NCLEX-RN Exam Prep / Edition 2

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Overview

COMPREHENSIVE Succeed with comprehensive learning and practice tests

  • Master the NCLEX-RN® exam materials in all tested subject areas
  • Prepare with four comprehensive practice tests
  • Analyze your test readiness and areas for further study with topic-focused chapter tests
  • CD-ROM—based practice exam includes an interactive Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) engine for a meaningful exam experience with approximately 400 questions
  • Learn important test-taking strategies to maximize your score and diminish your anxiety

Score Higher on the NCLEX®-RN Exam!

We provide you with the proven study tools and expert insight that will help you score higher on your exam.

  • Study Tips like the advice and instruction that a personal tutor might provide.
  • Notes, Tips, and Cautions provide you with hints and strategies that will help you reduce your mistakes on the exam.
  • Comprehensive discussion of all subject areas covered on RN Exam.
  • Practice Questions that include detailed explanations of correct and incorrect answers–so you can learn the material from your success and mistakes.

Rinehart and Associates is a leading provider of classroom training for students studying for the NCLEX® RN Exam.

CD Features Nearly 400 Questions!

The CD-ROM—based practice exam includes an interactive Computer Adaptive Test (CAT) engine for a meaningful exam experience with approximately 400 questions.

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CATEGORY: Medicine/Nursing COVERS: Nursing USER LEVEL: Intermediate

NCLEX-RN® and NCLEX-PN® are registered trademarks of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Inc. (NCSBN), which does not sponsor or endorse this product.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780789745279
  • Publisher: Pearson IT Certification
  • Publication date: 9/15/2010
  • Series: Exam Prep Series
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 980
  • Sales rank: 695,214
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 2.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Wilda Rinehart received an associate’s degree in nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College in Booneville, Mississippi. After working as a staff nurse and charge nurse, she became a public health nurse and served in that capacity for a number of years. In 1975, she received her nurse practitioner certification in the area of obstetrics-gynecology from the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Mississippi. In 1979, she completed her bachelor of science degree in nursing from Mississippi University for Women. In 1980, she completed her master of science degree in nursing from the same university and accepted a faculty position at Northeast Mississippi Community College, where she taught medical-surgical nursing and maternal-newborn nursing. In 1982, she founded Rinehart and Associates Nursing Consultants. For the past 28 years, she and her associates have worked with nursing graduates and schools of nursing to help graduates pass the National Council Licensure Exam for Nursing. She has also worked as a curriculum consultant with faculty to improve test construction. Ms. Rinehart has served as a convention speaker throughout the southeastern United States and as a reviewer of medical-surgical and obstetric texts. She has coauthored materials used in seminars presented by Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review. As the president of Rinehart and Associates, she serves as the coordinator of a company dedicated to improving the quality of health through nursing education.

Dr. Diann Sloan received an associate’s degree in nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College, a bachelor of science degree in nursing from the University of Mississippi, and a master of science degree in nursing from Mississippi University for Women. In addition to her nursing degrees, she holds a master of science in counseling psychology from Georgia State University and a doctor of philosophy in counselor education, with minors in both psychology and educational psychology, from Mississippi State University. She has completed additional graduate studies in healthcare administration at Western New England College and the University of Mississippi. Dr. Sloan has taught pediatric nursing, psychiatric mental health nursing, and medical surgical nursing in both associate degree and baccalaureate nursing programs. As a member of Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review, Dr. Sloan has conducted test construction workshops for faculty and nursing review seminars for both registered and practical nurse graduates. She has coauthored materials used in the item-writing workshops for nursing faculty and Rinehart and Associates Nursing Review. She is a member of Sigma Theta Tau nursing honor society.

