NCLEX-PN Exam Cram by Wilda Rinehart, Diann Sloan, Clara Hurd, Rinehart & Associates | | Paperback | Barnes & Noble
NCLEX-PN Exam Cram / Edition 3

NCLEX-PN Exam Cram / Edition 3

3.7 7
by Wilda Rinehart, Diann Sloan, Clara Hurd, Rinehart & Associates
     
 

ISBN-10: 0789741067

ISBN-13: 9780789741066

Pub. Date: 09/01/2011

Publisher: Pearson IT Certification

“The book offers a quick ‘cram’ approach to the NCLEX that is very user-friendly and not time-intensive. The overall approach is very learner-centered and the content is well-paced.” –Catherine Dearman, R.N., Ph.D.

  • Covers exactly what you need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN

Overview

“The book offers a quick ‘cram’ approach to the NCLEX that is very user-friendly and not time-intensive. The overall approach is very learner-centered and the content is well-paced.” –Catherine Dearman, R.N., Ph.D.

  • Covers exactly what you need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN® exam
  • 445 sample test questions help you gain confidence and decide when you’re ready to take the actual exam
  • Includes the popular Cram Sheet tearcard to help you remember key concepts and do extra last-minute studying
  • Exam Alerts identify important information found on the exam
  • Simplifies key medication aide concepts and techniques for easy learning

Covers the critical information you’ll need to know to score higher on your NCLEX-PN exam!

  • Discover how the NCLEX-PN exam works, and how best to prepare for it
  • Understand essential disease processes, treatments, and diagnostic studies
  • Care for clients with respiratory, genitourinary, hematopoietic, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, endocrine, cardiovascular, neurological, and many other disorders
  • Serve maternal, infant, and pediatric clients
  • Provide compassionate and effective psychiatric care
  • Consider cultural, religious, and legal concerns associated with client care
  • Review all stages of the nursing process: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation
  • Address client needs for a safe, effective-care environment; health promotion and maintenance; and psychosocial and physiological integrity

PEARSON IT CERTIFICATION PRACTICE TEST

The CD features the innovative Pearson IT Certification practice test, giving you an effective tool to assess your readiness for the NCLEX-PN exam.

Pearson IT Certification Practice Test minimum system requirements:

  • Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (SP2), Windows 7, or Windows 8 Professional; Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 Client; Pentium class 1GHz processor (or equivalent); 512MB RAM; 650MB hard disk space plus 50MB for each downloaded practice exam; access to the Internet to register and download exam databases
  • NCLEX-PN® is a registered trademark of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (NCSBN), which does not sponsor or endorse this product.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780789741066
Publisher:
Pearson IT Certification
Publication date:
09/01/2011
Series:
Exam Cram Series
Pages:
600
Sales rank:
534,885
Product dimensions:
6.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.40(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction ...................................................................................................xxi

Welcome to the NCLEX-PN® Exam Cram ................................................................xxi

Taking the Computerized Adaptive Test.......................................................................xxii

The Cost of the Exam....................................................................................................xxii

How to Prepare for the Exam......................................................................................xxiii

How to Use This Book.................................................................................................xxiii

Self-Assessment................................................................................................1

Testing Your Exam Readiness............................................................................................2

Chapter 1 Preparing for the National Council Exam for Licensed Practical Nurses ................3

Preparing for the Exam.....................................................................................................4

The Computer Adaptive Test ..................................................................................4

Testing Strategies......................................................................................................5

Reading the Question Carefully ..............................................................................6

Look for Keywords...................................................................................................6

Watch for Specific Details........................................................................................6

Exam Prep Questions ........................................................................................................9

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................11

Chapter 2 Simplifying Pharmacology.....................................................................13

Pharmacology...................................................................................................................14

Three Areas of Pharmacology ...............................................................................14

How Nurses Work with Pharmacology..........................................................................15

Time-Released Drugs.............................................................................................16

Administering Medications ....................................................................................17

Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs ........................................................18

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors .........................................................18

