Natural Resource Conservation: Management for a Sustainable Future / Edition 10

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Overview

This comprehensive book describes the ecological principles, policies, and practices required to create a sustainable future. It emphasizes practical, cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these problems that make sense from social, economic, and environmental perspectives. A focus on sustainable development puts readers in touch with one of the most significant shifts in thinking and action in the environmental and resource management arenas. A variety of lasting solutions are provided that make sense from social, economic, and environmental viewpoints. Natural Resource Conservation and Management: Past, Present and Future, Economics, Ethics, and Critical Thinking: Tools for Creating a Sustainable Future, Lessons from Ecology, The Human Population Challenge, World Hunger: Solving the Problem Sustainably, The Nature of Soils, Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture, Integrated Pest Management, Aquatic Environments, Managing Water Resources Sustainability, Water Pollution, Fisheries Conservation, Rangeland Management, Forest Management, Plant and Animal Extinction, Wildlife Management, Sustainable Waste Management, Air Pollution, Global Warming and Climate Change, Acid Deposition and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Minerals, Mining, and a Sustainable Society,Nonrenewable Energy Resources: Issues and Options,Creating a Sustainable System of Energy. Intended for those interested in gaining a basic knowledge of natural resources and conservation

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Dan Chiras earned his Ph.D. in reproductive physiology from the University of Kansas Medical School. After graduating, Dr. Chiras pursued interests in environmental science and has become a leading authority on environmental issues and sustainability. He has published over 20 books and 250 articles in journals, magazines, newspapers, and encyclopedias. Dr. Chiras lectures widely on ways to build a sustainable society, green building, and renewable energy. He lives in a state-of the art environmental passive solar/solar electric home in Colorado.

John Reganold received his Ph.D. in soil science from the University of California at Davis. As a professor of soil science at Washington State University, he teaches courses in introductory soils, land use, and organic farming and conducts research in land use and sustainable agriculture. Dr. Reganold has published more than 80 papers in scientific journals, magazines, and proceedings, such as Science, Nature, Scientific American, and New Scientist.

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Read an Excerpt

Natural Resource Conservation is written for the introductory resource conservation course. It is designed to provide comprehensive coverage of a variety of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture to global air pollution.

The first edition of this book was published in 1971, a year after the first Earth Day, by our esteemed colleague, the late Oliver S. Owen. To many observers, Earth Day marked the formal beginning of the environmental movement in the United States. Since that time, impressive gains have been made in air and water pollution control, species protection, forest management, and rangeland management.

Despite this progress, many environmental problems still remain. Many others have grown worse. In 1970, for instance, the world population hovered around 3 billion. Today, it has exceeded the 6.4 billion mark and is growing by more than 80 million people a year. Hunger and starvation have become a way of life in many less developed nations. An estimated 12 million people die each year of starvation and disease worsened by hunger and malnutrition. Species extinction continues as well. Today, an estimated 100 species become extinct every day. In the United States and abroad, soil erosion and rangeland deterioration continue.

Added to the list of growing problems are a whole host of new ones. Groundwater pollution, ozone depletion, acid deposition, global warming, and growing mountains of urban trash top this list. Yet, along with the new problems are new and exciting solutions.

If we work together in solving these problems, there is much hope. However, manyexperts believe that addressing these problems in meaningful ways will require dramatic changes in the way we live our lives and conduct commerce. We need a way that is sustainable—a way of doing business and living on the planet that does not bankrupt the Earth. Most people call this sustainable development. Sustainable development is about creating a new relationship with the Earth. It is about creating a sustainable economy and a sustainable system of commerce. It is about creating sustainable communities and sustainable lifestyles. It requires new ways of managing resources using the best available scientific knowledge and understandings of complex systems and how they are maintained, even enhanced, over time. It will entail changes in virtually every aspect of our society, from farming to forest management to energy production.

