatures Blood was dropped down amongst them; which being taken up and viewed, the party concerned took it, and tore it in pieces. The Relator had this from the mouth of Mr. Beaumond, a Minister of Note at Caon in Normandy, who assured him that he had it from one of the Ministers that did assist in carrying on the Day of prayer when this memorable providence hapned. Nor is the Relation impossible to be true, for Luther speaks of a providence not unlike unto this which hapned in his Congregation.

This MSS. doth also mention some most Remarkable Judgments of God upon Sinners, as worthy to be Recorded for Posterity to take notice of. It is there said, that when Mr. Richard Juxon was a Fellow of Kings Colledge in Cambridge, he led a most vicious life: and whereas such of the Students as were serious in matters of Religion, did endeavour by solemn Fasting and Prayer to prepare themselves for the Communion which was then (this was about the year 1636) on Easter-Day, This Juxon spent all the time of preparation in Drunken wild Meetings, and was up late and Drunk on the Saturday night. Nevertheless, on the Lords day, he came with others to the Communion, and sat next to the Relator, who knowing his Disorder the night before, was much troubled: but had no remedy; Church-Discipline not being then so practised as ought to have been. The Communion being ended, such of the Scholars as had the fear of God in their hearts, repaired to their Closets. But this Juxon went immediately to a Drunken-meeting, and there to a Cockfight, where he fell to his accustomed madness, and pouring out a volley of Oaths and Curses; while these were between his Lips, God smote him dead in the twinkle of an eye. And though Juxon were but young, and of a comely person, his Carcase was immediately so corrupted as that the stench of it was insufferable, insomuch that no house would receive it; and his Friends were forced to hire some base Fellows to watch the Carcase till night; and then with Pitch and such like Gums covered him in a Coffin, and so made a shift to endure his Interment. There stood by a Scholar, whose name was George Hall, and who acted his part with Juxon in his prophaneness: but he was so astonished with this amazing Providence of God, as that he fell down upon his knees, begging pardoning mercy from Heaven, and vowing a Reformation; which vow the Lord enabled him to keep, so as that afterwards he became an able and famous Minister of the Gospel.

One strange passage more I shall here relate out of the MSS. which we have thus far made mention of. Therein I find part of a Letter transcribed; which is as followeth:

Lismore, Octob. 2. 1658. In another part of this Countrey, a poor man being suspected to have stollen a Sheep was questioned for it; he forswore the thing, and wished that if he had stollen it, God would cause the Horns of the Sheep to grow upon him. This man was seen within these few dayes by a Minister of great repute for Piety, who saith, that the Man has an Horn growing out of one corner of his Mouth, just like that of a sheep: from which be hath cut seventeen Inches, and is forced to keep it tyed by a string to his Ear, to prevent its growing up to his eye: This Minister not only saw but felt this Horn, and reported it in this Family this week, as also a Gentleman formerly did, who was himself an eye-witness thereof. Surely such passages are a Demonstrative evidence that there is a God, who judgeth in the Earth, and who though he stay long, will not be mocked alwayes.

I shall say no more concerning the MSS. only that it was sent over to Reverend Mr. Davenport, by (as I suppose) Mr. Hartlib. How it came to lie dormient in his hands I know not: though I had the happiness of special Intimacy with that worthy Man, I do not remember that ever I heard him speak any thing of it. But since his Death, looking over his MSS's I met with this, and communicated it to other Ministers, who highly approved of the noble design aimed at therein. Soon after which, some Proposals in order to the reviving of this work were drawn up, and presented at a general Meeting of the Ministers in this Colony, May 12, 1681, which .it may not be unsuitable here to recite.

Some Proposals concerning the Recording of Illustrious Providence.

I. In Order to the promoving of a design of this Nature, so as shall be indeed for Gods Glory, and the good of Posterity, it is necessary that utmost care shall be taken that All, and Only Remarkable Providences be Recorded and Published.

II. Such Divine Judgements, Tempests, Floods, Earth-quakes, Thunders as are unusual, strange Apparitions, or what ever else shall happen that is Prodigious, Witchcrafts, Diabolical Possessions, Remarkable Judgements upon noted Sinners, eminent Deliverances, and Answers of Prayer, are to be reckoned among Illustrious Providences.

III. Inasmuch as we find in Scripture, as well as in Ecclesiastical History, that the Ministers of God have been improved in the Recording and Declaring the works of the Lord; and since they are in divers respects under peculiar Advantages thereunto: It is proposed, that each one in that capacity may diligently enquire into, and Record such Illustrious Providences as have hapned, or from time to time shall happen, in the places whereunto they do belong: and that the Witnesses of such notable Occurrents be likewise set down in Writing.


