Natural Resource Conservation: Management for a Sustainable Future / Edition 9

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Overview

Written from a sustainable perspective, this readable, yet rigorous, book provides comprehensive coverage of a variety of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to agriculture to global air pollution. It emphasizes practical, cost-effective, sustainable solutions to these problems that make sense from social, economic, and environmental perspectives. Overall increased emphasis on international and global issues (includes many examples from Canada). New information on Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing—integrated GIS Remote Sensing boxed information appears throughout, including 12 case studies. Expanded coverage of ecosystem management and watershed management, global climate change, ozone depletion, wetlands protection, and policy—including new international treaties, new federal laws, and more. The friendly, approachable writing style makes the book accessible to a wide range of readers—from those who want an introduction in natural resource conservation and natural resource management to professionals in this field.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780131458321
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/23/2004
  • Edition description: 9TH
  • Edition number: 9
  • Pages: 656
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 11.00 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Dan Chiras earned his Ph.D. in reproductive physiology from the University of Kansas Medical School. After graduating, Dr. Chiras pursued interests in environmental science and has become a leading authority on environmental issues and sustainability. He has published over 20 books and 250 articles in journals, magazines, newspapers, and encyclopedias. Dr. Chiras lectures widely on ways to build a sustainable society, green building, and renewable energy. He lives in a state-of the art environmental passive solar/solar electric home in Colorado.

John Reganold received his Ph.D. in soil science from the University of California at Davis. As a professor of soil science at Washington State University, he teaches courses in introductory soils, land use, and organic farming and conducts research in land use and sustainable agriculture. Dr. Reganold has published more than 80 papers in scientific journals, magazines, and proceedings, such as Science, Nature, Scientific American, and New Scientist.

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Read an Excerpt

Natural Resource Conservation is written for the introductory resource conservation course. It is designed to provide comprehensive coverage of a variety of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture to global air pollution.

The first edition of this book was published in 1971, a year after the first Earth Day, by our esteemed colleague, the late Oliver S. Owen. To many observers, Earth Day marked the formal beginning of the environmental movement in the United States. Since that time, impressive gains have been made in air and water pollution control, species protection, forest management, and rangeland management.

Despite this progress, many environmental problems still remain. Many others have grown worse. In 1970, for instance, the world population hovered around 3 billion. Today, it has exceeded the 6.4 billion mark and is growing by more than 80 million people a year. Hunger and starvation have become a way of life in many less developed nations. An estimated 12 million people die each year of starvation and disease worsened by hunger and malnutrition. Species extinction continues as well. Today, an estimated 100 species become extinct every day. In the United States and abroad, soil erosion and rangeland deterioration continue.

Added to the list of growing problems are a whole host of new ones. Groundwater pollution, ozone depletion, acid deposition, global warming, and growing mountains of urban trash top this list. Yet, along with the new problems are new and exciting solutions.

If we work together in solving these problems, there is much hope. However, manyexperts believe that addressing these problems in meaningful ways will require dramatic changes in the way we live our lives and conduct commerce. We need a way that is sustainable—a way of doing business and living on the planet that does not bankrupt the Earth. Most people call this sustainable development. Sustainable development is about creating a new relationship with the Earth. It is about creating a sustainable economy and a sustainable system of commerce. It is about creating sustainable communities and sustainable lifestyles. It requires new ways of managing resources using the best available scientific knowledge and understandings of complex systems and how they are maintained, even enhanced, over time. It will entail changes in virtually every aspect of our society, from farming to forest management to energy production.

We believe that establishing a sustainable relationship with the Earth will require us to use resources more frugally—using only what we need and using all resources much more efficiently than we do today. Creating a sustainable way of life will very likely mean a massive expansion of our recycling efforts, not just getting recyclables to markets, but encouraging manufacturers to use secondary materials for production and encouraging citizens to buy products made from recycled materials.

Creating a sustainable society will also very likely mean a shift to clean, economical, renewable energy supplies, such as solar and wind energy. Another vital component of a sustainable society is restoration—replanting forests, grasslands, and wetlands—to ensure an adequate supply of resources for future generations as well as for the many species that share this planet with us.

