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Overview

Native American Voices is a unique collection of works designed to present readers with an exciting view into the diverse field of Native American Studies. Editors Susan Lobo and Steve Talbot incorporate a hemispheric approach that reflects the varied perspectives, histories, and realities of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The collection contains not only scholarly articles but also journalistic selections, oral history and testimony, songs, poetry, and other documents that bring into focus the multidisciplinary nature of this field. Maps and original artwork provide further context for the selections, and an extensive tribal name index and lists of key terms facilitate both reference and comparative study.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130307323
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 12/15/2000
  • Edition description: Subsequent
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 583
  • Product dimensions: 6.98 (w) x 9.08 (h) x 1.19 (d)

Meet the Author

SUSAN LOBO is a consultant emphasizing research, advocacy, and project design, working primarily for American Indian tribes and community organizations in the United States and Central and South America. She has a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of Arizona and has taught at the University of California at Berkeley, where she was the coordinator of the Center for Latin American Studies. She has also taught Native American studies at the University of California at Davis and environmental studies at Merritt College. Since 1978 she has been the coordinator of the Community History Project archive at Intertribal Friendship House, the American Indian Center in Oakland, California. She was also a producer for many years of the KPFA-FM radio series Living on Indian Time. Her publications include A House of My own: Social Organization in the Squatter Settlements of Lima, Peru (1992); American Indians and the Urban Experience, co-editor (2000); Pride of Place: The American Indian Community in the San Francisco Bay Area (2001), and many articles in professional and popular journals.

STEVE TALBOT has written several books and many articles dealing with Native Americans, including Roots of Oppression: The American Indian Question (1981). Currently, he is a retired instructor of sociology, anthropology, and Native American Studies at San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton, California, and an adjunct professor of anthropology at Oregon State University, where he continues to teach part-time. He received his master's degree in anthropology and community development in 1967 from the University of Arizona and a Ph.D. in anthropology from the University of California, Berkeleyin 1974. In the early 1960s he was a fieldworker in Indian community development for the American Friends Service Committee, and in that capacity he spent three years on the San Carlos Apache Reservation in Arizona. He then moved to the San Francisco Bay area, where he served on the board of Oakland's Intertribal Friendship House. Later, as a doctoral student at the University of California, Berkeley, he was closely associated with Indian student activism on campus, the Alcatraz occupation, and the founding of the Native American Studies program at the university. From 1971 to 1974 he was acting assistant professor of Native American Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He has since lectured extensively and has taught Native American Studies courses in Europe and at various universities in the United States. From 1988 to 1990 he was a lecturer in Native American Studies at the University of California, Davis. His major interest today is producing text materials for Native American studies.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE

We are pleased by the very positive response to the first edition of this reader by students, colleagues, and the Native American community. The changes and additions to the new edition, we believe, will generate an even greater appreciation for the uniquely Indian-based perspective and hemispheric approach that characterize this volume and that clearly differentiate it from the standard, introductory works on Native Americans in the disciplines of anthropology and history.

The idea for this work grew out of the editors teaching an introductory level college course, The Indian Experience, for several years at the University of California at Davis in the late 1980s to the 1990s. This course and Introduction to Native American Studies were originally developed along with a dozen or so others in the late 1960s by Jack D. Forbes for the then new Native American Studies program at the University of California at Berkeley and at the University of California at Davis. Steve Talbot, a co-editor of this reader, was a member of the faculty in the new Native American studies program at the University of California-Berkeley from 1971 to 1974 and consequently helped to develop these introductory courses. The Indian Experience became one of the core courses for the programs at these two institutions.

Other developing Native American Studies (or American Indian Studies) programs in colleges and universities during the 1970s created similar introductory courses. These included the University of Minnesota, Washington State University, Humboldt State University, the University of California at Irvine, the University of California at Los Angeles, Dartmouth, the Universityof Wisconsin at Madison, and the University of Arizona.