Beta Adrenergic Blockers .......................................................................................19

Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) .........................................................................20

Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety) ....................................................22

Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) ..........................................................24

Glucocorticoids.......................................................................................................25

Antivirals .................................................................................................................26

Cholesterol-Lowering Agents................................................................................28

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers..............................................................................29

Histamine 2 Antagonists ........................................................................................30

Proton Pump Inhibitors .........................................................................................31

Anticoagulants ........................................................................................................32

More Drug Identification Helpers ........................................................................33

Herbals .............................................................................................................................34

Drug Schedules ................................................................................................................35

Pregnancy Categories for Drugs.....................................................................................35

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................36

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................38

Chapter 3 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System.........................41

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease .......................................................................42

Chronic Bronchitis .................................................................................................42

Emphysema.............................................................................................................42

Asthma ....................................................................................................................43

Acute Respiratory Infections ...........................................................................................44

Pneumonia ..............................................................................................................44

Pleurisy....................................................................................................................45

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................46

Influenza .................................................................................................................46

Acute Respiratory Failure................................................................................................47

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome ...................................................................47

Pulmonary Embolus ...............................................................................................48

Emerging Infections ........................................................................................................50

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome .....................................................................50

Legionnaire’s Disease .............................................................................................51

Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................51

Pharmacology Categories for Review.............................................................................52

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................53

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................55

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................56

Chapter 4 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Renal and Genitourinary System.........57

Acute Glomerulonephritis ...............................................................................................58

Chronic Glomerulonephritis...........................................................................................59

End Stage Renal Disease .................................................................................................60

Peritoneal Dialysis ..................................................................................................60

Hemodialysis...........................................................................................................60

Renal Transplantation ............................................................................................61

Nephrotic Syndrome .......................................................................................................61

Urinary Calculi ................................................................................................................62

Urinary Tract Infections..................................................................................................63

Genitourinary Disorders .................................................................................................63

Prostatitis ................................................................................................................63

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia ..........................................................................................64

Bladder Cancer ................................................................................................................66

Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................67

Pharmacology Categories for Review.............................................................................67

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................68

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................70

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................71

Chapter 5 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Hematopoietic System .....................73

Anemia..............................................................................................................................74

Pernicious Anemia..................................................................................................74

Aplastic Anemia ......................................................................................................75

Sickle Cell Anemia .................................................................................................76

Iron Deficiency Anemia .........................................................................................77

Cooley’s Anemia (Thalassemia Major) ..................................................................77

Hemophilia ......................................................................................................................77

Polycythemia Vera ...........................................................................................................78

Diagnostic Tests for Review............................................................................................79

Pharmacology for Review................................................................................................79

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................80

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................82

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................83

Chapter 6 Caring for the Client with Disorders of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance and Acid/Base Balance ...........................................................................................85

Basic Knowledge of Fluid and Electrolyte Balance........................................................86

Regulation of pH and Its Effect on Fluid and Electrolytes ...........................................87

How the Body Regulates pH.................................................................................87

Metabolic Acidosis ...........................................................................................................87

Causes of Metabolic Acidosis.................................................................................87

Symptoms of Metabolic Acidosis ...........................................................................88

Care of the Client with Metabolic Acidosis ..........................................................88

Respiratory Acidosis.........................................................................................................89

Causes of Respiratory Acidosis ..............................................................................89

Symptoms of Respiratory Acidosis ........................................................................90

Caring for the Client with Respiratory Acidosis...................................................90

Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................................................91

Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis ................................................................................91

Symptoms of Metabolic Alkalosis ..........................................................................91

Caring for the Client with Metabolic Alkalosis ....................................................92

Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................................................92

Symptoms of Respiratory Alkalosis........................................................................92

Care of the Client with Respiratory Alkalosis.......................................................93

Normal Electrolyte Values ..............................................................................................93

Changes Associated with Aging ......................................................................................94

Exam Prep Questions ......................................................................................................96

Answer Rationales...................................................................................................98

Suggested Reading and Resources ..................................................................................99