Clara Hurd received an associate’s degree in nursing from Northeast Mississippi Community College in Booneville, Mississippi (1975). Her experiences in nursing are clinically based, having served as a staff nurse in medical-surgical nursing. She has worked as an oncology, intensive care, orthopedic, neurological, and pediatric nurse. She received her bachelor of science degree in nursing from the University of North Alabama in Florence, Alabama, and her master of science degree in nursing from the Mississippi University for Women in Columbus, Mississippi. Ms. Hurd is a certified nurse educator. She currently serves as a nurse educator consultant and an independent contractor and has taught in both associate degree and baccalaureate degree nursing programs. She was a faculty member of Mississippi University for Women; Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee; Tennessee State University in Nashville; and Northeast Mississippi Community College. Ms. Hurd joined Rinehart and Associates in 1993. She has worked with students in preparing for the National Council Licensure Exam and with faculty as a consultant in writing test items. Ms. Hurd has also been a presenter at nursing conventions on various topics, including itemwriting for nursing faculty. Her primary professional goal is to prepare the student and graduate for excellence in the delivery of healthcare.

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Table of Contents

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 1

Organization . . . . . . . . 2

Instructional Features . . . . . . . . 2

Extensive Practice Test Options. . . . . . . 3

Final Review . . . . . . . . . 3

Other Valuable Tools . . . . . . . 4

About the NCLEX Exam . . . . . . . 4

Advice for Preparing for the Exam . . . . . . 6

Advice for Test Day . . . . . . . 6

Hints for Using This Book . . . . . . . 7

Contact the Author . . . . . . . . 8

Study and Exam Preparation Tips . . . . . . . 9

Study Tips . . . . . . . . . 9

Exam Prep Tips . . . . . . . . 10

Read the Question Carefully . . . . . . 11

Look for Keywords . . . . . . . 11

Watch for Specific Details . . . . . . . 11

Eliminate Options That Are Clearly Wrong or Incorrect . . . 11

Look for Similar Options . . . . . . . 12

Look for Opposite Answers . . . . . . 13

Part I: Exam Preparation

Chapter 1: Pharmacology . . . . . . . . . 15

Three Areas of Pharmacology . . . . . . . 15

How Nurses Work with Pharmacology . . . . . . 16

Time-released Drugs. . . . . . . . 17

Administering Medications. . . . . . . 18

The Seven Rights of Administering Medication . . . . 18

Understanding and Identifying the Various Drugs . . . . . 19

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors . . . . . 19

Beta Adrenergic Blockers . . . . . . . 20

Anti-Infectives (Aminoglycosides) . . . . . . 21

Benzodiazepines (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety). . . . 23

Phenothiazines (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic) . . . . . 24

Glucocorticoids . . . . . . . . 25

Antivirals . . . . . . . . 27

Cholesterol-Lowering Agents . . . . . . 28

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers . . . . . . 29

Histamine 2 Antagonists . . . . . . . 30

Proton Pump Inhibitors . . . . . . . 31

Anticoagulants . . . . . . . . 32

More Drug Identification Helpers . . . . . . 33

Herbals . . . . . . . . . 34

Drug Schedules . . . . . . . . 35

Pregnancy Categories for Drugs . . . . . . . 35

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 36

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 36

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 37

Answer Rationales . . . . . . . 39

Chapter 2: Fluid and Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance . . . . . . 41

Total Body Water Calculation . . . . . . . 41

Management of the Client with Imbalances in Fluid and Electrolytes . . . 43

Types of Intravenous Fluids . . . . . . 43

How the Body Regulates Electrolytes. . . . . 44

How the Body Regulates pH . . . . . . 52

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 60

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 60

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 60

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Alterations in Fluids and Electrolytes . . . . . . . 60