Essential to the success of our efforts to create a sustainable society are efforts to slow down, even stop, world population growth. But that means stopping population growth in all nations, not just the poorer, less developed nations. Population growth in the rich nations, combined with our resource-intensive lifestyles, is contributing as much to the current global crisis as population growth in the less developed nations.

Curtailing population growth also entails efforts to better manage how we spread out on the land—that is, how and where our cities and towns expand. By adhering to judicious growth measures we can preserve farmland, forests, pastures, wildlands, and fisheries—all essential to our future and often crucial to the well-being of the countless species that share this planet with us.

In this book, we present the case for building a sustainable future based on conservation, recycling, renewable resources, restoration, and population control. We dub these the operating principles of a sustainable society. We believe that by putting these principles into practice in all sectors of our society, from agriculture to industry to transportation, we can build an enduring relationship with the planet.

The operating principles, however, must be complemented by a change in attitudes. No longer can we afford to regard the Earth as an infinite source of materials meant exclusively for human use. Many of the Earth's resources, upon which human beings depend, are finite. The Earth offers a limited supply of resources. We ignore this imperative at our own risk.

We and many others believe that humans must adopt an attitude that seeks cooperation with, rather than domination of, nature. Our efforts to dominate and control nature are often in vitro and sometimes backfire on us. Cooperation may be one of the, keys to our long-term success. By cooperation, we mean fitting into nature's cycles—creating production systems, for instance, on farms that more closely correspond with nature's cycles.

Finally, we believe it is time to rethink our position in the ecosystem. Humans are not apart from nature but a part of it. Our lives and our economy are vitally dependent on the environment. The Earth is the source of all goods and services and the sink for all of our wastes. What we do to the environment we do to ourselves. The logical extension of this simple truth is that planet care is the ultimate form of self-care.

Despite the wonderful accomplishments of human society over many centuries, many observers argue that it is time to recognize and respect the rights of other species to exist and thrive alongside humans. They contend that natural resources should be viewed as the Earth's endowment to all species—not just to humans. Such a view may mean curbing our demands and finding new ways to live on the planet. In the long run, such changes will benefit all of us. FOCUS ON PRINCIPLES, PROBLEMS, AND SOLUTIONS

This book describes many important principles of ecology and resource management, concepts that will prove useful throughout your lifetime. It also outlines many of the local, regional, national and global environmental problems, and offers a variety of solutions to these problems. Solutions take three basic forms: legislative (new laws and regulations), technological (applying existing or new and improved technologies), and methodological (changing how we do things). Applying these solutions is a responsibility we all have in common. It is not just the domain of government. Citizens, businesspeople, and government officials all have an important role to play in solving the environmental crisis arid in building a sustainable society.

On the personal level, what we do or what we fail to do can have a remarkable impact on the future. We encourage you to take active steps to find ways to reduce your impact. LEARNING AIDS

To help students learn key terms and concepts, we have included a number of learning aids: key words and phrases, chapter summaries of key concepts, and critical thinking and' discussion questions. To help students deepen and broaden their knowledge, we have included Ethics in Resource Conserl vation boxes, a section on critical thinking, Case Studies, A Closer Look boxes, GIS and Remote Sensing case studies, and numerous Suggested Readings. Key Terms

At the end of each chapter is a list of key words and phrases. We recommend that students read this list before reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, take a few moments to define the terms and phrases. Summary of Key Concepts

Each chapter in the book also contains a summary of important facts and concepts. These short summaries will help students review material before tests. Before reading the chapter, we think it is a good idea to read through the summary or study the major headings and subheadings to orient yourself. Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions

Discussion questions at the end of each chapter also provide a way of focusing on important material and reviewing concepts and crucial facts. We have written many questions to encourage you to tie information together and to draw on personal experience. We have also included a number of questions that ask you to think critically about various issues. Ethics in Resource Conservation

This book contains eight essays on ethics and resource management. These brief pieces present important ethical issues that confront resource managers and people like yourself on a daily basis. The ethics boxes were designed to encourage you to think about your own values and how they influence your views. They will help you understand others, too. Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a vital skill for all of us, but it is especially important in resource conservation and management. In Chapter 1, we present a number of critical thinking rules that will help you analyze the material we present. Case Studies and A Closer Look Boxes