Chapter 7 Caring for the Client with Burns .............................................................101

Burn Classifications .......................................................................................................102

Burn Measurement with TBSA ...........................................................................104

Nursing Care for Burn Victims.....................................................................................105

The Emergent Phase............................................................................................106

The Intermediate Phase .......................................................................................110

Dressings for Burns ..............................................................................................111

The Rehabilitative Phase......................................................................................112

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................112

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................112

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................114

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................116

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................117

Chapter 8 Caring for the Client with Sensorineural Disorders ......................................119

Disorders of the Eyes ....................................................................................................120

Intraocular Disorders ...........................................................................................120

Retinal Disorders..................................................................................................123

Refractive Errors ..................................................................................................125

Traumatic Injuries ................................................................................................126

Visual Tests for Review..................................................................................................127

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................127

Ear Disorders .................................................................................................................127

Otitis Externa........................................................................................................128

Otitis Media ..........................................................................................................128

Meniere’s Disease .................................................................................................128

Otosclerosis...........................................................................................................129

Presbycusis ............................................................................................................129

Ear Trauma ...........................................................................................................130

Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss .............................................................................130

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................130

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................131

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................132

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................134

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................135

Chapter 9 Caring for the Client with Cancer ...........................................................137

Cancer ............................................................................................................................138

American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer..............................138

The Four Major Categories of Cancer................................................................138

Risk Factors for Specific Cancers ........................................................................139

Cancer Prevention................................................................................................140

Patient Teaching ...................................................................................................141

Management of the Client with Cancer .......................................................................141

Radiation...............................................................................................................142

Chemotherapy ......................................................................................................143

Bone Marrow Transplantation and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation (PSCT)...145

Types of Transplants.............................................................................................145

Nursing Care After Transplantation....................................................................146

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma ...................................................................................................147

Diagnosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................147

Prognosis of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma.....................................................................148

Treatment of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma....................................................................148

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................148

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................149

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................151

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................153

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................154

Chapter 10 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System.................155

Ulcers .............................................................................................................................156

Types of Ulcers .....................................................................................................156

Treatment of Ulcers .............................................................................................157

Inflammatory Bowel Disorders .....................................................................................159

Crohn’s Disease (Regional Enteritis) ...................................................................159

Ulcerative Colitis..................................................................................................160

Diverticulitis...................................................................................................................161

Diagnosis of Diverticulitis....................................................................................161

Treatment of Diverticulitis...................................................................................161

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) ..................................................................162

Diseases Associated with the Liver ...............................................................................163

Hepatitis................................................................................................................163

Cirrhosis................................................................................................................168

Pancreatitis............................................................................................................170

Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis ...........................................................................................172

Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis ....................................................172

Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholethiasis ..............................................................173

Treatment of Cholecystitis ...................................................................................173

Treatment of Cholethiasis ....................................................................................174

Clostridium Difficile......................................................................................................175

Food-Borne Illnesses .....................................................................................................175

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................176

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................177

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................178

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................180

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................181

Chapter 11 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System................183

Fractures.........................................................................................................................184

Treating Fractures ................................................................................................184

Compartment Syndrome......................................................................................187

Osteomyelitis ........................................................................................................188

Osteoporosis...................................................................................................................189

Treatment of Osteoporosis...................................................................................190

Gout ...............................................................................................................................190

Treatment of the Client with Gout .....................................................................191

Rheumatoid Arthritis .....................................................................................................192

Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis .....................................................................192

Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures ............................................................................193

Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement ..................................................................193

Total Knee Replacement ......................................................................................194

Amputations..........................................................................................................195

Assistive Devices for Ambulation..................................................................................196

Crutches ................................................................................................................197

Canes.....................................................................................................................197

Walkers .................................................................................................................198

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................198

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................199

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................201

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................203

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................204

Chapter 12 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Endocrine System........................205

The Endocrine System..................................................................................................206

Pituitary Disorders.........................................................................................................206

Tumors of the Pituitary........................................................................................207