Excerpted from Narratives of the New England Witchcraft Cases by George Lincoln Burr. Copyright © 2002 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

From "An Essay for the Recording of Illustrious Providences" (better known as "Remarkable Providences"), by Increase Mather, 1684 1
Introduction 3
The Preface 8
Chapter V: Preternatural Happenings in New England 17
Case of Ann Cole, of Hartford, 1662 18
Case of Elizabeth Knap, of Groton, 1671 21
Case of the Morses, at Newbury, 1679-1681 23
The Tedworth Case, in England, 1661-1663 32
Case of Nicholas Desborough, of Hartford, 1683 33
Case of George Walton, at Portsmouth, 1682 34
Case of the Hortados, at Salmon Falls, 1682-1683 37
The New York Cases of Hall and Harrison, 1665, 1670 39
Introduction 41
Case of Ralph and Mary Hall, of Setauket, 1665 44
Case of Katharine Harrison, 1670 48
"Lithobolia, or the Stone-throwing Devil," by Richard Chamberlain, 1698 53
Introduction 55
Dedicatory Letter and Verses 58
Why the Author relates this Stone throwing and why he believes it Witchcraft 60
The Quaker George Walton and his Neighbors at Great Island (Portsmouth) 61
The Beginning of the Stone throwing (June, 1682) 62
The Author himself a Victim 64
His Serenade and its Sequel; the Black Cat 66
The Deviltries at Great Bay 67
Notable Witnesses 69
The Author again an Object of Attack 70
Injuries to Others, in House and Field 72
The Lull in August; the Final Stone throwing in September 76
The Author's Conclusions 76
The Pennsylvania Cases of Mattson, Hendrickson, and Guard, 1684, 1701 79
Introduction 81
Case of Margaret Mattson and Gertrude Hendrickson, 1684 85
Case of Robert Guard and his Wife, 1701 88
"Memorable Providences, relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions," by Cotton Mather, 1689 89
Introduction 91
Dedicatory Epistle to the Hon. Wait Winthrop 93
The Boston Ministers "to the Reader" 95
The Introduction 97
Case of the Goodwin Children, at Boston, 1688-1689 99
The Goodwin Family 99
The Trouble with the Laundress and her Mother 100
The Strange Malady of the Children 101
The Appeal to the Ministers and to the Magistrates; Arrest and Trial of Goody Glover 103
Her Condemnation and Execution 105
The Continued Fits of the Children 107
Efforts of the Ministers to help them 109
The Author takes the Eldest Girl to his Home; her Behavior 110
His Experiments with her 112
Her Imaginary Journeys 114
Strange Power over her of the Author's Study 115
The Ministers' Day of Prayer and its Effect 118
The Author tests the Linguistic Powers of the Demons 119
And the Power of Scripture and Prayer to quell them 120
Their Gradual Departure 121
What the Author has learned from it all 122
Postscript: the Devils return, but are again dispelled by Prayer 124
Goodwin's Account of his Children's Bewitchment 126
Case of Deacon Philip Smith, of Hadley, 1684 131
Case of Mary Johnson, of Hartford, 1648 135
Case of the Boy at Tocutt (Branford) 136
Other Bewitchments 141
"A Brief and True Narrative of Witchcraft at Salem Village," by Deodat Lawson, 1692 145
Introduction 147
"The Bookseller to the Reader" 152
The Author's Visit to Salem Village 152
The Antics of "the Afflicted" 153
Examination of Goodwife Corey 154
Goodwife Putnam's Afflictions 157
Examination of Goodwife Nurse 158
Tales told by Elizabeth Parris, Dorcas Good, Abigail Williams, Mercy Lewis 160
Goodwife Cloyse slams the Meeting-house Door 161
Extraordinary Things about the Afflicted 161
About the Accused 162
Letter of Thomas Brattle, F.R.S., 1692 165
Introduction 167
His Reasons for writing frankly 169
The Procedure at Salem; the "Afflicted" and their Evidence 170
The "Confessors" 173
Indictment and Trial 174
"Spectre Evidence" 176
The Executions 177
Things to wonder at 177
The Troubles at Andover 180
Zeal of the Judges 182
The Doubters and their Reasons 184
Extent of the Convictions; Hope from the impending General Court 185
Efforts of certain Ministers to check the Matter 186
Further Reasons for Hesitation 187
Why the Confessions cannot be trusted 189
Letters of Governor Phips to the Home Government, 1692, 1693 191
Introduction 193
Letter of October 12, 1692: the Witch Panic as he found it, and what he did about it 196
Letter of February 21, 1693: Recapitulation of his Earlier Report; how the Panic was brought to an End 198
From "The Wonders of the Invisible World," by Cotton Mather, 1693 203
Introduction 205
The Author's Defence 210
His Relation to the Salem Trials 213
The Trial of George Burroughs 215
The Trial of Bridget Bishop 223
The Trial of Susanna Martin 229
The Trial of Elizabeth How 237
The Trial of Martha Carrier 241
I. The Devil's Imitation of Divine Things 245
II. The Witches' making themselves and their Tools invisible 246
III. The Bewitched delivered by the Execution of the Witches 248
IV. Apparitions reveal Old Murders by the Witches 249
Certificate of the Judges to the Truth of this Account 250
"A Brand Pluck's out of the Burning," by Cotton Mather, 1693 253
Introduction 255
