NCLEX-RN Exam Prep / Edition 2
  • NCLEX-RN Exam Prep / Edition 2
  • NCLEX-RN Exam Prep / Edition 2

NCLEX-RN Exam Prep / Edition 2

4.4 25
by Wilda Rinehart, Clara Hurd, Diann Sloan
     
 

ISBN-10: 0789745275

ISBN-13: 9780789745279

Pub. Date: 09/15/2010

Publisher: Pearson IT Certification

NCLEX-RN Exam Prep, Second Edition, offers in-depth coverage of all the topics a candidate needs to study for NCLEX's newest registered nurse licensing exam. This book blends the ideal level of discussion, drawings, tables, and exercises into a focused format designed for efficient and comprehensive study. It offers special features such as fast facts, notes,

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Overview

NCLEX-RN Exam Prep, Second Edition, offers in-depth coverage of all the topics a candidate needs to study for NCLEX's newest registered nurse licensing exam. This book blends the ideal level of discussion, drawings, tables, and exercises into a focused format designed for efficient and comprehensive study. It offers special features such as fast facts, notes, tips, and exam alerts. As demanded by the exam itself, it also highlights judgment skills throughout; for example, critical thinking exercises provide students with the opportunity to integrate and make sense of complex sets of facts. NCLEX-RN Exam Prep, Second Edition, includes an extensive set of questions and Answer Rationales in each chapter, plus two complete exams — totaling 530 practice questions in all. The CD-ROM's exam includes an interactive Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) engine that draws on a library of approximately 2,000 exam questions to deliver a highly meaningful and relevant exam simulation experience.

  • Comprehensive topical learning for all NCLEX-RN test areas, from care of physical and psychiatric disorders to cultural and legal issues
  • Includes 530 exam questions and Answer Rationales within the book itself, plus an advanced Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) test simulator on CD-ROM
  • Presents expert test-taking and study strategies designed to improve readiness and alleviate anxiety

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  • Product Details

    ISBN-13:
    9780789745279
    Publisher:
    Pearson IT Certification
    Publication date:
    09/15/2010
    Series:
    Exam Prep Series
    Pages:
    980
    Sales rank:
    904,657
    Product dimensions:
    8.30(w) x 10.80(h) x 2.10(d)

    Table of Contents

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 1

    Organization . . . . . . . . 2

    Instructional Features . . . . . . . . 2

    Extensive Practice Test Options. . . . . . . 3

    Final Review . . . . . . . . . 3

    Other Valuable Tools . . . . . . . 4

    About the NCLEX Exam . . . . . . . 4

    Advice for Preparing for the Exam . . . . . . 6

    Advice for Test Day . . . . . . . 6

    Hints for Using This Book . . . . . . . 7

    Contact the Author . . . . . . . . 8

    Study and Exam Preparation Tips . . . . . . . 9

    Study Tips . . . . . . . . . 9

    Exam Prep Tips . . . . . . . . 10

    Read the Question Carefully . . . . . . 11

    Look for Keywords . . . . . . . 11

    Watch for Specific Details . . . . . . . 11

    Eliminate Options That Are Clearly Wrong or Incorrect . . . 11

    Look for Similar Options . . . . . . . 12

    Look for Opposite Answers . . . . . . 13

    Part I: Exam Preparation

    Chapter 1: Pharmacology . . . . . . . . . 15

    Three Areas of Pharmacology . . . . . . . 15

    How Nurses Work with Pharmacology . . . . . . 16

    Time-released Drugs. . . . . . . . 17

    Administering Medications. . . . . . . 18

    The Seven Rights of Administering Medication . . . . 18

    Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs . . . . . 19

    Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors . . . . . 19

    Beta Adrenergic Blockers . . . . . . . 20

    Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) . . . . . . 21

    Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety). . . . 23

    Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) . . . . . 24

    Glucocorticoids . . . . . . . . 25

    Antivirals . . . . . . . . 27

    Cholesterol-Lowering Agents . . . . . . 28

    Angiotensin Receptor Blockers . . . . . . 29

    Histamine 2 Antagonists . . . . . . . 30

    Proton Pump Inhibitors . . . . . . . 31

    Anticoagulants . . . . . . . . 32

    More Drug Identification Helpers . . . . . . 33

    Herbals . . . . . . . . . 34

    Drug Schedules . . . . . . . . 35

    Pregnancy Categories for Drugs . . . . . . . 35

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 36

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 36

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 37

    Answer Rationales . . . . . . . 39

    Chapter 2: Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance . . . . . . 41