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . . 61

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 62

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 64

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 65

Chapter 3: Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . . 67

Hypertension . . . . . . . . . 68

Diagnosing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

Managing the Client with Hypertension . . . . . 69

Coronary Artery Disease. . . . . . . 71

Atherosclerosis and Arteriosclerosis . . . . . . 71

Conduction System of the Heart. . . . . . . 72

Heart Block. . . . . . . . 73

Cardiac Monitoring . . . . . . . . 74

Reading an Electrocardiogram. . . . . . 76

Cardiac Dysrhythmias . . . . . . . . 76

Ventricular Tachycardia. . . . . . . 78

Ventricular Fibrillation . . . . . . . 79

Internal Pacemaker/Internal Cardiac Defibrillators . . . . 79

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation . . . . . . 80

Angina Pectoris . . . . . . . . 81

Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . . . 82

Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction . . . . . . 82

Management of a Client with Myocardial Infarction . . . . 83

Aneurysms. . . . . . . . . 89

Inflammatory Diseases of the Heart . . . . . . 90

Infective Endocarditis . . . . . . . 90

Pericarditis . . . . . . . . 91

Peripheral Vascular Disease . . . . . . 91

Varicose Veins/Thrombophlebitis . . . . . . 92

Raynaud’s Phenomenon . . . . . . . 93

Buerger’s Disease . . . . . . . . 93

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . 94

Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 94

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . 95

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Treatment of Clients with Cardiovascular Disorders. . . . . . . . 96

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 101

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 101

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 103

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 104

Chapter 4: Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . . 105

Pituitary Gland. . . . . . . . 106

Hypopituitarism . . . . . . . . 106

Hyperpituitarism . . . . . . . 106

Disorders of the Posterior Pituitary Gland . . . . . 107

Thyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 108

Hypothyroidism . . . . . . . . 108

Hyperthyroidism . . . . . . . 110

Parathyroid Disorders . . . . . . . . 112

Hypoparathyroidism . . . . . . . 112

Hyperparathyroidism. . . . . . . 113

Diabetes Mellitus . . . . . . . . 114

Hyperglycemia . . . . . . . . 116

Hypoglycemia. . . . . . . . 117

Managing Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia. . . . 117

Adrenal Gland . . . . . . . . 118

Adrenal Gland Disorders . . . . . . . 119

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 123

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 123

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 124

Pharmacological Agents Used to Treat Clients with Endocrine Disorders. 124

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 128

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 128

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 130

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 131

Chapter 5: Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders. . . . . . 133

Noninfectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract . . . . 133

Chronic Bronchitis. . . . . . . 133

Emphysema. . . . . . . . 134

Asthma. . . . . . . . . 135

Pleurisy . . . . . . . . 137

Pulmonary Hypertension . . . . . . . 138

Interstitial Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 139

Sarcoidosis. . . . . . . . 139

Pulmonary Fibrosis . . . . . . . 140

Occupational Pulmonary Disease . . . . . . 140

Infectious Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract. . . . 142

Pneumonia . . . . . . . . 142

Tuberculosis . . . . . . . . 145

Influenza . . . . . . . . 147

Life-Threatening Pulmonary Disorders. . . . . . 148

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. . . . . 148

Pulmonary Embolus . . . . . . . 152

Pneumothorax . . . . . . . . 154

Hemothorax . . . . . . . . 155

Emerging Infections . . . . . . . . 158

SARS . . . . . . . . . 158

Legionnaires’ Disease . . . . . . . 159

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 161

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 161

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 161

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Respiratory System . . . . . . . 162

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 165

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 166

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 168

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 169

Chapter 6: Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . . . 171

Renal Disorders . . . . . . . . 172

Acute Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 172

Chronic Glomerulonephritis . . . . . . 173

Goodpasture’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 174

Nephrotic Syndrome . . . . . . . 175

Polycystic Kidney Disease . . . . . . 176

Hydronephrosis/Hydroureteronephrosis . . . . . 177

Pyelonephritis. . . . . . . . 178

Acute and Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . 179

Chronic Renal Failure . . . . . . . 180

Peritoneal Dialysis . . . . . . . 181

Hemodialysis. . . . . . . . 182

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy. . . . . 183

Renal Transplantation . . . . . . . 184

Urinary Disorders . . . . . . . . 185

Cystitis. . . . . . . . . 185

Urinary Incontinence . . . . . . . 187

Urolithiasis . . . . . . . . 188

Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . . . 189

Prostatitis . . . . . . . . 190

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy . . . . . . 190

Erectile Dysfunction . . . . . . . 191

Epididymitis . . . . . . . . 193

Priapism. . . . . . . . 193

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 195

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 195

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 195

Pharmacologic Agents for the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . 196