The Case Studies and Closer Look boxes delve into controversial issues or provide detailed information that may be of interest to students pursuing a career in natural resource management. GIS and Remote Sensing

This edition also includes important information on geographic information systems and remote sensing. Chapter 1, for instance, presents an overview of these resource management tools. GIS and Remote Sensing case studies, researched and written by John Hayes at Salem State College and Dr. Chiras, give examples of the application of these tools. Suggested Readings

The Suggested Readings section in each chapter lists articles and books that are worthwhile reading for students who want to learn more about the environment. New to the Ninth Edition

Because this field changes rapidly, we have carefully updated the text with recent statistics, recent examples, and new photographs. Thanks to reviewer comments, we have added numerous topics not covered in previous editions, including risk and risk assessment, the pros and cons of wolf reintroduction to Yellowstone National Park, and the importance of backyard wildlife habitat. We have added information on certified forests, chemicals called environmental disrupters, and the economics of organic farming. In this edition, we have also included important new information on marine sanctuaries, freshwater and marine fisheries, barrier islands, the impacts of declining human populations, and West Nile virus. Moreover, we've included important social and policy issues such as environmental justice and the impacts of globalization and free trade. We've included more ideas for students who want to make changes in their lives, including political action.

This edition contains expanded coverage of policy, including current political threats to conservation and environmental laws. New information on international treaties, new federal laws, and other policy tools are discussed in appropriate chapters.

We have continued to look for ways to expand the critical thinking theme and have, as we have in previous editions, tried to maintain an objective approach, offering both sides of many issues. The reader will also find useful our new Web page: http://www.prenhall.com/chiras.

Finally, we have made a special effort to expand the scope of this book to include more examples of environmental and resource issues and solutions from other countries. In short, we have attempted to "internationalize" this book. Many examples from Canada have been added in the past two editions.