The 1960s was the time of the "new Indian" movement and renewed activism signaled by the formation of the National Indian Youth Council, the American Indian Movement, and other Indian protest organizations, as well as by continued actions by the Iroquois and other traditional Indian peoples, the occupation of Alcatraz, the Trail of Broken Treaties to Washington, D.C., and Wounded Knee II and its aftermath of government repression. This was a time when urban-based Indians and their reservation counterparts joined forces under the guidance of traditional elders and religious leaders to press for treaty rights, sovereignty, and self-determination. It was also a time when hundreds of Indian young people were able to enter college under special admissions programs (affirmative action), receive financial aid, and bring the issues and demands of the larger Native American struggle to the university campus. The idea behind these introductory Native American studies classes was to bring the "Indian experience" into the classroom and thereby make the college curriculum relevant to the lives of the new population of Indian students on campus; they were also intended to correct misconceptions and stereotypes about Indian history, religion, and culture for the general student population and the larger society.

The Indian Experience course substituted for the more mainstream Introduction to North American Indians course traditionally taught in anthropology. The paradigms for the two courses differ substantially; indeed, there are profound differences in the respective paradigms of Native American studies and anthropology. Yet, although there are many introductory North American Indian books in anthropology and history, there are very few in Native American studies and virtually none, especially a reader, that are suitable as an introduction to Native American studies for the college student and the general public with an interest in American Indians. There are, of course, some excellent atlases, almanacs, and edited works, including various compilations of Indian literature and poetry, but, again, nothing that approximates a Native American studies reader such as we have compiled here. (See the Suggested Readings list in Part I) Thus, we envision that this book will fill the void that we perceived from our teaching experience.

Unlike history, or even anthropology, the Native American studies theoretical perspective, or paradigm, is multidisciplinary by the very nature of its subject matter: that is, the experience of Indian peoples. Thus, a major aim of this reader is to provide a representative sampling of this experience. This reader, therefore, contains not only scholarly articles but also journalistic selections, documents, oral history and testimony, songs and poetry, maps and art. A related purpose here is to meet the needs of classes at the undergraduate level in the social sciences and related fields, particularly Native American studies, but also ethnic studies, anthropology, sociology, history, American studies, political science, and even law, education, and social welfare.

The book is divided into nine topical parts that encompass the major concerns and interests of Native American peoples and nations. Although we concentrate on Indian peoples of the United States, we have included representative selections from Canada and Latin America, especially those that indicate the linkages existing among all indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. We believe that a hemispheric approach is not only appropriate theoretically but also is one that reflects the wider perspective, history, and reality of all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The parts are arranged to focus on a series of interrelated themes. Parts I, II, and III lay the foundation, giving an overview of Native perspectives on history and heritage, as well as locations and demographics. The goal in Part IV is to facilitate an understanding of the values and stereotypes held by many non-Indians that have created, and in many instances served to maintain, a social context of racism and injustice with which Indian people must deal. Parts V, VI, and VII once again focus on Native strengths: that is, the individual, family, and community or tribal foundation based on relationships to spiritual truths and to the land. Part VIII deals with some of the specific problem areas that Native People face, many of these the legacy of generations of externally imposed conflict and injustice. The final section, Part IX, discusses the many ways that Native peoples have confronted, resisted, and struggled to survive as peoples and to once again thrive culturally.

At the end of each part are discussion questions that will assist the student or other readers of this book in understanding the salient points of each selection. These are followed by Key Terms and, finally, Suggested Readings. At the beginning of the book are maps of North and Central America and South America, which indicate the names and locations of the Indian peoples and nations discussed in this work, as well as some other important peoples. At the end of the volume there are appendixes for Native media, major indigenous peoples' organizations, a website guide to Native American Studies programs in the United States and Canada and a list of institutions that offer them.

Many people, in one way or another, contributed to this volume. They include our many colleagues, both Indian and non-Indian, who share our vision. Among them, however, we wish to mention Jose Barreiro (Guajiro/Taino), Victoria Bomberry (Muskogee/Lenape), Duane Champagne (Turtle Mountain Chippewa), Jack D. Forbes (Powhatan-Renape and Delaware-Lenape), Frank Lobo (Acjachemen), Kelina Lobo (Acjachemen), Jane Monden, Marcus Peters (Anishinabeg), Claudia Peters, Luana Ross (Salish), Mariechen C. Talbot, and Darryl Wilson (Pit River/ Ajuma/Atsuge). We thank also the several classes of students in Steve Talbot's Introduction to American Indians course at San Joaquin Delta College who provided valuable feedback to the first edition. Finally, we acknowledge the assistance and support of the following institutions and professional associations: Akwe:kon Press and Native Americas magazine; the American Friends Service Committee; the International Indian Treaty Council; Intertribal Friendship House in Oakland, California; the Native American Studies Department at the University of California at Davis; the American Indian Studies Center at the University of California at Los Angeles; the Anthropology Department at Oregon State University; and San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton, California.