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 200

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 200

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 202

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 203

Chapter 7: Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . . 205

Common Infections of the Integumentary System . . . . . 205

Viral Infections . . . . . . . . 205

Fungal Infections . . . . . . . 207

Bacterial Infections . . . . . . . 208

Psoriasis. . . . . . . . . 208

Pressure Ulcers. . . . . . . . 209

Burns . . . . . . . . . 212

Burn Classifications . . . . . . . 213

Burn Measurement with TBSA . . . . . . 214

Nursing Care for Burn Victims . . . . . . 215

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 223

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 223

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 223

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders. . . . . . . . 224

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 226

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 226

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 228

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 229

Chapter 8: Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders. . . . . . 231

Disorders of the Eyes . . . . . . . . 231

Intraocular Disorders . . . . . . . 232

Uveitis . . . . . . . . . 236

Corneal Dystrophy and Corneal Transplantation . . . . 236

Retinal Disorders . . . . . . . 236

Refractive Errors . . . . . . . 239

Traumatic Injuries . . . . . . . 240

Ocular Melanoma . . . . . . . 240

Disorders of the Ears. . . . . . . . 242

Otitis Externa . . . . . . . . 243

Otitis Media . . . . . . . . 243

Mastoiditis. . . . . . . . 244

Ménière’s Disease. . . . . . . 244

Acoustic Neuroma . . . . . . . 245

Otosclerosis. . . . . . . . 245

Presbycusis . . . . . . . . 246

Ear Trauma . . . . . . . . 246

Assisting Clients with Hearing Loss . . . . . 247

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 250

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 250

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 251

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Eyes and Ears . . . . . . . . 251

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 253

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 253

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 255

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 256

Chapter 9: Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . . 257

Peptic Ulcer Disease . . . . . . . . 258

Types of Ulcers. . . . . . . . 259

Diagnosis of Ulcers . . . . . . . 259

Treatment of Ulcers. . . . . . . 260

Inflammatory Bowel Disorders . . . . . . . 263

Crohn’s Disease . . . . . . . . 263

Ulcerative Colitis . . . . . . . 263

Management of the Client with Inflammatory Bowel Disease . . . 264

Diverticular Disease. . . . . . . . 265

Management of the Client with Diverticulitis . . . . 265

Hemorrhoids . . . . . . . . 266

Appendicitis . . . . . . . . . 266

Peritonitis . . . . . . . . . 268

Intestinal Obstruction . . . . . . . . 269

Esophageal Disorders . . . . . . . . 270

GERD . . . . . . . . . 270

Hiatal Hernia . . . . . . . . 274

Diseases Associated with the Liver . . . . . . 275

Hepatitis . . . . . . . . 275

Cirrhosis . . . . . . . . 281

Acute Pancreatitis . . . . . . . . 285

Diagnosis of Pancreatitis. . . . . . . 286

Treatment of Pancreatitis . . . . . . . 286

Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . . . 287

Symptoms of Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis . . . . 288

Diagnosis of Cholecystitis/Cholelithiasis . . . . . 288

Treatment of Cholecystitis . . . . . . 289

Treatment of Cholethiasis. . . . . . . 289

Clostridium Difficile . . . . . . . . 290

Food-Borne Illnesses. . . . . . . . 291

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 294

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 294

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 295

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Disorders of the Gastrointestinal System . . . . . . . 295

