Natural Gas: A Basic Handbook

Natural Gas: A Basic Handbook

by James G. Speight
     
 

Natural gas represents nearly one-quarter of the world’s energy resources. More than half of American homes rely on it as their main heating fuel. It serves as the raw material necessary in everyday paints, plastics, medicines and explosives. It produces the cleanest of all fossil fuels. It is natural gas—and everybody should acquire a basic

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Overview

Natural gas represents nearly one-quarter of the world’s energy resources. More than half of American homes rely on it as their main heating fuel. It serves as the raw material necessary in everyday paints, plastics, medicines and explosives. It produces the cleanest of all fossil fuels. It is natural gas—and everybody should acquire a basic understanding of it. This valuable easy-to-use reference supplies all the basics that every person should know about the natural gas industry. Introductory engineers, managers and analysts will benefit from this informative, practical handbook. Natural gas remains a vital component of all energy sources, and with an increasing demand for information on this useful energy source, Natural Gas: A Basic Handbook is an essential tool for anyone involved in the energy industry.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781933762142
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
10/15/2007
Pages:
239
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 9.10(h) x 0.90(d)

Meet the Author

James G. Speight is a senior fuel consultant as well as an Adjunct Professor of Chemical and Fuels Engineering at the University of Utah, USA. He is recognized internationally as an expert in the characterization, properties, and processing of conventional and synthetic fuels and as a chemist with more than 35 years of experience in thermal/process chemistry, thermodynamics, refining of petroleum, heavy oil, and tar sand bitumen, and physics of crude with emphasis on distillation, visbreaking, coking units, and oil-rock or oil catalyst interactions. Speight is currently Editor-in-Chief for the Journal of Petroleum Science and Technology, Energy Sources-Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, and Energy Sources-Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy. He is also the author/editor/compiler of more than 25 books and bibliographies related to fossil fuel processing and environmental issues.
Speight was Chief Scientific Officer and then Chief Executive Officer of the Western Research Institute, Laramie, WY, USA, from 1984 to 2000. During this period he led a staff of more that 150 scientists, engineers, and technicians in developing new technology for gas processing, petroleum, shale oil, tar sand bitumen, and asphalt. Speight has considerable expertise in evaluating new technologies for patentability and commercial application. As a result of his work, he was awarded the Diploma of Honor, National Petroleum Engineering Society, for outstanding contributions to the petroleum industry in 1995 and the Gold Medal of Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) for outstanding work in the area of petroleum science in 1996. He has also received the Specialist Invitation Program Speakers Award from NEDO (New Energy Development Organization, Government of Japan) in 1987 and again in 1996 for his contributions to coal research. In 2001, he was also awarded the Einstein Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Natural) in recognition of outstanding contributions and

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Table of Contents


List of Figures     ix
List of Tables     xi
Preface     xiii
Origin and Properties
History and Uses     3
Introduction     3
History     7
Composition and Properties     10
Reservoirs     11
Conventional Gas     14
Associated Gas     14
Non-Associated Gas     15
Unconventional Gas     16
Coal-Bed Methane (CBM)     16
Shale Gas     17
Gas Hydrates     18
Reserves     19
Uses     20
Natural Gas Regulation     27
Historical Aspects     27
Federal Regulation of the Industry     29
Natural Gas and the Environment     30
References     33
Origin and Production     35
Origin     36
Exploration     39
Geological Survey     40
Seismic Survey     41
Magnetometers     45
Logging     46
Reservoirs and Production     48
Natural Gas Reservoirs     48
Petroleum Reservoirs     50
Production     52
Well Completion     52
The Wellhead     57
Natural Gas Production     57
Well Treatment     58
References     59
Composition and Properties     61
Composition     61
Properties     67
Density     67
Heat of Combustion (Energy Content)     71
Measurement     72
Volatility, Flammability, and Explosive Properties     73
Behavior     77
Compression and Expansion     78
Liquefied Natural Gas     79
Environmental Properties     80
References     82
Gas Processing
Recovery, Storage, and Transportation     87
Recovery     87
Storage     89
Depleted Gas Reservoirs     93
Aquifers     93
Salt Caverns     95
Transportation     97
Pipelines     98
Liquefied Natural Gas     100
Liquefied Petroleum Gas     101
Compressed Natural Gas     103
Gas-to-Solid     104
Gas-to-Power     106
Gas-to-Liquids     107
Gas-to-Commodity      109
References     109
History of Gas Processing     113
Coal Gas     114
Natural Gas     125
References     130
Process Classification     131
Water Removal     137
Liquids Removal     140
Absorption     141
Cryogenic Expander Process     142
Membrane Processes     143
Nitrogen Removal     144
Acid Gas Removal     146
Olamine Processes     147
Carbonate and Water Washing Processes     150
Metal Oxide Processes     151
Catalytic Oxidation Processes     154
Molecular Sieve Processes     154
Fractionation     155
Hydrogen Sulfide Conversion     156
References     158
Processes     161
Olamine Processes     162
Girdler Process     163
Flexsorb Process     167
Physical Solvent Processes     168
Rectisol Process     170
Sulfinol Process     170
Metal Oxide Processes     172
Iron Sponge Process     172
Other Processes     175
Methanol-Based Processes     177
Carbonate Washing and Water-Washing Processes     179
Sulfur Recovery Processes     183
Claus Process     183
Redox Process     185
Wet Oxidation Processes     186
Tail-Gas Treating Processes     186
Hydrogenation and Hydrolysis Processes     187
Process Selection     189
References     189
Emissions Control and Environmental Aspects     193
Greenhouse Gas Emissions     196
Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases     198
Emissions During Production and Delivery     200
Gas Processing     201
Combustion     203
Industrial Emissions     203
Smog and Acid Rain     205
References     207
Conversion Factors     209
Glossary     211
Index     233

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