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Table of Contents

Preface x
Acknowledgments xiii
Biographies xiv
1. Natural Resource Conservation and Management: Past, Present, and Future 1
1.1 A Crisis on Planet Earth? 1
1.2 Differing Viewpoints: Are We on a Sustainable Course 3
1.3 A Brief History of the Resource Conservation, Environmental, and Sustainability Movements 6
Case Study 1.1 The Earth Summit and Beyond 10
1.4 Classification of Natural Resources 12
1.5 Approaches to Natural Resource Management 12
1.6 Changing Realities: The Nemesis Effect 15
1.7 New Tools for Resource Management: Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing 16
2. Economics and Ethics, and Critical Thinking: Tools for Creating a Sustainable Future 22
Ethics in Resource Conservation 2.1 Ethics Versus Economics 23
2.1 Understanding Economics 24
2.2 Creating a Sustainable Economy 28
2.3 Toward Sustainable Ethics 35
Case Study 2.1 Geographic Information Systems and Ecological Justice 38
2.4 Critical Thinking and Sustainable Development 38
3. Lessons from Ecology 45
3.1 Levels of Organization 45
3.2 Scientific Principles Relevant to Ecology 47
3.3 The Flow of Energy through Ecosystems 50
3.4 Principles of Ecology 62
3.5 The Biomes 67
Case Study 3.1 Life Returns to Mount St. Helens: A Dramatic Example of Succession 68
3.6 Ecology and Sustainability 74
4. The Human Population Challenge 78
4.1 Understanding Populations and Population Growth 79
4.2 The Impacts of Over Population 85
4.3 Population Growth in the More Developed Nations: A Closer Look 87
Ethics in Resource Conservation 4.1 Is Reproduction A Personal Right? 88
4.4 Population Growth in the Less Developed Nations: A Closer Look 89
4.5 Controlling the Growth of the World's Population 89
4.6 Human Population and the Earth's Carrying Capacity 92
Case Study 4.1 China: One of Family Plannings Success Stories? 94
5. World Hunger: Solving the Problem Sustainably 97
5.1 World Hunger: Dimensions of the Problem 97
5.2 Increasing Food Supplies Sustainably: An Overview 100
Ethics In Resource Conservation 5.1 Feeding People or Controlling Population Growth 101
5.3 Poverty Conflict and Free Trade: Vital Strategies Needed to Feed the Worlds People 111
6. The Nature of Soils 115
6.1 Value of Soil 115
6.2 Characteristics of Soil 115
6.3 Soil Formation 122
6.4 The Soil Profile 125
6.5 Soil Classification 127
7. Soil Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture 134
7.1 The Nature of Soil Erosion 134
7.2 The Dust Bowl 135
7.3 The Shelterbelt Program 138
7.4 Soil Erosion Today 139
7.5 Factors Affecting the Rate of Soil Erosion by Water 140
7.6 Controlling Soil Erosion by Water 142
Case Study 7.1 A 100-Year Study of the Effects of Cropping on Soil Erosion 143
A Closer Look 7.2 The Universal Soil Loss Equation 147
7.7 Alternative Agriculture 150
7.8 Sustainable Agriculture 153
GIS and Remote Sensing GIS, Remote Sensing, and Precision Farming 157
8. Pesticides: Protecting Our Crops, Our Health, and Our Environment 161
8.1 Where Do Pests Come From? 161
8.2 Types of Chemical Pesticides: An Historical Perspective 164
8.3 How Effective Are Pesticides? 165
8.4 How Hazardous Are Pesticides? 168
8.5 Sustainable Pest Control 172
GIS and Remote Sensing Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Detect Pest Damage in Oregon's Forests 173
Case Study 8.1 Tsetse Flies Brought Under Control in Zanzibar 178
8.6 Are Pesticides Adequately Regulated? 181
9. Aquatic Environments 186
9.1 Wetlands 186
9.2 The Lake Ecosystem 194
9.3 The Stream Ecosystem 197
9.4 The Coastal Environment 200
9.5 The Ocean 211
10. Managing Resource Sustainability Waters 219
10.1 The Water Cycle 221
10.2 Flooding: Problems and Solutions 225
Case Study 10.1 The Great Mississippi Flood of 1993 228
GIS and Remote Sensing GIS Aids Snow Monitoring and Modeling at the National Weather Service 230
10.3 Water Shortages: Issues and Solutions 235
10.4 Irrigation: Issues and Solutions 240
11. Water Pollution 249
11.1 Types of Water Pollution 249
11.2 Major Pollutants and Their Control 251
Case Study 11.1 The Zebra Mussel: A Water Contaminant From Europe 264
11.3 Sewage Treatment and Disposal 273
Case Study 11.2 Invisible Threat: Toxic Chemicals in The Great Lakes 276
11.4 Legislating Water Pollution Control 283
11.5 Pollution of Oceans 285
11.6 A World View of Water Pollution 294
12. Fisheries Conservation 299
12.1 Freshwater Fisheries 300
12.2 Environmental Limitations to the Reproductive Potential of Freshwater Fish 301
