The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation / Edition 1

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The atrocities committed by Nazi physicians and researchers during World War II prompted the development of the Nuremberg Code to define the ethics of modern medical experimentation utilizing human subjects. Since its enunciation, the Code has been viewed as one of the cornerstones of modern bioethical thought. The sources and ramifications of this important document are thoroughly discussed in this book by a distinguished roster of contemporary professionals from the fields of history, philosophy, medicine, and law. Contributors also include the chief prosecutor of the Nuremberg Military Tribunal and a moving account by a survivor of the Mengele Twin Experiments. The book sheds light on keenly debated issues of both science and jurisprudence, including the ethics of human experimentation; the doctrine of informed consent; and the Code's impact on today's international human rights agenda. The historical setting of the Code's creation, some modern parallels, and the current attitude of German physicians toward the crimes of the Nazi era, are discussed in early chapters. The book progresses to a powerful account of the Doctors' Trial at Nuremberg, its resulting verdict, and the Code's development. The Code's contemporary influence on both American and international law is examined in its historical context and discussed in terms of its universality: are the foundational ethics of the Code as valid today as when it was originally penned? The editors conclude with a chapter on foreseeable future developments and a proposal for an international covenant on human experimentation enforced by an international court. A major work in medical law and ethics, this volume provides stimulating, provocative reading for physicians, legal professionals, bioethicists, historians, biomedical researchers, and concerned laypersons.

Review of 1946 trial/role of codes in international & U.S. law/ethics, etc.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195101065
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 8/28/1995
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 400
  • Sales rank: 710,640
  • Product dimensions: 9.25 (w) x 6.13 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Meet the Author

both of the Boston University Schools of Medicine and Public Health
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Table of Contents

Primary Documents and Background Information
The Nuremberg Code 2
1 Introduction 3
I The Nazi Doctors and the Medical Experiments 13
2 Nazi Doctors, Racial Medicine, and Human Experimentation 17
3 Nazi Doctors, German Medicine, and Historical Truth 32
4 The Mengele Twins and Human Experimentation: A Personal Account 53
II In The Doctors' Trial and the Nuremberg Code 61
5 Opening Statement of the Prosecution, December 9, 1946 67
6 Judgment and Aftermath 94
Epilogue: Seven Were Hanged 105
Photos and Exhibits 109
7 Historical Origins of the Nuremberg Code 121
III The Role of Codes in International and U.S. Law 145
8 The Nuremberg Code: An International Overview 149
9 The Nuremberg Principles in International Law 174
10 The Influence of the Nuremberg Code on U.S. Statutes and Regulations 183
11 The Nuremberg Code in U.S. Courts: Ethics versus Expediency 201
IV The Nuremberg Code: Ethics and Modern Medical Research 223
12 The Consent Principle of the Nuremberg Code: Its Significance Then and Now 227
13 Universality of the Nuremberg Code 240
14 The Doctors' Trial and Analogies to the Holocaust in Contemporary Bioethical Debates 258
15 Editorial Responsibility: Protecting Human Rights by Restricting Publication of Unethical Research 276
16 AIDS Research and the Nuremberg Code 286
Conclusion 305
17 Where Do We Go From Here? 307
Appendixes 315
1. Control Council Law No. 10 317
2A. Military Government--Germany, United States Zone. Ordinance No. 7: Organization and Powers of Certain Military Tribunals 322
2B. Military Government--Germany Ordinance No. 11: Amending Military Government Ordinance No. 7 of 18 October 1946, Entitled "Organization and Powers of Certain Military Tribunals" 329
3. Declaration of Helsinki--Recommendations Guiding Doctors in Clinical Research 331
Declaration I, 18th World Medical Assembly, Helsinki, June 1964 331
Declaration II, 29th World Medical Assembly, Tokyo, October 1975 333
Declaration III, 35th World Medical Assembly, Venice, October 1983 336
Declaration IV, 41st World Medical Assembly, Hong Kong, September 1989 339
4. Use of Human Volunteers in Experimental Research, Defense Department
Memorandum for the U.S. Secretaries of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, February 1953 343
5. Department of Defense Request for Exemption from Informed Consent
Requirements for Operation Desert Shield and Food and Drug Administration
Response, December 1990 346
Index 353
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