The Story of Mercy Short 259
Her Bewitchment 260
How the Devil and his Spectres appeared to her 261
How they tormented her 263
Her Discourses to them 267
How her Tortures were turned into Frolics 271
The Shapes worn by the Spectres 274
Her Remarkable Answers and Strange Knowledge of Scripture 275
The Methods used for her Deliverance 276
Her Deliverance on New Year's Eve 277
The Renewal of her Troubles after Seven Weeks 278
The Strange Books brought by the Spectres for her signing 280
The Books used at their Witch-meetings 282
The Helpful Spirit, and how he aided her against the Others 283
The Prayer-meetings and her Final Deliverance 285
From "More Wonders of the Invisible World," by Robert Calff 289
Introduction 291
The Epistle to the Reader: the Author's Reasons for his Book 296
His Materials 306
Cotton Mather's Letter of Enclosure 307
His Another Brand pluckt out of the Burning (the Story of Margaret Rule) 308
Introductory Anecdote of the Devil's Appearance to an Indian 308
Who Margaret Rule was; the Beginning of her Bewitchment 310
How she was tortured by Spectres 311
And by the Devil 312
Her Remarkable Fastings; how she was further tormented 313
Her Strange Revelations as to the Spectres 314
The White Spirit and his Comfortings 316
Her Pastor's Efforts for her 317
Her Tormentors' Attempt with Poppets 318
The Author's Reply to his Revilers 320
The Good that has come of the Affair 322
Part II: Calef's Correspondence with Mather 324
His Letter of Jan. 11, 1694, enclosing his Journal of his Visit to Margaret Rule on Sept. 13 324
And on Sept. 19 327
And rehearsing his earlier Letters of Sept. 29 and Nov. 24 329
Mather's Reply (Jan. 15) 333
Enclosed Certificates of Witnesses to Margaret Rule's Levitation 337
Calef's Rejoinder (Jan. 18) 338
Part V: The Salem Witchcraft 341
The Rev. Mr. Parris and the Divisions at Salem Village 341
The Strange Behavior of Divers Young Persons and its Ascription to Witchcraft 342
Mr. Lawson's Visit and his Account; the Examinations of the Accused 343
Mr. Lawson's Sermon; the Solemn Fast at Salem 345
The "White Man"; Goodwife Cloyse and the Slammed Door; the Public Examination of April 11 346
The Lord's Prayer as an Ordeal; Specimen of a Mittimus 347
Arrival of Governor Phips; the Political Events leading to it 348
Mrs. Cary's Commitment and Escape 349
Captain John Alden's Narrative 353
Opening of the Special Court at Salem (June 2) 355
Bridget Bishop's Fate; Advice of the Boston Ministers 356
The Trials of June 30; Fate of Sarah Good; of Rebecca Nurse 357
The August Trials and Executions; George Burroughs, John Willard, the Procters 360
Procter's Letter to the Ministers 362
Old Jacobs and his Grand-daughter; her Confession and Retraction 364
The September Trials 366
The Coreys; Wardwell; Mary Esty and her Letter 367
Mrs. Hale accused; Mr. Hale's Change of View 369
Seizure of the Property of Fugitives 370
Flight of George Jacobs and Fate of his Family 371
The Andover Witchcraft 371
The Gloucester Witchcraft 373
End of the Special Court; Summary of its Work 373
How the Accused were brought to confess; Protestation of the Andover Women 374
Criticism of Cotton Mather's Account of the Trials 378
The Laws in Force against Witchcraft 381
The new Superior Court and how it dealt with the Witch Cases (Jan.-April, 1693) 382
Governor Phips's General Pardon 384
The Benham Case in Connecticut (1697); the Massachusetts Proclamation of a General Fast (Dec., 1696) 385
Judge Sewall's Public Penitence 386
The Penitence of the Jurors 387
Criticism of Cotton Mather's Life of Phips (1697) 388
And of its Author's Teaching as to Witchcraft 389
Calef's own Convictions as to the Matter 391
From "A Modest Inquiry into the Nature of Witchcraft," by John Hale, 1702 395
Introduction 397
An Epistle to the Reader, by John Higginson 399
Mr. Hale's "Preface to the Christian Reader" 402
The Origin and Nature of Devils 406
Summary of New England Witch Cases, 1648-1692 408
Margaret Jones; Mrs. Lake 408
Mrs. Kendal 409
Mrs. Hibbins; Mary Johnson 410
The Principles acted on in these Convictions 411
Mrs. Morse; Goody Glover 412
The Salem Witchcraft; its Beginnings 413
Tituba's Confession 415
Conscientiousness of the Judges; the Authorities used by them 415
Influence of the Confessions; their Agreement with the Accusations and with each other; their Circumstantiality 416
Specimen Confessions: Deliverance Hobbs's 417
Ann Foster's; Mary Lacy's 418
William Barker's 419
Their Testimony against themselves and against each other 420
How Doubt at last was stirred 421
Wherein lay the Error 422
Like Mistakes in Other Places 424
The Application of the Whole 425
The Virginia Case of Grace Sherwood, 1706 433
Introduction 435
Her First Trial; the Jury of Women 438
The Appeal to the Governor and Council; the County Court instructed to make Further Inquiry 439
Her Second Trial; the Ducking 441
The Verdict; her Detention for Trial by the General Court 442
Index 443
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