NCLEX-PN Exam Cram / Edition 3

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Overview

Succeed with topical reviews, practice exams, and preparation tools

“The book offers a quick ‘cram’ approach to the NCLEX that is user friendly and not time intensive. The overall approach is learner-centered and the content is well paced.”

—Catherine Dearman, RN, PhD

  • Covers exactly what you need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN® exam.
  • Includes 400 sample test questions to help you determine whether you’re ready to take the actual exam.
  • Our popular Cram Sheet tearcard helps you remember key concepts.
  • Exam Alerts provide important information found on the exam.
  • Simplifies pharmacology for easy learning.

Written by Leading Nursing Experts!

Wilda Rinehart has R.N., B.S.N., M.S.N., F.N.C., and F.P.N.P. degrees. Her experience includes staff nurse in surgery, labor and delivery; public-health nurse; and family-planning nurse practitioner. She also was an instructor of surgical and obstetrical nursing.

Diann Sloan has R.N., B.S.N., M.S.N., F.N.C., as well as MS. Ed. and Ph.D. in Education degrees. She has worked as a staff nurse in surgical nursing, pediatrics, and neonatal intensive care and as a pediatric nurse clinician. She has also been an instructor of pediatric and psychiatric nursing.

Clara Hurd has M.S.N., R.N., and C.N.E. degrees. She has worked with Pearson as a consultant on item writing. She has 31 years of experience and has worked as a staff nurse in medical-surgical nursing and the surgical intensive care unit. Ms. Hurd has taught in associate and baccalaureate nursing programs.

Score Higher on the NCLEX-PN® Exam!

The CD features innovative Computer Adaptive Testing software, giving you an effective tool to assess your readiness for the NCLEX-PN® exam. Key features include:

  • Detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers
  • Multiple test modes
  • Random questions and order of answers

System Requirements:

  • Microsoft Windows XP, Microsoft Vista or Microsoft Windows 7
  • Pentium class 1GHz processor (or equivalent)
  • 256MB RAM
  • 30MB Hard Drive Space

Category: Test Preparation and Review
Covers: Nursing

NCLEX-PN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (NCSBN), which does not sponsor or endorse this product.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789741066
  • Publisher: Pearson IT Certification
  • Publication date: 9/1/2011
  • Series: Exam Cram Series
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 600
  • Sales rank: 92,035
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Wilda Rinehart received an Associate Degree in Nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College in Booneville, Mississippi. After working as a staff nurse and charge nurse, she became a public health nurse and served in that capacity for a number of years. In 1975, she received her nurse practitioner certification in the area of obstetrics-gynecology from the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi. In 1979, she completed her Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing from Mississippi University for Women. In 1980, she completed her Master of Science degree in Nursing from the same university and accepted a faculty position at Northeast Mississippi Community College, where she taught medical-surgical nursing and maternal-newborn nursing. In 1982, she founded Rinehart and Associates Nursing Consultants. For the past 26 years, she and her associates have worked with nursing graduates and schools of nursing to assist graduates to pass the National Council Licensure Exam for Nursing. She has also worked as a curriculum consultant with faculty to improve test construction. Ms. Rinehart has served as a convention speaker throughout the southeastern United States and as a reviewer of medical-surgical and obstetric texts. She has co-authored materials used in seminars presented by Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review. As the president of Rinehart and Associates, she serves as the coordinator of a company dedicated to improving the quality of health through nursing education.

Dr. Diann Sloan received an Associate Degree in Nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College, a Bachelor of Sience degree in Nursing from the University of Mississippi, and a Master of Science degree in Nursing from Mississippi University for Women. In addition to her nursing degrees, she holds a Master of Science in Counseling Psychology from Georgia State University and a Doctor of Philosophy in Counselor Education , with minors in both Psychology and Educational Psychology, from Mississippi State University. She has completed additional graduate studies in healthcare administration at Western New England College and the University of Mississippi. Dr. Sloan has taught pediatric nursing, psychiatric mental health nursing, and medical surgical nursing in both associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs. As a member of Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review, Dr. Sloan has conducted test construction workshops for faculty and nursing review seminars for both registered and practical nurse graduates. She has co-authored materials used in the item-writing workshops for nursing faculty and Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review. She is a member of Sigma Theta Tau nursing honor society.