Case Study 12.1 The Sea Lamprey Scourge of The Great Lakes 308
12.3 Sustainable Freshwater Fisheries Management 311
Case Study 12.2 Rebuilding Fish and Wildlife Populations on the Columbia River Drainage System 313
A Closer Look 12.3 Salmon Fever in The Great Lakes 317
12.4 Marine Fisheries 323
12.5 Problems Facing the Marine Fisheries Industry 325
12.6 Sustainable Marine Fisheries Management 329
12.7 Aquaculture 333
13. Rangeland Management 341
13.1 Ecology of Rangelands 341
A Closer Look 13.1 Prairie Restoration and the National Grasslands Story 342
13.2 Brief History of Range Use in the United States 347
A Closer Look 13.2 Causes of Desertification 349
13.3 Rangeland Resources and Condition 351
A Closer Look 13.3 Range Wars: Ranche Versus Environmentalists 354
13.4 Range Management 356
Case Study 13.4 Methods of Coyote Control 363
14. Forest Management 366
14.1 Forest Ownership 367
14.2 The U.S. Forest Service 367
14.3 Harvesting Trees 371
A Closer Look 14.1 The Monoculture Controversy 372
14.4 Reforestation 377
A Closer Look 14.2 Genetic Engineering: The Key to Tomorrow's Superforests 378
14.5 Control of Forest Pests 379
14.6 Fire Management 382
A Closer Look 14.3 Controlling Insect Outbreaks with Heterotypes 383
14.7 Meeting Future Timber Demands 385
14.8 Preserving Wilderness 386
A Closer Look 14.4 Forest Conservation by Efficient Utilization 387
14.9 Protecting Natural Resources: National Parks 388
A Closer Look 14.5 The Wilderness Controversy 389
14.10 Reversing Tropical Deforestation 393
15. Plant and Animal Extinction 400
15.1 Extinction: Eroding the Earth's Biological Diversity 401
15.2 Understanding Population Dynamics 402
15.3 Causes of Extinction 406
Case Study 15.1 Dam Versus Darter: A Classic Confrontation 408
Case Study 15.2 The Passenger Pigeon: The Many Causes of Extinction 409
GIS Remote Sensing Mapping Noxious Weeds With GIS 413
Ethics in Resource Management 15.3 Do Other Species have a Right to Exist? 414
15.4 Methods of Preventing Extinction 417
15.5 The Endangered Species Act 420
16. Wildlife Management 426
16.1 Wildlife 427
16.2 Types of Animal Movements 430
16.3 Mortality Factors 430
A Closer Look 16.1 The Hunting Controversy 435
16.4 Wildlife Management 437
16.5 Regulating Populations 443
Case Study 16.2 The Everglades: Water Troubles in A Wildlife Paradise 446
Ethics in Resource Conservation 16.3 To Kill or Not to Kill 448
16.6 Nongame Wildlife 451
17. Sustainable Waste Management 454
17.1 Municipal Waste: Tapping a Wasted Resource 454
17.2 Managing Our Municipal Solid Wastes Sustainably 456
Ethics in Resource Conservation 17.1 Do We Have an Obligation to Future Generations? 457
17.3 Waste Disposal: The Final Option 462
17.4 Hazardous Wastes 464
Case Study 17.2 The Chemical Time Bomb at Love Canal 465
Case Study 17.3 Exportin Toxic Troubles 472
18. Air Pollution 476
18.1 Pollution of the Atmosphere 477
18.2 Major Atmospheric Pollutants 478
A Closer Look 18.1 The Clean Air Act 480
18.3 Factors Affecting Air Pollution Concentrations 483
18.4 Effects of Air Pollution on Local Climate 485
18.5 Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health 486
Case Study 18.1 Asbestos: The Dangers of a Useful Product 489
18.6 Air Pollution Abatement and Control 491
Case Study 18.2 Getting Charged Up Over Electric Cars 498
18.7 Indoor Air Pollution 499
Case Study 18.3 Tobacco Smoke: The Deadliest Air Pollutant 500
19. Air Pollution: Global Problems 506
19.1 Global Climate Change 506
19.2 Acid Deposition 512
GIS and Remote Sensing GIS Aids Emergency Response and Survival Strategies in Bangladesh 513
19.3 Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone 522
Ethics in Resource Conservation 19.1 Debate Over Global Warming and Ozone Depletion: Do We Have an Obligation to Other Countries? 528
20. Minerals, Mining, and a Sustainable Society 531
20.1 Supply and Demand 532
20.2 Can We Expand Our Mineral Supplies? 535
20.3 Mineral Conservation Strategies 537
20.4 Environmental Impacts of Mineral Production 539
21. Nonrenewable Energy Resources: Issues and Options 544
21.1 Global Energy Sources: An Overview 545
21.2 A Closer Look at Nonrenewable Energy Resources 546
21.3 The Nuclear Energy Option: Is It Sustainable? 556
21.4 Fusion Reactors 569
21.5 America's Energy Future 572
22. Creating a Sustainable System of Energy: Efficiency and Renewable Energy 576
22.1 Conservation 576
22.2 Renewable Energy Strategies 581
Afterword 599
Glossary 601
Illustration Acknowledgments 618
Index 621
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Preface