Thyroid Disorders .........................................................................................................209

Hypothyroidism....................................................................................................209

Hyperthyroidism ..................................................................................................210

Parathyroid Disorders ...................................................................................................212

Hypoparathyroidism.............................................................................................212

Hyperparathyroidism ...........................................................................................213

Adrenal Gland Disorders...............................................................................................214

Adrenocortical Insufficiency (Addison’s Disease) ................................................214

Adrenocortical Hypersecretion (Cushing’s Syndrome) or Cushing’s Disease....215

Diabetes Mellitus ...........................................................................................................215

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................219

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................219

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................220

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................222

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................223

Chapter 13 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Cardiovascular System..................225

Hypertension..................................................................................................................226

Medications Used to Treat Hypertension ...........................................................227

Heart Block ....................................................................................................................227

Toxicity to Medications ........................................................................................229

Malfunction of the Conduction System ..............................................................229

Myocardial Infarction ....................................................................................................230

Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction .....................................................................231

Management of Myocardial Infarction Clients ...................................................232

Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart .............................................................................235

Infective Endocarditis...........................................................................................235

Pericarditis ............................................................................................................235

Buerger’s Disease ...........................................................................................................236

Thrombophlebitis ..........................................................................................................236

Raynaud’s Syndrome......................................................................................................237

Aneurysms ......................................................................................................................237

Congestive Heart Failure ..............................................................................................238

Diagnostic Tests for Review.................................................................................238

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................239

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................240

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................242

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................243

Chapter 14 Caring for the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System ....................245

Seizures...........................................................................................................................246

Types of Seizures ..................................................................................................246

Treatment of Seizure Clients ...............................................................................248

Status Epilepticus...........................................................................................................249

Brain Injuries..................................................................................................................249

Epidural Hematomas............................................................................................250

Subdural Hematoma.............................................................................................250

Treatment of Epidural and Subdural Hematomas ..............................................250

Increased Intracranial Pressure .....................................................................................251

Treatment of ICP .................................................................................................253

Neurological Assessment ...............................................................................................253

Cranial Nerve Assessment....................................................................................254

Glasgow Coma Scale ............................................................................................255

Intracranial Pressure Monitors ............................................................................256

Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) ........................................256

Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke..................................................................................257

Spinal Cord Injury .........................................................................................................258

Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries.......................................................................259

Potential Complications with SCI Clients ..........................................................260

Guillain-Barré ................................................................................................................261

Treating Clients with Guillian-Barré...................................................................261

Degenerative Neurological Disorders ..........................................................................261

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................263

Pharmacology for Review..............................................................................................263

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................265

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................267

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................268

Chapter 15 Caring for the Client with Psychiatric Disorders ........................................269

Anxiety-Related Disorders ............................................................................................270

Generalized Anxiety Disorder..............................................................................270

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder ............................................................................271

Dissociative Identity Disorder .............................................................................271

Somatoform Disorder...........................................................................................272

Panic Disorder ......................................................................................................272

Phobic Disorders ..................................................................................................273

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ..........................................................................273

Personality Disorders ....................................................................................................274

Cluster A...............................................................................................................274

Cluster B...............................................................................................................275

Cluster C...............................................................................................................276

Managing Clients with Personality Disorders ....................................................277

Psychotic Disorders .......................................................................................................277

Schizophrenia .......................................................................................................277

Bipolar Disorders..................................................................................................280

Substance Abuse.............................................................................................................282

Alcoholism ............................................................................................................282

Other Commonly Abused Substances .................................................................285

Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence.....................................................................287

Conduct Disorder.................................................................................................287

Oppositional Defiant Disorder ............................................................................287

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder..............................................................288

Autistic Disorder...................................................................................................288

Eating Disorders...................................................................................................289

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................289

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................290

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................291

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................293

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................294

Chapter 16 Caring for the Maternal/Infant Client......................................................295

Signs of Pregnancy ........................................................................................................296

Presumptive Signs ................................................................................................296

Probable Signs ......................................................................................................296