We thank also our publisher, Prentice Hall, its Assistant Vice President, Nancy Roberts, and managing editor, Sharon Chambliss. They have been especially helpful and understanding during the production process. Special thanks go to our production editor, Serena Hoffman.

We dedicate this volume to the late Edward H. Spicer, social anthropologist and cultural historian, who was mentor for both of us at the University of Arizona in the 1960s. The theoretical and ethical grounding that we received under his tutelage has stood us in good stead in our academic pursuits, and his personal example of compassion and sensitivity in relating to our fellow human beings has also helped guide us in our relationships with Indian friends and relations.

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Table of Contents

(Note: * indicates new reading.)

Forward: Josè Barreiro

I. PEOPLES AND NATIONS: FOLLOWING IN THE FOOTSTEPS OF THE ANCESTORS.

*A. Definitions and Diversity, Phillip Wearne.

*B. The Crucible of American Indian Identity: Native Tradition Versus Colonial Imposition in Postconquest North America, Ward Churchill.

C. To the U.S. Census Bureau, Native Americans are Practically Invisible, John Anner.

*D. Is Urban a Person or a Place? Characteristics of Urban Indian Country, Susan Lobo.

II. THE HIDDEN HERITAGE.

A. Mis Misa: The Power Within AKOO-Yet That Protects The World Darryl Babe Wilson.

B. Perceptions of America's Native Democracies: The Societies Colonial Americans Observed, Donald A. Grinde, Jr. and Bruce E. Johansen.

C. One More Smile for a Hopi Clown, Emory Sekaquaptewa.

D. Latin America's Indigenous Peoples: Changing Identities and Forms of Resistance, Michael Kearney and Stephano Varese.

E. Mexico: The Crisis of Identity, Alexander Ewen.

III. THE AMERICAN INDIAN STORY (HISTORY).

A. The Black Hills: The Sacred Land of The Lakota and Tsistsistas Mario Gonzalez.

B. The Rediscovery of Hawaiian Sovereignty, by Poka Laenui.

C. The Sword and the Cross: The Missions of California, Jeannette Henry Costo.

*D. Creating a Visual History: A Question of Ownership, Theresa Harlan.

E. Directions in People's Movements, John Mohawk.

IV. “THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN …”: RACISM, STEREOTYPES, AND DISCRIMINATION.

*A. Mythical Pleistocene Hit Men, Vine Deloria, Jr.

B. ThePocahontas Perplex: The Image of Indian Women in American Culture, Rayna Green.

*C. Reprise/Forced Sterilizations: Native Americans and the “Last Gasp of Eugenics,” Bruce Johansen.

D. Renegades, Terrorists, and Revolutionaries: The Government's Propaganda War Against The American Indian Movement, Ward Churchhill.

V. ALL MY RELATIONS: FAMILY AND EDUCATION.

A. Asgaya-dihi, Wilma Mankiller and Michael Wallis.

*B. Traveling Traditions, Deanna Kingston.

C. The Spirit of the People has Awakened and is Enjoying Creation Through Us: An Interview with Jeanette Armstrong, Okanagan, Dagmar Thorpe.

D. Civilize Them with a Stick, by Mary Brave Bird (Crow Dog) with Richard Erdoes.

E. Urban American Indian Preschool, by Susan Lobo.

*F. Protagonism Emergent: Indians and Higher Education, Jeffrey Wollock.

VI. SPIRITUALITY.

A. Alone on the Hilltop, by John (Fire) Lame Deer and Richard Erodes.

B. My World is a Gift of My Teachers, by Frank R. LaPena.

*C. Who Owns Our Past? The Repatriation of Native American Human Remains and Cultural Objects, Russell Thornton.

D. Battling for Souls: Organizing the Return of Sacred Textiles to the Community of Coroma, Bolivia, Victoria Bomberry.

E. The Great Pretenders: Further Reflections on WhiteShamanism, Wendy Rose.

VII. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT.