Natural Resource Conservation is written for the introductory resource conservation course. It is designed to provide comprehensive coverage of a variety of local, regional, national, and global resource and environmental issues from population growth to wetlands to sustainable agriculture to global air pollution.

The first edition of this book was published in 1971, a year after the first Earth Day by our esteemed colleague, the late Oliver S. Owen. To many observers, Earth Day marked the formal beginning of the environmental movement in the United States. Since that time, impressive gains have been made in air and water pollution control, species protection, forest management, and rangeland management.

Despite this progress, many environmental problems still remain. Many others have grown worse. In 1970, for instance, the world population hovered around 3 billion. Today it has exceeded the 6 billion mark and is growing by approximately 84 million people a year. Hunger and starvation have become a way of life in many less developed nations. An estimated 12 million people die each year of starvation and disease worsened by hunger and malnutrition. Species extinction continues as well. Today an estimated 40 to .100 species become extinct every day. In the United States and abroad, soil erosion and rangeland deterioration continue.

Added to the list of growing problems are a whole host of new ones that have cropped up along the way. Groundwater pollution, ozone depletion, acid deposition, global warming, and growing mountains of urban trash top the list. Yet, along with the new problems are new and exciting solutions.

If we work togetherin solving these problems, then there is much hope. However, to address these problems in meaningful ways will require dramatic changes in the way we live our lives and conduct commerce. We need a way that is sustainable—a way of doing business and living on the planet that does not bankrupt the Earth. Most people call this sustainable development. Sustainable development is about creating a new relationship with the Earth. It is about creating a sustainable economy and a sustainable system of commerce. It is about creating sustainable communities and sustainable lifestyles. It requires new ways of managing resources using the best available scientific knowledge and understandings of complex systems and how they are maintained, even enhanced, over time. It will entail changes in virtually every aspect of our society, from farming to forest management to energy production.

We believe that establishing a sustainable relationship with the Earth will require us to use resources more frugally—using only what we need and using all resources much more efficiently than we do today. Creating a sustainable way of life will very likely mean a massive expansion of our recycling efforts, not just getting recyclables to markets, but encouraging manufacturers to use secondary materials for production and encouraging citizens to buy products made from recycled materials.

Creating a sustainable society will also very likely mean a shift to clean, economical renewable energy supplies, such as solar and wind energy. Another vital component of a sustainable society is restoration—replanting forests, grasslands, and wetlands—to ensure an adequate supply of resources for future generations as well as for the many species that share this planet with us.

Essential to the success of our efforts to create a sustainable society are efforts to slow down, even stop, world population growth. But that means stopping population growth in all nations, not just the poorer less developed nations. Population growth, in the rich nations, combined with our resource-intensive lifestyles, is contributing as much to the current global crisis as population growth in the less developed nations.

Curtailing population growth also entails efforts to better manage how we spread out on the land—that is, how and where our cities and towns expand. By adhering to judicious growth measures we can preserve farmland, forests, pastures, wildlands, and fisheries—all essential to our future and often crucial to the well-being of the countless species that share this planet with us.

In this book, we present the case for building a sustainable future based on conservation, recycling, renewable resources, restoration, and population control. We dub these the operating principles of a sustainable society. We believe that by putting these principles into practice in all sectors of our society, from agriculture to industry to transportation, we can build an enduring relationship with the planet.

The operating principles, however, must be complemented by a change in attitudes. No longer can we afford to regard the earth as an infinite source of materials for exclusive human use. Many of the Earth's resources, upon which human beings depend, are finite. The Earth offers a limited supply of resources. We ignore this imperative at our own risk.

We and many others believe that humans must adopt an attitude that seeks cooperation with, rather than domination of, nature. Our efforts to dominate and control nature are often in vain and sometimes backfire on us. Cooperation may be one of the keys to our long-term success. By cooperation, we mean fitting into nature's cycles—creating production systems, for instance, on farms that more closely correspond with nature's cycles.

Finally, we believe it is time to rethink our position in the ecosystem. Humans are not apart from nature but a part of it. Our lives and our economy are vitally dependent on the environment. The Earth is the source of all goods and services and the sink for all of our wastes. What we do to the environment we do to ourselves. The logical extension of this simple truth is that planet care is the ultimate form of self-care.