Clara Hurd received an Associate Degree in Nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College in Booneville, Mississippi (1975). Her experiences in nursing are clinically based, having served as a staff nurse in medical-surgical nursing. She has worked as an oncology, intensive care, orthopedic, neurological, and pediatric nurse. She received her Bachelor of Science degree in Nursing from the University of North Alabama in Florence, Alabama, and her Master of Science degree in Nursing from the Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Mississippi. Ms Hurd is a certified nurse educator. She currently serves as a nurse educator consultant and an independent contractor. Ms. Hurd has taught in both associate degree and baccalaureate degree nursing programs. She was a faculty member of Mississippi University for Women; Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee; Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee; and Northeast Mississippi Community College. Ms. Hurd joined Rinehart and Associates in 1993. She has worked with students in preparing for the National Council Licensure Exam and with faculty as a consultant in writing test items. Ms. Hurd has also been a presenter at nursing conventions on various topics, including item-writing for nursing faculty. Her primary professional goal is to prepare the student and graduate for excellence in the delivery of healthcare.

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Praise for NCLEX-PN Exam CramPraise for NCLEX-PN Exam Cram

"The book offers a quick 'cram' approach to the NCLEX that is user friendly and not time intensive. The overall approach is learner-centered and the content is well paced."

Catherine Dearman, RN, PhD

IntroductionWelcome to the NCLEX-PN® Exam Cram

This book will help you prepare to take and pass the Licensure Exam for Practical Nurses. This Introduction discusses the NCLEX® exam in general and how the Exam Cram can help you prepare for the test. It doesn't matter whether this is the first time you're going to take the exam or if you have taken it previously; this book gives you the necessary information and techniques to obtain licensure.

Exam Cram books help you understand and appreciate the subjects and materials you need to pass. The books are aimed at test preparation and review. They do not teach you everything you need to know about the subject of nursing. Instead they present materials you are likely to encounter on the exam.

Using a simple approach, we help you understand the need-to-know information. First, you learn content as it applies to medical-surgical nursing, psychiatric-mental health nursing, obstetric nursing, and pediatric nursing, with an emphasis on pharmacology, skills, and management of these disorders. In a well-organized format, you learn the pathophysiology of the most common problems affecting clients, the treatment of these disorders, and the nursing care required.

The NCLEX-PN® consists of questions from the cognitive levels of knowledge, comprehension,application, and analysis. The majority of questions are written at the application and analysis levels. Questions incorporate the five stages of the nursing process (assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation) and the four categories of client needs. Client needs are divided into subcategories that define the content within each of the four major categories. These categories and subcategories are

  • A. Safe, effective care environment:

  • Coordinated care: 12%–18%

  • Safety and infection control: 8%–14%

  • B. Health promotion and maintenance: 7%–13%

  • C. Psychosocial integrity: 8%–14%

  • D. Physiological integrity:

  • Basic care and comfort: 11%–17%

  • Pharmacological and parenteral therapy: 9%–15%

  • Reduction of risk: 10%–16%

  • Physiological adaptation: 11%–17%

Taking the Computerized Adaptive Test

Computer Adaptive Testing offers the candidate several advantages. The graduate can schedule the exam at a time that is convenient for him. The Pearson VUE testing group is responsible for administering the exam. Because you might not be familiar with the Pearson VUE testing centers, we recommend that you arrive at least 30 minutes early to acclimate yourself to the surroundings and learn what you need to do while testing at the center. If you are late, you will not be allowed to test. Bring two forms of identification with you, one of which must be a picture ID. Be sure that your form of identification matches your application. You will be photographed and fingerprinted upon entering the testing site, so don't let this increase your stress. The allotted time is 5 hours. The candidate can receive results within approximately 7 days (in some states even sooner). Remember that the exam is written at approximately the 10th-grade reading level so keep a good dictionary handy during your studies.The Cost of the Exam

