Native American Verbal Art: Texts and Contexts / Edition 1

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Overview

For more than four centuries, Europeans and Euroamericans have been making written records of the spoken words of American Indians. While some commentators have assumed that these records provide absolutely reliable information about the nature of Native American oral expression, even its esthetic qualities, others have dismissed them as inherently unreliable. In Native American Verbal Art: Texts and Contexts, William Clements offers a comprehensive treatment of the intellectual and cultural constructs that have colored the textualization of Native American verbal art. Clements presents six case studies of important moments, individuals, and movements in this history. He recounts the work of the Jesuits who missionized in New France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries and textualized and theorized about the verbal expressions of the Iroquoians and Algonquians to whom they were spreading Christianity. He examines in depth Henry Timberlake’s 1765 translation of a Cherokee war song that was probably the first printed English rendering of a Native American "poem." He discusses early-nineteenth-century textualizers and translators who saw in Native American verbal art a literature manqué that they could transform into a fully realized literature, with particular attention to the work of Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an Indian agent and pioneer field collector who developed this approach to its fullest. He discusses the "scientific" textualizers of the late nineteenth century who viewed Native American discourse as a data source for historical, ethnographic, and linguistic information, and he examines the work of Natalie Curtis, whose field research among the Hopis helped to launch a wave of interest in Native Americans and their verbal art that continues to the present. In addition, Clements addresses theoretical issues in the textualization, translation, and anthologizing of American Indian oral expression. In many cases the past records of Native American expression represent all we have left of an entire verbal heritage; in most cases they are all that we have of a particular heritage at a particular point in history. Covering a broad range of materials and their historical contexts, Native American Verbal Art identifies the agendas that have informed these records and helps the reader to determine what remains useful in them. It will be a welcome addition to the fields of Native American studies and folklore.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"Provocative, thoughtfully researched essays reconstructing the production and presentation of a wide array of Indian literatures in print. . . . a critical tour de force." —Western Historical Quarterly
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780816516582
  • Publisher: University of Arizona Press
  • Publication date: 10/1/1996
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 252
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

William M. Clements is the author of several books, including Native American Folklore in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals and Italian-American Folklore. He is a professor of English and folklore at Arkansas State University.

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments
Introduction 1
1 "Identity" and "Difference" in the Textualization of Zuni Verbal Art 17
2 Situations and Performances 31
3 "Not So Stupid as They May Have Been Painted": The Jesuits and Native Canadian Verbal Art 53
4 "A Sort of Loose Poetry": Henry Timberlake's Cherokee War Song 73
5 "Tokens of Literary Faculty": Texts and Contexts in the Early Nineteenth Century 93
6 "All We Could Expect from Untutored Savages": Schoolcraft as Textmaker 111
7 "The True Presentiments of the Indian Mind": Linguistic Texts as Data Sources 129
8 Natalie Curtis in Hopiland 155
9 The Anthology as Museum of Verbal Art 179
Epilogue 199
Notes 207
References 219
Index 243
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