We believe that establishing a sustainable relationship with the Earth will require us to use resources more frugally—using only what we need and using all resources much more efficiently than we do today. Creating a sustainable way of life will very likely mean a massive expansion of our recycling efforts, not just getting recyclables to markets, but encouraging manufacturers to use secondary materials for production and encouraging citizens to buy products made from recycled materials.

Creating a sustainable society will also very likely mean a shift to clean, economical, renewable energy supplies, such as solar and wind energy. Another vital component of a sustainable society is restoration—replanting forests, grasslands, and wetlands—to ensure an adequate supply of resources for future generations as well as for the many species that share this planet with us.

Essential to the success of our efforts to create a sustainable society are efforts to slow down, even stop, world population growth. But that means stopping population growth in all nations, not just the poorer, less developed nations. Population growth in the rich nations, combined with our resource-intensive lifestyles, is contributing as much to the current global crisis as population growth in the less developed nations.

Curtailing population growth also entails efforts to better manage how we spread out on the land—that is, how and where our cities and towns expand. By adhering to judicious growth measures we can preserve farmland, forests, pastures, wildlands, and fisheries—all essential to our future and often crucial to the well-being of the countless species that share this planet with us.

In this book, we present the case for building a sustainable future based on conservation, recycling, renewable resources, restoration, and population control. We dub these the operating principles of a sustainable society. We believe that by putting these principles into practice in all sectors of our society, from agriculture to industry to transportation, we can build an enduring relationship with the planet.

The operating principles, however, must be complemented by a change in attitudes. No longer can we afford to regard the Earth as an infinite source of materials meant exclusively for human use. Many of the Earth's resources, upon which human beings depend, are finite. The Earth offers a limited supply of resources. We ignore this imperative at our own risk.

We and many others believe that humans must adopt an attitude that seeks cooperation with, rather than domination of, nature. Our efforts to dominate and control nature are often in vitro and sometimes backfire on us. Cooperation may be one of the, keys to our long-term success. By cooperation, we mean fitting into nature's cycles—creating production systems, for instance, on farms that more closely correspond with nature's cycles.

Finally, we believe it is time to rethink our position in the ecosystem. Humans are not apart from nature but a part of it. Our lives and our economy are vitally dependent on the environment. The Earth is the source of all goods and services and the sink for all of our wastes. What we do to the environment we do to ourselves. The logical extension of this simple truth is that planet care is the ultimate form of self-care.

Despite the wonderful accomplishments of human society over many centuries, many observers argue that it is time to recognize and respect the rights of other species to exist and thrive alongside humans. They contend that natural resources should be viewed as the Earth's endowment to all species—not just to humans. Such a view may mean curbing our demands and finding new ways to live on the planet. In the long run, such changes will benefit all of us. FOCUS ON PRINCIPLES, PROBLEMS, AND SOLUTIONS

This book describes many important principles of ecology and resource management, concepts that will prove useful throughout your lifetime. It also outlines many of the local, regional, national and global environmental problems, and offers a variety of solutions to these problems. Solutions take three basic forms: legislative (new laws and regulations), technological (applying existing or new and improved technologies), and methodological (changing how we do things). Applying these solutions is a responsibility we all have in common. It is not just the domain of government. Citizens, businesspeople, and government officials all have an important role to play in solving the environmental crisis arid in building a sustainable society.

On the personal level, what we do or what we fail to do can have a remarkable impact on the future. We encourage you to take active steps to find ways to reduce your impact. LEARNING AIDS

To help students learn key terms and concepts, we have included a number of learning aids: key words and phrases, chapter summaries of key concepts, and critical thinking and' discussion questions. To help students deepen and broaden their knowledge, we have included Ethics in Resource Conserl vation boxes, a section on critical thinking, Case Studies, A Closer Look boxes, GIS and Remote Sensing case studies, and numerous Suggested Readings. Key Terms

At the end of each chapter is a list of key words and phrases. We recommend that students read this list before reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, take a few moments to define the terms and phrases. Summary of Key Concepts

