Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management

Natural Area Tourism: Ecology, Impacts and Management

by David Newsome, Ross K. Dowling, Susan A. Moore
     
 

ISBN-10: 1873150245

ISBN-13: 9781873150245

Pub. Date: 02/01/2002

Publisher: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

Viewing tourism as a way to foster appreciation of the environment, Newsome (environmental science, Murdoch U., Perth, Australia) enlightens students and managers on ecotourism's philosophy; a visitor planning model; sources of environmental impacts; and site management, interpretation, and monitoring strategies. The book features case studies, b&w photos, figures,

Overview

Viewing tourism as a way to foster appreciation of the environment, Newsome (environmental science, Murdoch U., Perth, Australia) enlightens students and managers on ecotourism's philosophy; a visitor planning model; sources of environmental impacts; and site management, interpretation, and monitoring strategies. The book features case studies, b&w photos, figures, and tables. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781873150245
Publisher:
Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Publication date:
02/01/2002
Series:
Aspects of Tourism Series, #4
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
352
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 9.58(h) x 0.78(d)

Table of Contents

Prefaceix
Acknowledgementsxi
1Introduction1
Introduction1
Natural Areas3
Approaches to nature4
Types of natural areas5
Tourism6
Tourists9
Types of tourism10
Natural Area Tourism11
Adventure tourism13
Nature based tourism13
Wildlife tourism14
Ecotourism14
Tourism's Impacts in Natural Areas19
Planning and Management20
Outline of the Book21
Further Reading23
2The Ecological Perspective24
Introduction24
An Introduction to Ecosystems and Landscapes25
The structure of ecosystems28
Ecosystem function31
Ecological communities37
Disturbance and succession in ecosystems41
Landscape ecology45
Ecological Characteristics and Tourism in Different Types of Ecosystems51
Island ecosystems51
Coral reef ecosystems56
Tropical rain forests60
African savanna66
Tourism in modified and semi-natural ecosystems: the British countryside69
Wildlife as a Specific Component of Ecosystems72
A physiological response of ecological significance: stress73
Disturbance of normal feeding patterns as a result of food provisioning74
Tourist activity resulting in the avoidance of optimal resting and feeding areas75
Disturbance to feeding and the problem of opportunistic predation76
Disturbance of reproduction and maternal care76
The Philosophy of Ecosystem Tourism77
Further Reading78
3Environmental Impacts79
Introduction79
Sources of impact83
Trampling84
Access roads and trails95
Use of built facilities and camp grounds101
Use of water edges111
Recreation and tourism in mountainous areas118
Recreation and tourism in and around caves121
The observation of wildlife124
The landscape matrix129
Cumulative impacts134
Social and economic perspectives135
Biophysical Impacts: A Case Study Off-Road Vehicle Driving138
The use of off-road vehicles as a recreational activity138
The spectrum of environmental impact138
Arctic-alpine environments140
Tropical environments141
Arid environments142
Conclusion143
Further Reading144
4Visitor Planning146
Introduction146
Definition147
Reasons for visitor planning148
Planning as a value-laden activity150
Stakeholder Involvement in Visitor Planning150
Benefits and costs151
Techniques152
Planning Concepts153
Carrying capacity153
Acceptable change155
Spectrum of recreation opportunities156
Recreation/Tourism Planning Frameworks156
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum157
Limits of Acceptable Change162
Visitor Impact Management167
Tourism Optimisation Management Model170
Other planning frameworks175
Choosing a planning framework180
Conclusion183
Further Reading184
5Management Strategies and Actions185
Introduction185
Reasons for managing natural areas186
Creating Protected Areas186
Protected areas as a recent phenomenon186
Designing protected areas188
Extent and types of protected areas190
Other forms of protection190
Joint Management195
Zoning196
Site Management Actions197
Rationale for approach taken197
Managing roads and trails201
Managing built accommodation, campgrounds and other facilities205
Managing riverbanks, lakes and coastlines210
Site restoration211
Visitor Management Actions212
Regulating visitors212
Visitor communication and education218
Choosing Management Actions220
Making the choice220
A combined approach223
Managing the Tourism Industry223
Voluntary strategies223
Regulatory strategies232
Environmental Management Systems233
Conclusion235
Further Reading237
6Interpretation239
Introduction239
Principles and Application239
Principles240
Stages of the interpretive experience244
Application245
The Role of Interpretation246
The Pantanal: a tour operators perspective247
Orang utan rehabilitation centres as tourist attractions248
The case of reducing impacts on rare and endangered species249
Techniques and Examples250
Publications and web sites250
Visitor centres252
Self-guided trails252
Guided touring254
A Case Study in the Use, Application and Effectiveness of Interpretation256
Conclusion258
Further Reading258
7Monitoring259
Introduction259
Definition259
Reasons for monitoring260
Principles262
Developing a monitoring programme265
Monitoring Visitor Impacts on Natural Areas265
Built facilities, campgrounds and campsites266
Roads and trails276
Water bodies281
Monitoring Visitors to Natural Areas283
Visitor monitoring techniques286
Setting Standards for Indicators291
The role of perceptions291
Environmental auditing294
Integrated Approaches295
Conclusion296
Further Reading299
8Conclusion300
Introduction300
The Centrality of Ecology300
Understanding Impacts301
Emerging Views on Management302
The Importance of Sustainability303
Future Research303
References305
Index331

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