    Total Body Water Calculation . . . . . . . 41

    Management of the Client with Imbalances in Fluid and Electrolytes . . . 43

    Types of Intravenous Fluids . . . . . . 43

    How the Body Regulates Electrolytes. . . . . 44

    How the Body Regulates pH . . . . . . 52

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 60

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 60

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 60

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Alterations in Fluids and Electrolytes . . . . . . . 60

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 61

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 62

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 64

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 65

    Chapter 3: Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . . 67

    Hypertension . . . . . . . . . 68

    Diagnosing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

    Managing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

    Coronary Artery Disease. . . . . . . 71

    Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis . . . . . . 71

    Conduction System of the Heart. . . . . . . 72

    Heart Block. . . . . . . . 73

    Cardiac Monitoring . . . . . . . . 74

    Reading an Electrocardiogram. . . . . . 76

    Cardiac Dysrhythmias . . . . . . . . 76

    Ventricular Tachycardia. . . . . . . 78

    Ventricular Fibrillation . . . . . . . 79

    Internal Pacemaker/Internal Cardiac Defibrillators . . . . 79

    Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation . . . . . . 80

    Angina Pectoris . . . . . . . . 81

    Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . 82

    Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . 82

    Management of a Client with Myocardial Infarction . . . . 83

    Aneurysms. . . . . . . . . 89

    Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart . . . . . . 90

    Infective Endocarditis . . . . . . . 90

    Pericarditis . . . . . . . . 91

    Peripheral Vascular Disease . . . . . . 91

    Varicose Veins/Thrombophlebitis . . . . . . 92

    Raynaud’s Phenomenon . . . . . . . 93

    Buerger’s Disease . . . . . . . . 93

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 94

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 94

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . 95

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Cardiovascular Disorders. . . . . . . . 96

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 101

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 101

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 103

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 104

    Chapter 4: Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . 105

    Pituitary Gland. . . . . . . . 106

    Hypopituitarism . . . . . . . . 106

    Hyperpituitarism . . . . . . . 106

    Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland . . . . . 107

    Thyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 108

    Hypothyroidism . . . . . . . . 108

    Hyperthyroidism . . . . . . . 110

    Parathyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 112

    Hypoparathyroidism . . . . . . . 112

    Hyperparathyroidism. . . . . . . 113

    Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . 114

    Hyperglycemia . . . . . . . . 116

    Hypoglycemia. . . . . . . . 117

    Managing Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. . . . 117

    Adrenal Gland . . . . . . . . 118

    Adrenal Gland Disorders . . . . . . . 119

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 123

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 123

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 124

    Pharmacological Agents Used to Treat Clients with Endocrine Disorders. 124

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 128

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 128

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 130

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 131

    Chapter 5: Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders. . . . . . 133

    Noninfectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract . . . . 133

    Chronic Bronchitis. . . . . . . 133

    Emphysema. . . . . . . . 134

    Asthma. . . . . . . . . 135

    Pleurisy . . . . . . . . 137

    Pulmonary Hypertension . . . . . . . 138

    Interstitial Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 139

    Sarcoidosis. . . . . . . . 139

    Pulmonary Fibrosis . . . . . . . 140

    Occupational Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 140

    Infectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract. . . . 142

    Pneumonia . . . . . . . . 142

    Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 145

    Influenza . . . . . . . . 147

    Life-Threatening Pulmonary Disorders. . . . . . 148

    Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. . . . . 148

    Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . 152

    Pneumothorax . . . . . . . . 154

    Hemothorax . . . . . . . . 155

    Emerging Infections . . . . . . . . 158

    SARS . . . . . . . . . 158

    Legionnaires’ Disease . . . . . . . 159

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 161

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 161

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 161

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . 162

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 165

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 166

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 168

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 169

    Chapter 6: Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . . . 171

    Renal Disorders . . . . . . . . 172

    Acute Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 172

    Chronic Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 173

    Goodpasture’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 174

    Nephrotic Syndrome . . . . . . . 175

    Polycystic Kidney Disease . . . . . . 176

    Hydronephrosis/Hydroureteronephrosis . . . . . 177

    Pyelonephritis. . . . . . . . 178

    Acute and Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . 179

    Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . . 180

    Peritoneal Dialysis . . . . . . . 181

    Hemodialysis. . . . . . . . 182

    Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. . . . . 183

    Renal Transplantation . . . . . . . 184

    Urinary Disorders . . . . . . . . 185

    Cystitis. . . . . . . . . 185

    Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . 187

    Urolithiasis . . . . . . . . 188

    Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . . . 189

    Prostatitis . . . . . . . . 190

    Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy . . . . . . 190

    Erectile Dysfunction . . . . . . . 191

    Epididymitis . . . . . . . . 193

    Priapism. . . . . . . . 193

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 195

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 195

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 195

    Pharmacologic Agents for the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . 196

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 200

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 200

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 202

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 203

    Chapter 7: Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . . 205

    Common Infections of the Integumentary System . . . . . 205

    Viral Infections . . . . . . . . 205

    Fungal Infections . . . . . . . 207

    Bacterial Infections . . . . . . . 208

    Psoriasis. . . . . . . . . 208

    Pressure Ulcers. . . . . . . . 209

    Burns . . . . . . . . . 212

    Burn Classifications . . . . . . . 213

    Burn Measurement with TBSA . . . . . . 214

    Nursing Care for Burn Victims . . . . . . 215

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 223

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 223

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 223

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders. . . . . . . . 224

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 226

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 226

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 228

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 229

    Chapter 8: Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders. . . . . . 231

    Disorders of the Eyes . . . . . . . . 231

    Intraocular Disorders . . . . . . . 232

    Uveitis . . . . . . . . . 236

    Corneal Dystrophy and Corneal Transplantation . . . . 236

    Retinal Disorders . . . . . . . 236

    Refractive Errors . . . . . . . 239

    Traumatic Injuries . . . . . . . 240

    Ocular Melanoma . . . . . . . 240

    Disorders of the Ears. . . . . . . . 242

    Otitis Externa . . . . . . . . 243

    Otitis Media . . . . . . . . 243

    Mastoiditis. . . . . . . . 244

    Ménière’s Disease. . . . . . . 244

    Acoustic Neuroma . . . . . . . 245

    Otosclerosis. . . . . . . . 245

    Presbycusis . . . . . . . . 246

    Ear Trauma . . . . . . . . 246

    Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss . . . . . 247

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 250

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 250

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 251

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Eyes and Ears . . . . . . . . 251