Each chapter in the book also contains a summary of important facts and concepts. These short summaries will help students review material before tests. Before reading the chapter, we think it is a good idea to read through the summary or study the major headings and subheadings to orient yourself. Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions

Discussion questions at the end of each chapter also provide a way of focusing on important material and reviewing concepts and crucial facts. We have written many questions to encourage you to tie information together and to draw on personal experience. We have also included a number of questions that ask you to think critically about various issues. Ethics in Resource Conservation

This book contains eight essays on ethics and resource management. These brief pieces present important ethical issues that confront resource managers and people like yourself on a daily basis. The ethics boxes were designed to encourage you to think about your own values and how they influence your views. They will help you understand others, too. Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a vital skill for all of us, but it is especially important in resource conservation and management. In Chapter 1, we present a number of critical thinking rules that will help you analyze the material we present. Case Studies and A Closer Look Boxes

The Case Studies and Closer Look boxes delve into controversial issues or provide detailed information that may be of interest to students pursuing a career in natural resource management. GIS and Remote Sensing

This edition also includes important information on geographic information systems and remote sensing. Chapter 1, for instance, presents an overview of these resource management tools. GIS and Remote Sensing case studies, researched and written by John Hayes at Salem State College and Dr. Chiras, give examples of the application of these tools. Suggested Readings

The Suggested Readings section in each chapter lists articles and books that are worthwhile reading for students who want to learn more about the environment. New to the Ninth Edition

Because this field changes rapidly, we have carefully updated the text with recent statistics, recent examples, and new photographs. Thanks to reviewer comments, we have added numerous topics not covered in previous editions, including risk and risk assessment, the pros and cons of wolf reintroduction to Yellowstone National Park, and the importance of backyard wildlife habitat. We have added information on certified forests, chemicals called environmental disrupters, and the economics of organic farming. In this edition, we have also included important new information on marine sanctuaries, freshwater and marine fisheries, barrier islands, the impacts of declining human populations, and West Nile virus. Moreover, we've included important social and policy issues such as environmental justice and the impacts of globalization and free trade. We've included more ideas for students who want to make changes in their lives, including political action.

This edition contains expanded coverage of policy, including current political threats to conservation and environmental laws. New information on international treaties, new federal laws, and other policy tools are discussed in appropriate chapters.

We have continued to look for ways to expand the critical thinking theme and have, as we have in previous editions, tried to maintain an objective approach, offering both sides of many issues. The reader will also find useful our new Web page: http://www.prenhall.com/chiras.

Finally, we have made a special effort to expand the scope of this book to include more examples of environmental and resource issues and solutions from other countries. In short, we have attempted to "internationalize" this book. Many examples from Canada have been added in the past two editions.

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Table of Contents

1. Natural Resource Conservation and Management: Past, Present and Future

2. Economics, Ethics, and Critical Thinking: Tools for Creating a Sustainable Future

3. Lessons from Ecology

4. The Human Population Challenge

5. World Hunger: Solving the Problem Sustainably

6. The Nature of Soils

7. Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture

8. Integrated Pest Management

9. Aquatic Environments

10. Managing Water Resources Sustainability

11. Water Pollution

12. Fisheries Conservation

13. Rangeland Management

14. Forest Management

15. Plant and Animal Extinction

16. Wildlife Management

17. Sustainable Waste Management

18. Air Pollution

19. Global Warming and Climate Change

20. Acid Deposition and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

21. Minerals, Mining, and a Sustainable Society

22. Nonrenewable Energy Resources: Issues and Options

23. Creating a Sustainable System of Energy

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Preface

Natural Resource Conservation is written for the introductory resource conservation course. It is designed to provide comprehensive coverage of a variety of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture to global air pollution.

The first edition of this book was published in 1971, a year after the first Earth Day by our esteemed colleague, the late Oliver S. Owen. To many observers, Earth Day marked the formal beginning of the environmental movement in the United States. Since that time, impressive gains have been made in air and water pollution control, species protection, forest management, and rangeland management.