Positive Signs ........................................................................................................297

Prenatal Care .................................................................................................................297

Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance ..............................................................297

Alpha-Fetoprotein Screening...............................................................................297

Other Prenatal Diagnostic Tests ..........................................................................298

Assessing Fetal Heart Tones.................................................................................299

Ultrasonography ...................................................................................................299

Signs of Complications of Pregnancy ...........................................................................299

Types of Abortions.........................................................................................................300

Complications Affecting Pregnancy..............................................................................301

Diabetes in Pregnancy..........................................................................................301

Preeclampsia .........................................................................................................302

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation .............................................................303

Cord Prolapse .......................................................................................................303

Abruptio Placenta .................................................................................................303

Placenta Previa......................................................................................................303

Maternal Infections........................................................................................................304

Preterm Labor ...............................................................................................................306

Intrapartal Care..............................................................................................................307

Stages of Labor .....................................................................................................307

Phases of Labor ....................................................................................................308

Important Terms You Should Know....................................................................308

Prelabor Testing.............................................................................................................309

Fetal Monitoring............................................................................................................310

Pharmacologic Management of Labor .........................................................................312

Postpartum Care............................................................................................................313

Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn ..............................................................313

Rh Incompatibility.........................................................................................................314

Contraception ................................................................................................................315

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................316

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................317

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................318

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................320

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................321

Chapter 17 Caring for the Pediatric Client .............................................................323

Growth and Development.............................................................................................324

Infant (28 Days to 1 Year) ....................................................................................324

Toddler (1–3 Years)...............................................................................................326

Preschooler (3–5 Years) ........................................................................................327

School Age (6–12 Years) .......................................................................................328

Adolescence (12–18 Years)....................................................................................329

Congenital Anomalies....................................................................................................329

Anomalies of the Gastrointestinal System...........................................................330

Anomalies of the Musculoskeltal System.............................................................334

Anomalies of the Cardiovascular System.............................................................336

Inborn Errors of Metabolism...............................................................................339

Respiratory Disorders....................................................................................................340

Acute Otitis Media ...............................................................................................341

Tonsillitis...............................................................................................................342

Laryngotracheobronchitis ....................................................................................343

Acute Epiglottitis..................................................................................................343

Bronchiolitis..........................................................................................................344

Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) ..........................................................................345

Gastrointestinal Disorders.............................................................................................345

Gastroenteritis ......................................................................................................346

Pyloric Stenosis.....................................................................................................346

Intussusception .....................................................................................................346

Celiac (Gluten-Induced Enteropathy, Celiac Sprue) ..........................................347

Cardiovascular Disorders ..............................................................................................347

Rheumatic Fever...................................................................................................347

Kawasaki’s Disease (Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome) .........................348

Musculoskeletal Disorders.............................................................................................350

Scoliosis.................................................................................................................350

Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) ..........................................................351

Muscular Dystrophies...........................................................................................351

Childhood Cancer .........................................................................................................352

Wilms Tumor (Nephroblastoma) ........................................................................352

Leukemia...............................................................................................................352

Osteogenic Sarcoma (Osteosarcoma) ..................................................................352

Ingestion of Hazardous Substances...............................................................................353

Salicylate Overdose...............................................................................................353

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Overdose ....................................................................353

Lead (Plumbism) ..................................................................................................353

Iron Poisoning ......................................................................................................354

Diagnostic Tests for Review..........................................................................................354

Pharmacology Categories for Review...........................................................................355

Exam Prep Questions ....................................................................................................356

Answer Rationales.................................................................................................358

Suggested Reading and Resources ................................................................................359

Practice Exam 1 .............................................................................................361

Answers to Practice Exam 1 ...............................................................................405

Practice Exam 2 .............................................................................................427

Answers to Practice Exam 2 ...............................................................................469

Appendix A Things You Forgot............................................................................491

Appendix B Need to Know More? ........................................................................499

Appendix C Calculations...................................................................................507

Glossary ......................................................................................................511

TOC, 9780789753151, 5/1/2014

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