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 253

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 253

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 255

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 256

    Chapter 9: Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . . 257

    Peptic Ulcer Disease . . . . . . . . 258

    Types of Ulcers. . . . . . . . 259

    Diagnosis of Ulcers . . . . . . . 259

    Treatment of Ulcers. . . . . . . 260

    Inflammatory Bowel Disorders . . . . . . . 263

    Crohn’s Disease . . . . . . . . 263

    Ulcerative Colitis . . . . . . . 263

    Management of the Client with Inflammatory Bowel Disease . . . 264

    Diverticular Disease. . . . . . . . 265

    Management of the Client with Diverticulitis . . . . 265

    Hemorrhoids . . . . . . . . 266

    Appendicitis . . . . . . . . . 266

    Peritonitis . . . . . . . . . 268

    Intestinal Obstruction . . . . . . . . 269

    Esophageal Disorders . . . . . . . . 270

    GERD . . . . . . . . . 270

    Hiatal Hernia . . . . . . . . 274

    Diseases Associated with the Liver . . . . . . 275

    Hepatitis . . . . . . . . 275

    Cirrhosis . . . . . . . . 281

    Acute Pancreatitis . . . . . . . . 285

    Diagnosis of Pancreatitis. . . . . . . 286

    Treatment of Pancreatitis . . . . . . . 286

    Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . . . 287

    Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis . . . . 288

    Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . 288

    Treatment of Cholecystitis . . . . . . 289

    Treatment of Cholethiasis. . . . . . . 289

    Clostridium Difficile . . . . . . . . 290

    Food-Borne Illnesses. . . . . . . . 291

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 294

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 294

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 295

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System . . . . . . . 295

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 297

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 298

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 300

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 301

    Chapter 10: Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . . 303

    Anemia. . . . . . . . . 303

    Pernicious Anemia . . . . . . . 304

    Aplastic Anemia . . . . . . . . 304

    Sickle Cell Anemia. . . . . . . 305

    Iron Deficiency Anemia . . . . . . . 309

    Thalassemia . . . . . . . . . 311

    Polycythemia Vera . . . . . . . . 312

    Hemophilia . . . . . . . . . 313

    Transfusion Therapy . . . . . . . . 315

    Transfusion Reactions . . . . . . . 317

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 319

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 319

    Diagnostic Tests for Review . . . . . . 319

    Pharmacological Agents Used in Hematological Disorders . . . 320

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 321

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 321

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 323

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 324

    Chapter 11:Care of the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System. . . . 325

    Neurological Assessment . . . . . . . 326

    Cranial Nerve Assessment . . . . . . 326

    Glasgow Coma Scale . . . . . . . 327

    Intracranial Pressure Monitors. . . . . . 328

    Brain Injuries . . . . . . . . 329

    Epidural Hematomas. . . . . . . 332

    Subdural Hematoma . . . . . . . 332

    Intracerebral Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

    Treatment of Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

    Increased Intracranial Pressure . . . . . . 332

    Brain Tumors . . . . . . . . 336

    Treatment of Brain Tumors . . . . . . 337

    Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) . . . . 338

    Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke . . . . . . 342

    Ischemic Stroke . . . . . . . . 342

    Hemorrhagic Stroke . . . . . . . 344

    Seizures . . . . . . . . . 347

    Types of Seizures . . . . . . . 347

    Treatment of Seizure Clients . . . . . . 350

    Parkinson’s Disease . . . . . . . . 350

    Meningitis . . . . . . . . . 352

    Autoimmune Neurological Disorders. . . . . . 354

    Multiple Sclerosis. . . . . . . 354

    Myasthenia Gravis . . . . . . . 355

    Guillain-Barré. . . . . . . . 357

    Degenerative Neurological Disorders . . . . . . 358

    Cranial Nerve Disorders. . . . . . . 359

    Trigeminal Neuralgia . . . . . . . 359

    Bell’s Palsy. . . . . . . . 359

    Spinal Cord Injuries . . . . . . . . 360

    Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries. . . . . . 361

    Potential Complications with SCI Clients . . . . . 362

    Intervertebral Disk Disease . . . . . . . 363

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 366

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 366

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 367

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Clients with Neurological Disorders. . . . . . . . 368

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 373

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 373

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 376

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 377

    Chapter 12: Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders . . . . . . 379

    Immunodeficiency Syndrome . . . . . . . 380

    Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . 381

    HIV Prevention . . . . . . . . 383

    Standard Precautions. . . . . . . 383

    Airborne Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

    Droplet Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

    Contact Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 385

    Treatments After Occupational Exposure. . . . . 385

    Management of the Client with HIV . . . . . . 385

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 389

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 389

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 389

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . . . . . 390

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 393

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 394

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 396

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 397

    Chapter 13: Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . . 399

    American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer. . . . 399

    The Four Major Categories of Cancer. . . . . . 400

    Risk Factors for Specific Cancers . . . . . . 400

    Cancer Prevention . . . . . . . . 402

    Major Types of Cancer . . . . . . . 403

    Colorectal Cancer . . . . . . . 403

    Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . 407

    Prostate Cancer . . . . . . . . 409

    Breast Cancer . . . . . . . . 411

    Other Major Cancers. . . . . . . 416

    General Interventions for Clients with Cancer . . . . . 421

    Radiation . . . . . . . . 421

    Chemotherapy . . . . . . . . 423

    Total Parenteral Nutrition . . . . . . 424

    Neoplastic-Associated Disorders and Emergencies . . . . 426

    Bone Marrow and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation . . . . 427