Despite this progress, many environmental problems still remain. Many others have grown worse. In 1970, for instance, the world population hovered around 3 billion. Today it has exceeded the 6 billion mark and is growing by approximately 84 million people a year. Hunger and starvation have become a way of life in many less developed nations. An estimated 12 million people die each year of starvation and disease worsened by hunger and malnutrition. Species extinction continues as well. Today an estimated 40 to .100 species become extinct every day. In the United States and abroad, soil erosion and rangeland deterioration continue.

Added to the list of growing problems are a whole host of new ones that have cropped up along the way. Groundwater pollution, ozone depletion, acid deposition, global warming, and growing mountains of urban trash top the list. Yet, along with the new problems are new and exciting solutions.

If we work togetherin solving these problems, then there is much hope. However, to address these problems in meaningful ways will require dramatic changes in the way we live our lives and conduct commerce. We need a way that is sustainable—a way of doing business and living on the planet that does not bankrupt the Earth. Most people call this sustainable development. Sustainable development is about creating a new relationship with the Earth. It is about creating a sustainable economy and a sustainable system of commerce. It is about creating sustainable communities and sustainable lifestyles. It requires new ways of managing resources using the best available scientific knowledge and understandings of complex systems and how they are maintained, even enhanced, over time. It will entail changes in virtually every aspect of our society, from farming to forest management to energy production.

We believe that establishing a sustainable relationship with the Earth will require us to use resources more frugally—using only what we need and using all resources much more efficiently than we do today. Creating a sustainable way of life will very likely mean a massive expansion of our recycling efforts, not just getting recyclables to markets, but encouraging manufacturers to use secondary materials for production and encouraging citizens to buy products made from recycled materials.

Creating a sustainable society will also very likely mean a shift to clean, economical renewable energy supplies, such as solar and wind energy. Another vital component of a sustainable society is restoration—replanting forests, grasslands, and wetlands—to ensure an adequate supply of resources for future generations as well as for the many species that share this planet with us.

Essential to the success of our efforts to create a sustainable society are efforts to slow down, even stop, world population growth. But that means stopping population growth in all nations, not just the poorer less developed nations. Population growth, in the rich nations, combined with our resource-intensive lifestyles, is contributing as much to the current global crisis as population growth in the less developed nations.

Curtailing population growth also entails efforts to better manage how we spread out on the land—that is, how and where our cities and towns expand. By adhering to judicious growth measures we can preserve farmland, forests, pastures, wildlands, and fisheries—all essential to our future and often crucial to the well-being of the countless species that share this planet with us.

In this book, we present the case for building a sustainable future based on conservation, recycling, renewable resources, restoration, and population control. We dub these the operating principles of a sustainable society. We believe that by putting these principles into practice in all sectors of our society, from agriculture to industry to transportation, we can build an enduring relationship with the planet.

The operating principles, however, must be complemented by a change in attitudes. No longer can we afford to regard the earth as an infinite source of materials for exclusive human use. Many of the Earth's resources, upon which human beings depend, are finite. The Earth offers a limited supply of resources. We ignore this imperative at our own risk.

We and many others believe that humans must adopt an attitude that seeks cooperation with, rather than domination of, nature. Our efforts to dominate and control nature are often in vain and sometimes backfire on us. Cooperation may be one of the keys to our long-term success. By cooperation, we mean fitting into nature's cycles—creating production systems, for instance, on farms that more closely correspond with nature's cycles.

Finally, we believe it is time to rethink our position in the ecosystem. Humans are not apart from nature but a part of it. Our lives and our economy are vitally dependent on the environment. The Earth is the source of all goods and services and the sink for all of our wastes. What we do to the environment we do to ourselves. The logical extension of this simple truth is that planet care is the ultimate form of self-care.

