Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment [NOOK Book]

Overview


An important figure in the natural law tradition and in the Scottish Enlightenment, Gershom Carmichael defended a strong theory of rights and drew attention to Grotius, Pufendorf, and Locke.Gershom Carmichael was a teacher and writer who played an important role in the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. His philosophy focused on the natural rights of individuals—the natural right to defend oneself, to own the property on which one has labored, and to services contracted for with others. Carmichael...
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Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment

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Overview


An important figure in the natural law tradition and in the Scottish Enlightenment, Gershom Carmichael defended a strong theory of rights and drew attention to Grotius, Pufendorf, and Locke.Gershom Carmichael was a teacher and writer who played an important role in the Scottish Enlightenment of the eighteenth century. His philosophy focused on the natural rights of individuals—the natural right to defend oneself, to own the property on which one has labored, and to services contracted for with others. Carmichael argued that slavery is incompatible with the rights of men and citizens, and he believed that subjects have the right to resist rulers who exceed the limits of their powers.Although he appealed to the authority of Grotius and Locke, the grounds on which he defended natural rights were distinctively his own. He drew upon the Reformed or Presbyterian theology to propose that, in respecting the natural rights of individuals, one shows one’s reverence for God’s creation. Inasmuch as all of mankind longs for lasting happiness, which can be found only in worship of or reverence for God, such reverence is the natural law which obliges all to respect the rights of all.Natural Rights includes Supplements and Observations on Pufendorf (1724), Natural Theology (1729), Logic (1722), two theses, and a manuscript on teaching, all in English for the first time.Gershom Carmichael (1672–1729) was the first professor of moral philosophy at the University of Glasgow, preceding Hutcheson, Smith,
and Reid. James Moore is Professor of
Political Science at Concordia
University in Montreal.
Michael Silverthorne is
Honorary University Fellow in the
School of Classics at the University of
Exeter.
Knud Haakonssen is Professor of Intellectual History and Director of the Centre for Intellectual History at the University of Sussex, England.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781614871842
  • Publisher: Liberty Fund Inc.
  • Publication date: 5/22/2013
  • Series: Natural Law Paper
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 430
  • File size: 650 KB

Table of Contents


Natural Rights on the Threshold of the Scottish Enlightenment . The Writings of Gershom Carmichael, ed. James Moore and Michael Silverthorne (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2002). This book is part of the multi-volume series on Natural Law and Enlightenment Classics, Knud Haakonssen, General Editor.

Table of Contents

Foreword ix

Acknowledgments xvii

I. Natural Rights

From Supplements and Observations upon Samuel Pufendorf ’s On the Duty of Man and Citizen according to the Law of Nature, composed for the Use of Students in the Universities

  • Editorial Note 7
  • 1. On Moral Philosophy, or the Science of Natural Jurisprudence 9
  • 2. On Lasting Happiness and the Divine Law 21
  • 3. On Human Action in the Divine Court 30
  • 4. Law, Rights, and Justice 39
  • 5. On Natural Law 46
  • 6. On Duty to God 54
  • 7. On Duty to Oneself 59
  • 8. On Duty to Others, or Sociability 73
  • 9. Natural Rights and Agreements 77
  • 10. On the Right of Property 91
  • 11. Contracts and Quasi Contracts 106
  • 12. Dissolution of Obligations 118
  • 13. The State of Nature 124
  • 14. On the Rights of Husbands and Wives 128
  • 15. On the Rights of Parents and Children 134
  • 16. On the Rights of Masters and Servants 138
  • 17. On the Origin of Civil Society, or the Original Contract 146
  • 18. On the Constitution of Civil Government 157
  • 19. On the Limits of Sovereign Power and the Right of Resistance 162
  • 20. On Conquest and Patrimonial Kingdoms 175
  • 21. On the Rights of Citizens 188
  • 22. On the Rights of War and Peace 199
  • 23. Appendix: The Rights and Duties of Men and Citizens 211

II. Natural Theology

Synopsis of Natural Theology (Edinburgh, 1729)

  • Contents 223
  • Preface: Natural Theology and the Foundations of Morals 227
  • On the Scope of Natural Theology 233
  • 1. On the Existence of God 234
  • 2. On the Attributes of God and First, on the Incommunicable Attributes 248
  • 3. On the Communicable Attributes of God 257
  • 4. On the Divine Operations, or Actions Involving External Objects 270

III. Logic

A Short Introduction to Logic

  • Editorial Note 287
  • Preface 289
  • A Short Introduction to Logic 292
  • 1. On Apprehension 293
  • 2. On Judgment in General, and on Immediate Judgment in Particular 298
  • 3. On Mediate Judgment or Discourse 304
  • 4. On Method, and Logical Practice 309

IV. Early Writings: Philosophical Theses

  • 1. Philosophical Theses, 1699 325
  • 2. Philosophical Theses, 1707 357

V. Gershom Carmichael’s Account of His Teaching Method 379

Bibliography 389

Index 397

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