    Types of Transplants . . . . . . . 428

    Nursing Care After Transplantation . . . . . 428

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 431

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 431

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 432

    Pharmacologic Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Specific Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . . . . 433

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 440

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 440

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 443

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 445

    Chapter 14: Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . . 447

    Fractures . . . . . . . . . 448

    Major Fracture Sites . . . . . . . 450

    General Treatment for Fractures. . . . . . 450

    Common Complications Associated with Fractures . . . . 454

    Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . 457

    Osteoarthritis . . . . . . . . 458

    Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis. . . . . . 459

    Treatment of the Client with Osteoarthritis . . . . . 459

    Fibromyalgia. . . . . . . . . 460

    Ankylosing Spondylitis . . . . . . . 460

    Gout. . . . . . . . . 461

    Rheumatoid Arthritis. . . . . . . . 462

    Lupus Erythematosus . . . . . . . . 464

    Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures . . . . . . 466

    Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement . . . . . 466

    Total Knee Replacement. . . . . . . 467

    Amputations . . . . . . . . 468

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 474

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 474

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 474

    Pharmacologic Agents Used in Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders. . . . . . . . 475

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 479

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 479

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 481

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 482

    Chapter 15: Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . . 483

    Prenatal Care . . . . . . . . 483

    Signs of Pregnancy. . . . . . . 483

    Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance . . . . . 484

    Measuring Fetal Heart Tones. . . . . . 486

    Measuring Fundal Height. . . . . . . 486

    Prelabor Testing . . . . . . . . 486

    Intrapartal Care . . . . . . . . 488

    Stages of Labor. . . . . . . . 489

    Important Terms You Should Know . . . . . 489

    Complications Associated with Pregnancy. . . . . 490

    Cardiac Disease During Pregnancy. . . . . . 490

    Diabetes in Pregnancy. . . . . . . 493

    Preeclampsia . . . . . . . . 494

    Ectopic Pregnancy . . . . . . . 495

    Hydatidiform Mole . . . . . . . 495

    Incompetent Cervix . . . . . . . 496

    Types of Abortions. . . . . . . 496

    Placenta Previa . . . . . . . . 497

    Abruptio Placenta. . . . . . . 497

    Complications Associated with Labor and Delivery . . . . 498

    Fetal Malpresentation . . . . . . . 499

    Post-term Labor and Birth . . . . . . 499

    Precipitate Delivery . . . . . . . 500

    Cord Prolapse. . . . . . . . 500

    Cesarean Birth . . . . . . . . 500

    Assisted Birth . . . . . . . . 501

    Fetal Monitoring . . . . . . . 501

    Pharmacologic Management of Labor . . . . . . 503

    Postpartum Care . . . . . . . . 504

    Newborn Care . . . . . . . . 505

    Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn . . . . 506

    Rh Incompatibility . . . . . . . 507

    Women’s Health Issues . . . . . . . 508

    Pelvic Inflammatory Disease . . . . . . 508

    Menopause . . . . . . . . 508

    Maternal Infections . . . . . . . 508

    Methods of Contraception . . . . . . 511

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 514

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 514

    Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 515

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Obstetric Client . . 516

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 517

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 518

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 520

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 521

    Chapter 16: Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . . 523

    Growth and Development . . . . . . . 523

    Infant (28 Days to 1 Year). . . . . . . 523

    Toddler (1–3 Years) . . . . . . . 524

    Preschooler (3–5 Years) . . . . . . . 525

    School Age (6–12 Years) . . . . . . . 527

    Adolescence (12–18 Years) . . . . . . 527

    Caring for the Child with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 528

    Upper Airway Infections. . . . . . . 529

    Lower Airway Infections. . . . . . . 533

    Long-Term Respiratory Disorders . . . . . . 535

    Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) . . . . . . 536

    Caring for the Child with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 537