Despite the wonderful accomplishments of human society over many centuries, it is time to realize that humans are not the crowning achievement of nature, but rather members in a club comprised of all of Earth's living creatures. To achieve a sustainable relationship, many observers argue, it is time to recognize and respect the rights of other species to exist and thrive alongside humans. In this sense, natural resources may be viewed as the Earth's endowment to all species. Such a view may mean curbing our demands and finding new ways to live on the planet. In the long run, such changes will benefit all of us.

FOCUS ON PRINCIPLES, PROBLEMS, AND SOLUTIONS

This book describes many important principles of ecology and resource management, concepts that will prove useful throughout your lifetime. It also outlines many of the local, regional, national and global environmental problems and offers a variety of solutions to these problems. Solutions take three basic forms: legislative (new laws and regulations), technological (applying existing or new and improved technologies), and methodological (changing how we do things). Applying these solutions is a responsibility we all have in common. It is not just the domain of government. Citizens, business people, and government officials all have an important role to play in solving the environmental crisis and in building a sustainable society.

On the personal level, what we do or what we fail to do can have a remarkable impact on the future. We encourage you to take active steps to find ways to reduce your impact.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students learn key terms and concepts, we have included three learning aids: key words and phrases, chapter summaries of key concepts, and critical thinking and discussion questions. To help students deepen and broaden their knowledge, we have included Ethics in Resource Conservation boxes, a section on critical thinking, Case Studies, and numerous Suggested Readings.

Key Terms

At the end of each chapter is a list of key words and phrases. We recommend that students read this list before reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, take a few moments to define the terms and phrases.

Summary of Key Concepts

Each chapter in the book also contains a summary of important facts and concepts. These short summaries will help students review material before tests. Before reading the chapter, we think it is a good idea to read through the summary or study the major headings and subheadings to orient yourself.

Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions

Discussion questions at the end of each chapter also provide a way of focusing on important material and reviewing concepts and crucial facts. We have written many questions to encourage you to tie information together and to draw on personal experience. We have also included a number of questions that ask you to think critically about various issues.

Ethics in Resource Conservation

This book contains eight essays on ethics and resource management. These brief pieces present important ethical issues that confront resource managers and people like yourself on a daily basis. The ethics boxes were designed to encourage you to think about your own values and how they influence your views. They will help you understand others, too.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a vital skill for all of us, but it is especially important in resource conservation and management. In Chapter 1, we present a number of critical thinking rules that will help you analyze the material we present.

Case Studies

The case studies delve into controversial issues or provide detailed information that may be of interest to students pursuing a career in natural resource management. In this edition, we have removed outdated case studies and replaced them with newer ones. We have also eliminated a few to keep the number more manageable.

Suggested Readings

The Suggested Readings section in each chapter lists articles and books that are worthwhile reading for students who want to learn more about the environment.

New to the Eighth Edition

Because this field changes rapidly, we have carefully updated the text with recent statistics, recent examples, and new photographs. In addition, we have expanded coverage of pressing issues such as global climate change, ozone depletion, acid deposition, species extinction, and wetlands protection. We've added material on carrying capacity, genetic engineering, genetically modified crops, brownfield development, environmental justice, alternative fuels, and alternative vehicles.

In this edition, we have added information on geographic information systems and remote sensing. Chapter 1, for instance, presents an overview of these resource management tools. GIS and Remote Sensing case studies researched and written by John Hayes at Salem State University and Dr. Chiras give examples of the application of these tools.

This edition contains expanded coverage of policy. New international treaties, new federal laws, and other policy tools are discussed in appropriate chapters.

This edition also greatly expands previous coverage of ecosystem management and watershed management. We have continued to look for ways to expand the critical thinking theme and have, as we have in previous editions, tried to maintain an objective approach, offering both sides of many issues. The reader will also find useful our new web page: http://www.prenhall.com/chiras.

Finally, we have made a special effort to expand the scope of this book to include more examples of environmental and resource issues and solutions from other countries. In short, we have attempted to "internationalize" this book. Many examples from Canada were added in this effort.

Read More Show Less

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