The candidate wanting to take the licensure exam must fill out two applications, one to the National Council and one to the state in which she wants to be licensed. A separate fee must accompany each application. The fee required by the National Council is $200. State licensing fees vary from state to state. The candidate should contact the state where she wishes to become licensed for a list of fees for that specific state. Licensure applications can be obtained on the National Council's website at http://www.ncsbn.org. Several states are members of the multistate licensure compact. This means that, if you are issued a multistate license, you pay only one fee. This information can also be obtained by visiting the National Council's website. A list of phone numbers and websites is included on this book's CD, in Appendix C, "Alphabetical Listing of Nursing Boards in the United States and Protectorates."How to Prepare for the Exam

Judicious use of this book, either alone or with a review seminar, such as that provided by Rinehart and Associates, will help you to achieve your goal of becoming a practical nurse. As you review for the NCLEX® Exam, we suggest that you find a location where you can concentrate on the material each day. A minimum of 2 hours per day for at least 2 weeks is suggested. We have provided you with exam alerts, tips, notes, and sample questions, both multiple-choice and alternative items. These questions will acquaint you with the type of questions you will see during the exam. We have also formulated a mock exam, with those difficult management and delegation questions, which you can score to determine your readiness to test. Pay particular attention to the Exam Alerts and the Cram Sheet. Using these will help you gain and retain knowledge and help reduce your stress as you prepare to test.How to Use This Book

Each topical Exam Cram chapter follows a regular structure and includes cues about important or useful information. Here's the structure of a typical chapter:

  • Opening hotlists—Each chapter begins with a list of terms and concepts you must learn and understand before you can know the subject matter. The hotlists are followed by an introductory section to set the stage for the rest of the chapter.

  • Topical coverage—After the opening hotlists, each chapter covers a series of topics related to the chapter's subject title.

Even though the book is structured to the exam, these flagged items are often particularly important:

  • Exam Alert—Exam alerts normally stress concepts, terms, or activities that are related to one or more test questions. Anything found in exam alert format is worthy of greater attention on your part. This is what an exam alert looks like:

    ***

    Caution - Exam alerts are provided as a heads up that the content mentioned here might appear on the NCLEX-PN® exam.

    ***
  • Notes—Throughout each chapter additional information is provided that, although not directly related to the exam itself, is still useful and will aid your preparation. A sample note is shown here:

    ***

    Note - This is how notes are formatted. Notes direct your attention to important pieces of information that relate to nursing and nursing certification.

    ***
  • Tips—A tip might tell you another way of accomplishing something in a more efficient or time-saving manner. An example of a tip is shown here:

    ***

    Tip - This is how tips are formatted. Keep your eyes open for these, and you'll learn some interesting nursing tips!

    ***
  • Exam Prep Questions—Although we talk about test questions and topics throughout the book, the section at the end of each chapter presents a series of mock test questions and explanations of both correct and incorrect answers.

  • Practice Exams—This book offers two exams written in the NCLEX® format. These have been provided to help you evaluate your readiness to test. Answers and rationale to these questions have also been provided. We suggest that you score the exam by subtracting the missed items from the total and dividing the total answered correctly by the total number of questions. This will give you the percentage of answers correctly. We suggest that you achieve a score of at least 77% before you schedule your exam.

  • Glossary—At the end of the book is a glossary that defines critical nursing terms we cover in this book.

  • The CD—The CD includes a testing engine with many practice questions that you should use repeatedly to practice your test-taking skills and measure your level of learning. You should be able to correctly answer more than 77% of the questions on the practice tests before trying the real exam. The CD also contains Appendix A, "Things You Forgot"; Appendix B, "Need to Know More?"; and Appendix C, "Alphabetical Listing of Nursing Boards in the United States and Protectorates."

  • Cram Sheet—At the beginning of the book is a tear card we call the Cram Sheet. This is a helpful tool that gives you distilled, compressed facts and is a great tool for last-minute study and review.

About the Book

The topics in this book have been structured using the systems approach to nursing. We believe that a simple approach to learning the disease process, treatments, and diagnostic studies is best. We review material related to diseases of each body system; the related nursing skills; and the diagnostic tests, nutrition, and pharmacology associated with each. We also consider cultural and religious aspects as they relate to the care of clients with specific illnesses.