    Disorders of Motility. . . . . . . 538

    Structural Defects . . . . . . . 540

    Obstructive Disorders . . . . . . . 542

    Inflammatory and Parasitic Disorders. . . . . 544

    Malabsorptive/Metabolic Syndromes . . . . . 545

    Ingestion of Hazardous Substances . . . . . . 547

    Caring for the Child with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 549

    Congenital Heart Defects. . . . . . . 550

    Acquired Heart Disease. . . . . . . 557

    Caring for the Child with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . 560

    Obstructive Uropathy . . . . . . . 561

    External Defects (Hypospadias, Epispadias, Exstrophy of the Bladder). . 561

    Epispadias/Exstrophy of the Bladder . . . . . 562

    Caring for the Child with Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . 563

    Leukemia. . . . . . . . 563

    Wilms’ Tumor (Nephroblastoma) . . . . . . 563

    Retinoblastoma. . . . . . . . 564

    Neuroblastoma . . . . . . . . 564

    Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s Sarcoma . . . . . 564

    Rhabdomyosarcoma. . . . . . . 565

    Surviving Childhood Cancer . . . . . . 565

    Caring for the Child with Cerebral Disorders . . . . . 566

    Intracranial Infections (Encephalitis and Bacterial Meningitis) . . . 566

    Reye’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 567

    Caring for the Child with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 568

    Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) . . . . . . 568

    Scabies . . . . . . . . . 569

    Pediculosis Capitis (Head Lice) . . . . . . 569

    Lyme Disease . . . . . . . . 570

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever . . . . . . 570

    Caring for the Child with Communicable Disease. . . . . 571

    Caring for the Child with Musculoskeletal Disorders . . . . 573

    Congenital Clubfoot . . . . . . . 573

    Developmental Hip Dysplasia . . . . . . 573

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta . . . . . . . 574

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) . . . . . 575

    Scoliosis . . . . . . . . 576

    Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis) . . . 576

    Caring for the Child with Neuromuscular Disorders . . . . 577

    Cerebral Palsy. . . . . . . . 577

    Neural Tube Defects . . . . . . . 578

    Spina Bifida. . . . . . . . 578

    Muscular Dystrophies . . . . . . . 579

    Caring for the Abused and Neglected Child . . . . . 580

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 583

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 583

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 584

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Pediatric Clients . . . 584

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 584

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 585

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 587

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 588

    Chapter 17: Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders . . . . . . 589

    Anxiety-related Disorders. . . . . . . 589

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . . . . 590

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder . . . . . . 590

    Dissociative Identity Disorder . . . . . . 591

    Somatoform Disorder . . . . . . . 591

    Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . 591

    Phobic Disorders . . . . . . . 592

    Obsessive-compulsive Disorder . . . . . . 592

    Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . 593

    Cluster A . . . . . . . . 593

    Cluster B . . . . . . . . 594

    Cluster C. . . . . . . . 595

    Managing Clients with Personality Disorders . . . . 596

    Psychotic Disorders. . . . . . . . 597

    Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . 597

    Bipolar Disorders . . . . . . . 599

    Substance Abuse. . . . . . . . 602

    Alcoholism . . . . . . . . 602

    Chemical Dependence. . . . . . . 604

    Psychological Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence . . . . 606