Despite the wonderful accomplishments of human society over many centuries, it is time to realize that humans are not the crowning achievement of nature, but rather members in a club comprised of all of Earth's living creatures. To achieve a sustainable relationship, many observers argue, it is time to recognize and respect the rights of other species to exist and thrive alongside humans. In this sense, natural resources may be viewed as the Earth's endowment to all species. Such a view may mean curbing our demands and finding new ways to live on the planet. In the long run, such changes will benefit all of us.

FOCUS ON PRINCIPLES, PROBLEMS, AND SOLUTIONS

This book describes many important principles of ecology and resource management, concepts that will prove useful throughout your lifetime. It also outlines many of the local, regional, national and global environmental problems and offers a variety of solutions to these problems. Solutions take three basic forms: legislative (new laws and regulations), technological (applying existing or new and improved technologies), and methodological (changing how we do things). Applying these solutions is a responsibility we all have in common. It is not just the domain of government. Citizens, business people, and government officials all have an important role to play in solving the environmental crisis and in building a sustainable society.

On the personal level, what we do or what we fail to do can have a remarkable impact on the future. We encourage you to take active steps to find ways to reduce your impact.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students learn key terms and concepts, we have included three learning aids: key words and phrases, chapter summaries of key concepts, and critical thinking and discussion questions. To help students deepen and broaden their knowledge, we have included Ethics in Resource Conservation boxes, a section on critical thinking, Case Studies, and numerous Suggested Readings.

Key Terms

At the end of each chapter is a list of key words and phrases. We recommend that students read this list before reading the chapter. After reading the chapter, take a few moments to define the terms and phrases.

Summary of Key Concepts

Each chapter in the book also contains a summary of important facts and concepts. These short summaries will help students review material before tests. Before reading the chapter, we think it is a good idea to read through the summary or study the major headings and subheadings to orient yourself.

Critical Thinking and Discussion Questions

Discussion questions at the end of each chapter also provide a way of focusing on important material and reviewing concepts and crucial facts. We have written many questions to encourage you to tie information together and to draw on personal experience. We have also included a number of questions that ask you to think critically about various issues.

Ethics in Resource Conservation

This book contains eight essays on ethics and resource management. These brief pieces present important ethical issues that confront resource managers and people like yourself on a daily basis. The ethics boxes were designed to encourage you to think about your own values and how they influence your views. They will help you understand others, too.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking is a vital skill for all of us, but it is especially important in resource conservation and management. In Chapter 1, we present a number of critical thinking rules that will help you analyze the material we present.

Case Studies

The case studies delve into controversial issues or provide detailed information that may be of interest to students pursuing a career in natural resource management. In this edition, we have removed outdated case studies and replaced them with newer ones. We have also eliminated a few to keep the number more manageable.

Suggested Readings

The Suggested Readings section in each chapter lists articles and books that are worthwhile reading for students who want to learn more about the environment.

New to the Eighth Edition

Because this field changes rapidly, we have carefully updated the text with recent statistics, recent examples, and new photographs. In addition, we have expanded coverage of pressing issues such as global climate change, ozone depletion, acid deposition, species extinction, and wetlands protection. We've added material on carrying capacity, genetic engineering, genetically modified crops, brownfield development, environmental justice, alternative fuels, and alternative vehicles.

In this edition, we have added information on geographic information systems and remote sensing. Chapter 1, for instance, presents an overview of these resource management tools. GIS and Remote Sensing case studies researched and written by John Hayes at Salem State University and Dr. Chiras give examples of the application of these tools.

This edition contains expanded coverage of policy. New international treaties, new federal laws, and other policy tools are discussed in appropriate chapters.

This edition also greatly expands previous coverage of ecosystem management and watershed management. We have continued to look for ways to expand the critical thinking theme and have, as we have in previous editions, tried to maintain an objective approach, offering both sides of many issues. The reader will also find useful our new web page: http://www.prenhall.com/chiras.

Finally, we have made a special effort to expand the scope of this book to include more examples of environmental and resource issues and solutions from other countries. In short, we have attempted to "internationalize" this book. Many examples from Canada were added in this effort.

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