A. Indigenous Environmental Perspectives: A North American Primer, by Winona LaDuke.

B. Native American Labor and Public Policy in the United States, Alice Littlefield.

C. The Dealer's Edge: Gaming in the Path of Native America, Tim Johnson.

D. All We Ever Wanted Was To Catch Fish, NARF Legal Review.

E. Lovely Hula Hands: Corporate Tourism and the Prostitution of Hawaiian Culture, Haunani-Kay Trask.

*F. The Struggle Over Land on Central America's Last Frontier, Mac Chapin.

VIII. COMMUNITY WELL-BEING: HEALTH, WELFARE, AND JUSTICE.

A. Yes is Better Than No, Byrd Baylor.

B. Gathering, Gary Paul Nabhan.

C. The Epidemiology of Alcohol Abuse Among American Indians: The Mythical and Real Properties, Philip A. May.

D. Young Once, Indian Forever, Joan Smith.

E. Punishing Institutions: The Story of Catherine “Cedar Woman”, Luana Ross.

IX. NATIVE AMERICAN RIGHTS, STRUGGLE, AND REVITALIZATION.

A. Voices of Indigenous Peoples: Epilogue, Oren Lyons (Joagquisho, Onondaga Nation).

*B. Ethnic Reorganization: American Indian Social, Economic, Political, and Cultural Strategies for Survival, Joane Nagel and C. Matthew Snipp.

C. Reflections of Alcatraz, Lanada Boyer.

*D. Hawaiian Language Schools, Leanne Hinton.

E. A “New Partnership” for Indigenous Peoples: Can the United Nations Make a Difference, Russel Lawrence Barsh.

F. Indigenous Peoples Seattle Declaration on the Occasion of the Third Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization, November 30-December 3, 1999.

Appendix A. Native Media.

Appendix B. Indigenous Peoples' Organizations.

Appendix C. Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada.

Appendix D. American Indian Higher Education Consortium.

Credits.

Index.

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Preface

PREFACE:

PREFACE

We are pleased by the very positive response to the first edition of this reader by students, colleagues, and the Native American community. The changes and additions to the new edition, we believe, will generate an even greater appreciation for the uniquely Indian-based perspective and hemispheric approach that characterize this volume and that clearly differentiate it from the standard, introductory works on Native Americans in the disciplines of anthropology and history.

The idea for this work grew out of the editors teaching an introductory level college course, The Indian Experience, for several years at the University of California at Davis in the late 1980s to the 1990s. This course and Introduction to Native American Studies were originally developed along with a dozen or so others in the late 1960s by Jack D. Forbes for the then new Native American Studies program at the University of California at Berkeley and at the University of California at Davis. Steve Talbot, a co-editor of this reader, was a member of the faculty in the new Native American studies program at the University of California-Berkeley from 1971 to 1974 and consequently helped to develop these introductory courses. The Indian Experience became one of the core courses for the programs at these two institutions.

Other developing Native American Studies (or American Indian Studies) programs in colleges and universities during the 1970s created similar introductory courses. These included the University of Minnesota, Washington State University, Humboldt State University, the University of California at Irvine, the University of California at LosAngeles,Dartmouth, the University of Wisconsin at Madison, and the University of Arizona.

The 1960s was the time of the "new Indian" movement and renewed activism signaled by the formation of the National Indian Youth Council, the American Indian Movement, and other Indian protest organizations, as well as by continued actions by the Iroquois and other traditional Indian peoples, the occupation of Alcatraz, the Trail of Broken Treaties to Washington, D.C., and Wounded Knee II and its aftermath of government repression. This was a time when urban-based Indians and their reservation counterparts joined forces under the guidance of traditional elders and religious leaders to press for treaty rights, sovereignty, and self-determination. It was also a time when hundreds of Indian young people were able to enter college under special admissions programs (affirmative action), receive financial aid, and bring the issues and demands of the larger Native American struggle to the university campus. The idea behind these introductory Native American studies classes was to bring the "Indian experience" into the classroom and thereby make the college curriculum relevant to the lives of the new population of Indian students on campus; they were also intended to correct misconceptions and stereotypes about Indian history, religion, and culture for the general student population and the larger society.

The Indian Experience course substituted for the more mainstream Introduction to North American Indians course traditionally taught in anthropology. The paradigms for the two courses differ substantially; indeed, there are profound differences in the respective paradigms of Native American studies and anthropology. Yet, although there are many introductory North American Indian books in anthropology and history, there are very few in Native American studies and virtually none, especially a reader, that are suitable as an introduction to Native American studies for the college student and the general public with an interest in American Indians. There are, of course, some excellent atlases, almanacs, and edited works, including various compilations of Indian literature and poetry, but, again, nothing that approximates a Native American studies reader such as we have compiled here. (See the Suggested Readings list in Part I) Thus, we envision that this book will fill the void that we perceived from our teaching experience.