    Autistic Disorder . . . . . . . 607

    Conduct Disorder . . . . . . . 607

    Oppositional Defiant Disorder . . . . . . 608

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder . . . . . 608

    Eating Disorders . . . . . . . 608

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 611

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 611

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 612

    Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . . . . 612

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 617

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 618

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 620

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 621

    Chapter 18: Emergency Care. . . . . . . . . 623

    The ABCDs of Emergency Care. . . . . . 624

    Airway . . . . . . . . . 624

    Breathing. . . . . . . . 625

    Circulation . . . . . . . . 625

    Deficits . . . . . . . . 626

    Obtaining Client Information . . . . . . 627

    Trauma . . . . . . . . . 627

    Head Injuries . . . . . . . . 627

    Chest Injuries . . . . . . . . 628

    Abdominal Injuries. . . . . . . 628

    Documenting and Protecting Forensic Evidence . . . . 629

    Poisoning . . . . . . . . . 630

    Poisonous Stings and Bites . . . . . . . 631

    Bioterrorism . . . . . . . . . 632

    Chemical and Biological Agents . . . . . . 632

    Nuclear Warfare. . . . . . . . 634

    Triage Categories for Disaster Victims . . . . . 635

    Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 637

    Key Terms . . . . . . . . 637

    Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 637

    Pharmacological Agents Commonly Used in ER Treatment . . . 637

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 638

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 638

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 640

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 641

    Chapter 19: Legal Issues in Nursing Practice . . . . . . . 643

    Types of Laws. . . . . . . . 644

    Statutory Laws/Regulatory Laws. . . . . . 644

    Civil Laws . . . . . . . . 644

    Criminal Laws . . . . . . . . 644

    Common Law. . . . . . . . 644

    Code of Ethical Behavior in Nursing Practice . . . . . 645

    Legal Theories That Affect Nursing Practice . . . . . 646

    Negligence . . . . . . . . 647

    Malpractice . . . . . . . . 647

    Witnessing Consent for Care. . . . . . 647

    Tort . . . . . . . . . 647

    Assault and Battery . . . . . . . 648

    Fraud . . . . . . . . . 648

    Managing Client Care. . . . . . . . 648

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 652

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 652

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 653

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 655

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 656

    Chapter 20: Cultural Practices Influencing Nursing Care . . . . . . 657

    Cultural Assessment. . . . . . . . 657

    Understanding Client Beliefs . . . . . . 657

    Working with Clients Who Speak Different Languages . . . 658

    Healthcare of Hispanics/Latinos . . . . . . 659

    Time Considerations . . . . . . . 660

    Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 660

    Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 661

    Healthcare of Native Americans and Alaskan Natives . . . . 661

    Time Considerations . . . . . . . 661

    Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 662

    Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 662

    Healthcare of Asian-Americans . . . . . . . 662

    Time Considerations . . . . . . . 663

    Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 663

    Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 664

    Healthcare of Arab-Americans. . . . . . . 664

    Time Considerations . . . . . . . 665

    Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 665

    Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 665

    Nursing Plan Dietary Considerations Across Cultures . . . . 665

    Religious Beliefs and Refusal of Care Considerations . . . . 667

    Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 669

    Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 669

    Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 669

    Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 671

    Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 672

    Part II: Final Review

    Fast Facts The NCLEX RN Exam Prep . . . . . . . . 673

    Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . . 681

    Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance. . . . . 682

    Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . 686

    Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . 693

    Care of the Client with Immunological Disorders . . . . . 700

    Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . 705

    Practice Exam II. . . . . . . . . 717

    Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 718

    Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . 723

    Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . 728

    Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 731

    Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . 736

    Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . 744

    Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 749

    Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . . 753

    Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . 754

    Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 760

    Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . 767

    Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders. . . . . 777

    Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . 786

    Practice Exam IV Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 791

    Management Questions . . . . . . . 792

    Alternative Items . . . . . . . . 808

    Answers to Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . 819

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam I . . . . . . 819

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 821

    Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance . . . . 821

    Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 823

    Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . 828

    Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . 832

    Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client. . . 835

    Answers to Practice Exam II . . . . . . . . 843

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam II . . . . . . 843

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 845

    Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . 845

    Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . 848

    Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 851

    Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 853

    Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . 855

    Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . 859

    Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 862

    Answers to Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . 865

    Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam III . . . . . 865

    Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 867

    Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . 867

    Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 870

    Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . 873

    Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders . . . . 878

    Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . 883

    Answers to Practice Exam IV: Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 885

    Answers to Management Questions . . . . . . 885

    Alternative Item Answers . . . . . . . 894

    Part III: Appendixes

    Appendix A: Things You Forgot . . . . . . . . . 899

    Appendix B: Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . 905

    Appendix C: Calculations . . . . . . . . . 911

    Appendix D: Most Commonly-Prescribed Medications in the United States . . . . 915

    TOC, 9780789751065, 11/21/2013

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