Aside from being a test preparation book, this book is also useful if you are brushing up on your nursing knowledge. It is an excellent quick reference for the licensed nurse.Contact the Authors

The authors of this text are interested in you and want you to pass on the first attempt. If, after reviewing with this text, you would like to contact the authors, you can do so at Rinehart and Associates, PO Box 124, Booneville, MS 38829 or by visiting our website at http://www.nclexreview.net. You can also contact us by phone at 662-728-4622.

© Copyright Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

Introduction..................................................................................................xxiii

Welcome to the NCLEX-PN® Exam Cram ..............................................................xxiii

Taking the Computerized Adaptive Test ......................................................................xxiv

The Cost of the Exam...................................................................................................xxiv

How to Prepare for the Exam........................................................................................xxv

How to Use This Book ..................................................................................................xxv

About the Book.............................................................................................................xxvii

Contact the Authors .....................................................................................................xxvii

Self-Assessment................................................................................................1

Testing Your Exam Readiness............................................................................................2

CHAPTER 1

Preparing for the National Council Exam for Licensed Practical Nurses..............................3

Preparing for the Exam .....................................................................................................4

The Computer Adaptive Test ..................................................................................4

Testing Strategies......................................................................................................5

Reading the Question Carefully ..............................................................................6

Look for Keywords...................................................................................................6

Watch for Specific Details........................................................................................6

Exam Prep Questions ........................................................................................................9

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................11

CHAPTER 2

Simplifying Pharmacology ..................................................................................13

Pharmacology...................................................................................................................14

Three Areas of Pharmacology ...............................................................................14

How Nurses Work with Pharmacology..........................................................................15

Time-Released Drugs.............................................................................................16

Administering Medications ....................................................................................17

Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs ........................................................18

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors .........................................................18

Beta Adrenergic Blockers .......................................................................................19

Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) .........................................................................20

Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety) ....................................................22

Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) ..........................................................24

Glucocorticoids.......................................................................................................25

Antivirals .................................................................................................................26

Cholesterol-Lowering Agents................................................................................28

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers..............................................................................29

Histamine 2 Antagonists ........................................................................................30

Proton Pump Inhibitors .........................................................................................31

Anticoagulants ........................................................................................................32

More Drug Identification Helpers ........................................................................33

Herbals .............................................................................................................................34

Drug Schedules................................................................................................................35

Pregnancy Categories for Drugs.....................................................................................35

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................36

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................38

CHAPTER 3

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System ......................................41

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease .......................................................................42

Chronic Bronchitis .................................................................................................42

Emphysema.............................................................................................................42

Asthma ....................................................................................................................43

Acute Respiratory Infections ...........................................................................................44

Pneumonia ..............................................................................................................44

Pleurisy....................................................................................................................45

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................46

Influenza .................................................................................................................46

Emerging Infections ........................................................................................................47

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome .....................................................................47

Legionnaire’s Disease .............................................................................................48

Diagnostic Tests for Review ............................................................................................49

Pharmacology Categories for Review .............................................................................49

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................50

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................52

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................53

CHAPTER 4

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Renal and Genitourinary System ......................55

Acute Glomerulonephritis...............................................................................................56

Chronic Glomerulonephritis...........................................................................................57

End Stage Renal Disease .................................................................................................58

Peritoneal Dialysis ..................................................................................................58

Hemodialysis...........................................................................................................58

Renal Transplantations ...........................................................................................59

Nephrotic Syndrome .......................................................................................................59

Urinary Calculi ................................................................................................................60

Urinary Tract Infections..................................................................................................60

Genitourinary Disorders .................................................................................................61

Prostatitis ................................................................................................................61

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ..........................................................................................62

Bladder Cancer ................................................................................................................63

Diagnostic Tests for Review ............................................................................................64

Pharmacology Categories for Review .............................................................................64

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................65

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................67

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................68

CHAPTER 5

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Hematopoietic System...................................69

Anemia.............................................................................................................................70

Pernicious Anemia..................................................................................................70

Aplastic Anemia ......................................................................................................71

Sickle Cell Anemia .................................................................................................72

Iron Deficiency Anemia .........................................................................................73

Cooley’s Anemia (Thalassemia Major) ..................................................................73

Hemophilia ......................................................................................................................73

Polycythemia Vera ...........................................................................................................74

Diagnostic Tests for Review ............................................................................................75

Pharmacology for Review................................................................................................75