Unlike history, or even anthropology, the Native American studies theoretical perspective, or paradigm, is multidisciplinary by the very nature of its subject matter: that is, the experience of Indian peoples. Thus, a major aim of this reader is to provide a representative sampling of this experience. This reader, therefore, contains not only scholarly articles but also journalistic selections, documents, oral history and testimony, songs and poetry, maps and art. A related purpose here is to meet the needs of classes at the undergraduate level in the social sciences and related fields, particularly Native American studies, but also ethnic studies, anthropology, sociology, history, American studies, political science, and even law, education, and social welfare.

The book is divided into nine topical parts that encompass the major concerns and interests of Native American peoples and nations. Although we concentrate on Indian peoples of the United States, we have included representative selections from Canada and Latin America, especially those that indicate the linkages existing among all indigenous peoples of the Western Hemisphere. We believe that a hemispheric approach is not only appropriate theoretically but also is one that reflects the wider perspective, history, and reality of all of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

The parts are arranged to focus on a series of interrelated themes. Parts I, II, and III lay the foundation, giving an overview of Native perspectives on history and heritage, as well as locations and demographics. The goal in Part IV is to facilitate an understanding of the values and stereotypes held by many non-Indians that have created, and in many instances served to maintain, a social context of racism and injustice with which Indian people must deal. Parts V, VI, and VII once again focus on Native strengths: that is, the individual, family, and community or tribal foundation based on relationships to spiritual truths and to the land. Part VIII deals with some of the specific problem areas that Native People face, many of these the legacy of generations of externally imposed conflict and injustice. The final section, Part IX, discusses the many ways that Native peoples have confronted, resisted, and struggled to survive as peoples and to once again thrive culturally.

At the end of each part are discussion questions that will assist the student or other readers of this book in understanding the salient points of each selection. These are followed by Key Terms and, finally, Suggested Readings. At the beginning of the book are maps of North and Central America and South America, which indicate the names and locations of the Indian peoples and nations discussed in this work, as well as some other important peoples. At the end of the volume there are appendixes for Native media, major indigenous peoples' organizations, a website guide to Native American Studies programs in the United States and Canada and a list of institutions that offer them.

Many people, in one way or another, contributed to this volume. They include our many colleagues, both Indian and non-Indian, who share our vision. Among them, however, we wish to mention Jose Barreiro (Guajiro/Taino), Victoria Bomberry (Muskogee/Lenape), Duane Champagne (Turtle Mountain Chippewa), Jack D. Forbes (Powhatan-Renape and Delaware-Lenape), Frank Lobo (Acjachemen), Kelina Lobo (Acjachemen), Jane Monden, Marcus Peters (Anishinabeg), Claudia Peters, Luana Ross (Salish), Mariechen C. Talbot, and Darryl Wilson (Pit River/ Ajuma/Atsuge). We thank also the several classes of students in Steve Talbot's Introduction to American Indians course at San Joaquin Delta College who provided valuable feedback to the first edition. Finally, we acknowledge the assistance and support of the following institutions and professional associations: Akwe:kon Press and Native Americas magazine; the American Friends Service Committee; the International Indian Treaty Council; Intertribal Friendship House in Oakland, California; the Native American Studies Department at the University of California at Davis; the American Indian Studies Center at the University of California at Los Angeles; the Anthropology Department at Oregon State University; and San Joaquin Delta College in Stockton, California.

We thank also our publisher, Prentice Hall, its Assistant Vice President, Nancy Roberts, and managing editor, Sharon Chambliss. They have been especially helpful and understanding during the production process. Special thanks go to our production editor, Serena Hoffman.

We dedicate this volume to the late Edward H. Spicer, social anthropologist and cultural historian, who was mentor for both of us at the University of Arizona in the 1960s. The theoretical and ethical grounding that we received under his tutelage has stood us in good stead in our academic pursuits, and his personal example of compassion and sensitivity in relating to our fellow human beings has also helped guide us in our relationships with Indian friends and relations.

Read More Show Less

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