Natural Area Tourism

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Viewing tourism as a way to foster appreciation of the environment, Newsome (environmental science, Murdoch U., Perth, Australia) enlightens students and managers on ecotourism's philosophy; a visitor planning model; sources of environmental impacts; and site management, interpretation, and monitoring strategies. The book features case studies, b&w photos, figures, and tables. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781873150252
  • Publisher: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
  • Publication date: 11/28/2001
  • Series: Aspects of Tourism Series
  • Pages: 356
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.81 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface ix
Acknowledgements xi
1 Introduction 1
Introduction 1
Natural Areas 3
Approaches to nature 4
Types of natural areas 5
Tourism 6
Tourists 9
Types of tourism 10
Natural Area Tourism 11
Adventure tourism 13
Nature based tourism 13
Wildlife tourism 14
Ecotourism 14
Tourism's Impacts in Natural Areas 19
Planning and Management 20
Outline of the Book 21
Further Reading 23
2 The Ecological Perspective 24
Introduction 24
An Introduction to Ecosystems and Landscapes 25
The structure of ecosystems 28
Ecosystem function 31
Ecological communities 37
Disturbance and succession in ecosystems 41
Landscape ecology 45
Ecological Characteristics and Tourism in Different Types of Ecosystems 51
Island ecosystems 51
Coral reef ecosystems 56
Tropical rain forests 60
African savanna 66
Tourism in modified and semi-natural ecosystems: the British countryside 69
Wildlife as a Specific Component of Ecosystems 72
A physiological response of ecological significance: stress 73
Disturbance of normal feeding patterns as a result of food provisioning 74
Tourist activity resulting in the avoidance of optimal resting and feeding areas 75
Disturbance to feeding and the problem of opportunistic predation 76
Disturbance of reproduction and maternal care 76
The Philosophy of Ecosystem Tourism 77
Further Reading 78
3 Environmental Impacts 79
Introduction 79
Sources of impact 83
Trampling 84
Access roads and trails 95
Use of built facilities and camp grounds 101
Use of water edges 111
Recreation and tourism in mountainous areas 118
Recreation and tourism in and around caves 121
The observation of wildlife 124
The landscape matrix 129
Cumulative impacts 134
Social and economic perspectives 135
Biophysical Impacts: A Case Study Off-Road Vehicle Driving 138
The use of off-road vehicles as a recreational activity 138
The spectrum of environmental impact 138
Arctic-alpine environments 140
Tropical environments 141
Arid environments 142
Conclusion 143
Further Reading 144
4 Visitor Planning 146
Introduction 146
Definition 147
Reasons for visitor planning 148
Planning as a value-laden activity 150
Stakeholder Involvement in Visitor Planning 150
Benefits and costs 151
Techniques 152
Planning Concepts 153
Carrying capacity 153
Acceptable change 155
Spectrum of recreation opportunities 156
Recreation/Tourism Planning Frameworks 156
Recreation Opportunity Spectrum 157
Limits of Acceptable Change 162
Visitor Impact Management 167
Tourism Optimisation Management Model 170
Other planning frameworks 175
Choosing a planning framework 180
Conclusion 183
Further Reading 184
5 Management Strategies and Actions 185
Introduction 185
Reasons for managing natural areas 186
Creating Protected Areas 186
Protected areas as a recent phenomenon 186
Designing protected areas 188
Extent and types of protected areas 190
Other forms of protection 190
Joint Management 195
Zoning 196
Site Management Actions 197
Rationale for approach taken 197
Managing roads and trails 201
Managing built accommodation, campgrounds and other facilities 205
Managing riverbanks, lakes and coastlines 210
Site restoration 211
Visitor Management Actions 212
Regulating visitors 212
Visitor communication and education 218
Choosing Management Actions 220
Making the choice 220
A combined approach 223
Managing the Tourism Industry 223
Voluntary strategies 223
Regulatory strategies 232
Environmental Management Systems 233
Conclusion 235
Further Reading 237
6 Interpretation 239
Introduction 239
Principles and Application 239
Principles 240
Stages of the interpretive experience 244
Application 245
The Role of Interpretation 246
The Pantanal: a tour operators perspective 247
Orang utan rehabilitation centres as tourist attractions 248
The case of reducing impacts on rare and endangered species 249
Techniques and Examples 250
Publications and web sites 250
Visitor centres 252
Self-guided trails 252
Guided touring 254
A Case Study in the Use, Application and Effectiveness of Interpretation 256
Conclusion 258
Further Reading 258
7 Monitoring 259
Introduction 259
Definition 259
Reasons for monitoring 260
Principles 262
Developing a monitoring programme 265
Monitoring Visitor Impacts on Natural Areas 265
Built facilities, campgrounds and campsites 266
Roads and trails 276
Water bodies 281
Monitoring Visitors to Natural Areas 283
Visitor monitoring techniques 286
Setting Standards for Indicators 291
The role of perceptions 291
Environmental auditing 294
Integrated Approaches 295
Conclusion 296
Further Reading 299
8 Conclusion 300
Introduction 300
The Centrality of Ecology 300
Understanding Impacts 301
Emerging Views on Management 302
The Importance of Sustainability 303
Future Research 303
References 305
Index 331
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