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................76

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................78

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................79

CHAPTER 6

Caring for the Client with Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid/Base Balance ..81

Basic Knowledge of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance........................................................82

Regulation of pH and Its Effect on Fluid and Electrolytes ...........................................83

How the Body Regulates pH .................................................................................83

Metabolic Acidosis ...........................................................................................................83

Causes of Metabolic Acidosis.................................................................................83

Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis...........................................................................84

Care of the Client with Metabolic Acidosis ..........................................................84

Respiratory Acidosis.........................................................................................................85

Causes of Respiratory Acidosis ..............................................................................85

Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis ........................................................................86

Caring for the Client with Respiratory Acidosis...................................................86

Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................................................87

Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis ................................................................................87

Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................87

Caring for the Client with Metabolic Alkalosis ....................................................88

Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................................................88

Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................88

Care of the Client with Respiratory Alkalosis.......................................................89

Normal Electrolyte Values ..............................................................................................89

Changes Associated with Aging ......................................................................................90

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................91

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................93

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................94

CHAPTER 7

Caring for the Client with Burns ............................................................................95

Burn Classifications .........................................................................................................96

Burn Measurement with TBSA .............................................................................98

Nursing Care for Burn Victims.......................................................................................99

The Emergent Phase............................................................................................100

The Intermediate Phase .......................................................................................104

Dressings for Burns ..............................................................................................105

The Rehabilitative Phase......................................................................................106

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................106

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................106

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................108

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................110

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................111

CHAPTER 8

Caring for the Client with Sensorineural Disorders....................................................113

Disorders of the Eyes ....................................................................................................114

Intraocular Disorders ...........................................................................................114

Retinal Disorders..................................................................................................117

Refractive Errors ..................................................................................................119

Traumatic Injuries ................................................................................................120

Visual Tests for Review..................................................................................................121

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................121

Ear Disorders .................................................................................................................121

Otitis Externa........................................................................................................122

Otitis Media ..........................................................................................................122

Meniere’s Disease .................................................................................................122

Otosclerosis...........................................................................................................123

Presbycusis ............................................................................................................123

Ear Trauma ...........................................................................................................124

Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss .............................................................................124

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................124

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................125

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................126

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................128

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................129

CHAPTER 9

Caring for the Client with Cancer .........................................................................131

Cancer ............................................................................................................................132

American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer..............................132

The Four Major Categories of Cancer................................................................132

Risk Factors for Specific Cancers ........................................................................133

Cancer Prevention................................................................................................134

Patient Teaching ...................................................................................................135

Management of the Client with Cancer .......................................................................135

Radiation...............................................................................................................136

Chemotherapy ......................................................................................................137

Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT)...139

Types of Transplants.............................................................................................139

Nursing Care After Transplantation....................................................................140

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma ...................................................................................................141

Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................141

Prognosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................142

Treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma....................................................................142

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................142

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................143

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................145

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................147

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................148

CHAPTER 10

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System................................151

Ulcers .............................................................................................................................152

Types of Ulcers .....................................................................................................152

Treatment of Ulcers .............................................................................................153

Inflammatory Bowel Disorders .....................................................................................155

Crohn’s Disease (Regional Enteritis) ...................................................................155

Ulcerative Colitis..................................................................................................156

Diverticulitis..................................................................................................................157

Diagnosis of Diverticulitis....................................................................................157

Treatment of Diverticulitis...................................................................................157

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ..................................................................158

Diseases Associated with the Liver ...............................................................................159

Hepatitis................................................................................................................159

Cirrhosis................................................................................................................164

Pancreatitis............................................................................................................166

Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis ...........................................................................................168

Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis ....................................................168

Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholethiasis ..............................................................169

Treatment of Cholecystitis ...................................................................................169

Treatment of Cholecystitis ...................................................................................169

Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholethiasis ..............................................................170

Treatment of Cholethiasis ....................................................................................170

Clostridium Difficile......................................................................................................171

Food-Borne Illnesses .....................................................................................................172

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................173

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................173

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................175

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................177

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................178

CHAPTER 11

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System ...............................179

Fractures........................................................................................................................180

Treating Fractures ................................................................................................180

Compartment Syndrome......................................................................................183

Osteomyelitis ........................................................................................................184

Osteoporosis...................................................................................................................185

Treatment of Osteoporosis...................................................................................186

Gout ...............................................................................................................................186

Treatment of the Client with Gout .....................................................................187

Rheumatoid Arthritis.....................................................................................................188

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis .....................................................................188

Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures ............................................................................189

Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement ..................................................................189

Total Knee Replacement ......................................................................................190

Amputations..........................................................................................................191

Assistive Devices for Ambulation ..................................................................................192

Crutches................................................................................................................193

Canes.....................................................................................................................193

Walkers .................................................................................................................194

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................194

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................195

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................197

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................199

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................200

CHAPTER 12

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Endocrine System .......................................201

Pituitary Disorders.........................................................................................................202

Tumors of the Pituitary ........................................................................................202

Thyroid Disorders .........................................................................................................203

Hypothyroidism....................................................................................................203

Hyperthyroidism ..................................................................................................204

Parathyroid Disorders ...................................................................................................206

Hypoparathyroidism.............................................................................................206

Hyperparathyroidism ...........................................................................................207

Adrenal Gland Disorders...............................................................................................208

Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease) ................................................208

Adrenocortical Hypersecretion (Cushing’s Syndrome).......................................209

Diabetes Mellitus ...........................................................................................................209

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................212

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................213

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................214

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................216

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................217

CHAPTER 13

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Cardiovascular System.................................219

Hypertension..................................................................................................................220

Medications Used to Treat Hypertension ...........................................................221

Heart Block ....................................................................................................................221

Toxicity to Medications ........................................................................................223

Malfunction of the Conduction System ..............................................................223

Myocardial Infarction ....................................................................................................225

Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction .....................................................................226

Management of Myocardial Infarction Clients ...................................................226

Buerger’s Disease ...........................................................................................................229

Thrombophlebitis..........................................................................................................229

Raynaud’s Syndrome......................................................................................................230

Aneurysms ......................................................................................................................230

Congestive Heart Failure ..............................................................................................231

Diagnostic Tests for Review.................................................................................232

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................232

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................233

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................235

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................236

CHAPTER 14

Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System ...................................237

Seizures..........................................................................................................................238

Types of Seizures ..................................................................................................238

Treatment of Seizure Clients ...............................................................................240

Status Epilepticus...........................................................................................................241

Brain Injuries..................................................................................................................241

Epidural Hematomas............................................................................................242

Subdural Hematoma.............................................................................................242

Treatment of Epidural and Subdural Hematomas ..............................................242

Increased Intracranial Pressure .....................................................................................243

Treatment of ICP .................................................................................................245

Neurological Assessment...............................................................................................245

Cranial Nerve Assessment....................................................................................246

Glasgow Coma Scale............................................................................................247

Intracranial Pressure Monitors ............................................................................248

Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) ........................................248

Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke..................................................................................249

Spinal Cord Injury .........................................................................................................250

Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries.......................................................................251

Potential Complications with SCI Clients ..........................................................252

Guillain-Barré ................................................................................................................253

Treating Clients with Guillian-Barré...................................................................253

Degenerative Neurological Disorders ..........................................................................253

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................255

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................255

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................257

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................259

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................260

CHAPTER 15

Caring for the Client with Psychiatric Disorders .......................................................261

Anxiety-Related Disorders ............................................................................................262

Generalized Anxiety Disorder..............................................................................262

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ............................................................................263

Dissociative Identity Disorder .............................................................................263

Somatoform Disorder...........................................................................................264

Panic Disorder ......................................................................................................264

Phobic Disorders ..................................................................................................265

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ..........................................................................265

Personality Disorders ....................................................................................................266

Cluster A ...............................................................................................................266

Cluster B ...............................................................................................................267

Cluster C...............................................................................................................268

Managing Clients with Personality Disorders ....................................................269

Psychotic Disorders .......................................................................................................270

Schizophrenia .......................................................................................................270

Bipolar Disorders..................................................................................................272

Substance Abuse.............................................................................................................274

Alcoholism ............................................................................................................274

Other Commonly Abused Substances .................................................................277

Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence.....................................................................279

Conduct Disorder.................................................................................................279

Oppositional Defiant Disorder ............................................................................279

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder..............................................................280

Autistic Disorder...................................................................................................280

Eating Disorders...................................................................................................281

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................281

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................282

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................283

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................285

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................286

CHAPTER 16

Caring for the Maternal/Infant Client.....................................................................287

Signs of Pregnancy ........................................................................................................288

Presumptive Signs ................................................................................................288

Probable Signs ......................................................................................................288

Positive Signs ........................................................................................................289

Prenatal Care .................................................................................................................289

Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance ..............................................................289

Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening...............................................................................289

Other Prenatal Diagnostic Tests ..........................................................................290

Assessing Fetal Heart Tones.................................................................................291

Ultrasonography ...................................................................................................291

Signs of Complications of Pregnancy ...........................................................................291

Types of Abortions.........................................................................................................292

Complications Affecting Pregnancy..............................................................................292

Diabetes in Pregnancy..........................................................................................293

Preeclampsia .........................................................................................................293

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation .............................................................294

Cord Prolapse .......................................................................................................295

Abruptio Placenta .................................................................................................295

Placenta Previa......................................................................................................295

Maternal Infections........................................................................................................295

Preterm Labor ...............................................................................................................299

Intrapartal Care..............................................................................................................299

Stages of Labor.....................................................................................................300

Phases of Labor ....................................................................................................300

Important Terms You Should Know....................................................................300

Prelabor Testing.............................................................................................................302

Fetal Monitoring............................................................................................................303

Pharmacologic Management of Labor .........................................................................305

Postpartum Care............................................................................................................306

Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn ..............................................................306

Rh Incompatibility.........................................................................................................307

Contraception ................................................................................................................308

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................310

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................310

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................311

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................313

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................314

CHAPTER 17

Caring for the Pediatric Client ............................................................................315

Growth and Development.............................................................................................316

Infant (28 Days to 1 Year) ....................................................................................316

Toddler (1–3 Years)...............................................................................................318

Preschooler (3–5 Years) ........................................................................................319

School Age (6–12 Years) .......................................................................................320

Adolescence (12–18 Years)....................................................................................321

Congenital Anomalies....................................................................................................321

Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal System...........................................................322

Anomalies of the Musculoskeltal System.............................................................326

Anomalies of the Cardiovascular System.............................................................328

Inborn Errors of Metabolism...............................................................................331

Respiratory Disorders....................................................................................................332

Acute Otitis Media ...............................................................................................333

Tonsillitis...............................................................................................................334

Laryngotracheobronchitis ....................................................................................335

Acute Epiglottitis..................................................................................................335

Bronchiolitis..........................................................................................................336

Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) ..........................................................................337

Gastrointestinal Disorders.............................................................................................337

Gastroenteritis ......................................................................................................338

Pyloric Stenosis.....................................................................................................338

Intussusception .....................................................................................................338

Celiac (Gluten-Induced Enteropathy, Celiac Sprue) ..........................................339

Cardiovascular Disorders ..............................................................................................339

Rheumatic Fever...................................................................................................339

Kawasaki’s Disease (Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome) .........................340

Musculoskeletal Disorders.............................................................................................342

Scoliosis.................................................................................................................342

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) ..........................................................343

Muscular Dystrophies...........................................................................................343

Childhood Cancer .........................................................................................................344

Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) ........................................................................344

Leukemia...............................................................................................................344

Osteogenic Sarcoma (Osteosarcoma) ..................................................................344

Ingestion of Hazardous Substances...............................................................................345

Salicylate Overdose...............................................................................................345

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Overdose ....................................................................345

Lead (Plumbism) ..................................................................................................345

Iron Poisoning ......................................................................................................346

Diagnostic Tests for Review ..........................................................................................346

Pharmacology Categories for Review ...........................................................................347

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................348

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................350

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................351

Practice Exam 1 .............................................................................................353

Answers to Practice Exam 1 ...............................................................................397

Practice Exam 2 .............................................................................................419

Answers to Practice Exam 2 ...............................................................................461

APPENDIX A Things You Forgot ...........................................................................................483

APPENDIX B Need to Know More? .......................................................................................491

APPENDIX C Alphabetical Listing of Nursing Boards in the United States and Protectorates ..................499

Glossary ......................................................................................................515

TOC, 9780789741066

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