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 297

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 298

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 300

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 301

Chapter 10: Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . . 303

Anemia. . . . . . . . . 303

Pernicious Anemia . . . . . . . 304

Aplastic Anemia . . . . . . . . 304

Sickle Cell Anemia. . . . . . . 305

Iron Deficiency Anemia . . . . . . . 309

Thalassemia . . . . . . . . . 311

Polycythemia Vera . . . . . . . . 312

Hemophilia . . . . . . . . . 313

Transfusion Therapy . . . . . . . . 315

Transfusion Reactions . . . . . . . 317

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 319

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 319

Diagnostic Tests for Review . . . . . . 319

Pharmacological Agents Used in Hematological Disorders . . . 320

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 321

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 321

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 323

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 324

Chapter 11:Care of the Client with Disorders of the Neurological System. . . . 325

Neurological Assessment . . . . . . . 326

Cranial Nerve Assessment . . . . . . 326

Glasgow Coma Scale . . . . . . . 327

Intracranial Pressure Monitors. . . . . . 328

Brain Injuries . . . . . . . . 329

Epidural Hematomas. . . . . . . 332

Subdural Hematoma . . . . . . . 332

Intracerebral Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

Treatment of Hematomas . . . . . . . 332

Increased Intracranial Pressure . . . . . . 332

Brain Tumors . . . . . . . . 336

Treatment of Brain Tumors . . . . . . 337

Care of the Client with Intracranial Surgery (Craniotomy) . . . . 338

Cerebrovascular Accident/Stroke . . . . . . 342

Ischemic Stroke . . . . . . . . 342

Hemorrhagic Stroke . . . . . . . 344

Seizures . . . . . . . . . 347

Types of Seizures . . . . . . . 347

Treatment of Seizure Clients . . . . . . 350

Parkinson’s Disease . . . . . . . . 350

Meningitis . . . . . . . . . 352

Autoimmune Neurological Disorders. . . . . . 354

Multiple Sclerosis. . . . . . . 354

Myasthenia Gravis . . . . . . . 355

Guillain-Barré. . . . . . . . 357

Degenerative Neurological Disorders . . . . . . 358

Cranial Nerve Disorders. . . . . . . 359

Trigeminal Neuralgia . . . . . . . 359

Bell’s Palsy. . . . . . . . 359

Spinal Cord Injuries . . . . . . . . 360

Treatment of Spinal Cord Injuries. . . . . . 361

Potential Complications with SCI Clients . . . . . 362

Intervertebral Disk Disease . . . . . . . 363

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 366

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 366

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 367

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Clients with Neurological Disorders. . . . . . . . 368

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 373

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 373

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 376

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 377

Chapter 12: Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders . . . . . . 379

Immunodeficiency Syndrome . . . . . . . 380

Diagnoses . . . . . . . . . 381

HIV Prevention . . . . . . . . 383

Standard Precautions. . . . . . . 383

Airborne Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

Droplet Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 384

Contact Transmission–Based Precautions (Second Tier of CDC Guidelines for Infection Control) . . . . . . . 385

Treatments After Occupational Exposure. . . . . 385

Management of the Client with HIV . . . . . . 385

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 389

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 389

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 389

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . . . . . 390

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 393

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 394

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 396

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 397

Chapter 13: Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . . 399

American Cancer Society’s Seven Warning Signs of Cancer. . . . 399

The Four Major Categories of Cancer. . . . . . 400

Risk Factors for Specific Cancers . . . . . . 400

Cancer Prevention . . . . . . . . 402

Major Types of Cancer . . . . . . . 403

Colorectal Cancer . . . . . . . 403

Lung Cancer. . . . . . . . 407

Prostate Cancer . . . . . . . . 409

Breast Cancer . . . . . . . . 411

Other Major Cancers. . . . . . . 416

General Interventions for Clients with Cancer . . . . . 421

Radiation . . . . . . . . 421

Chemotherapy . . . . . . . . 423

Total Parenteral Nutrition . . . . . . 424

Neoplastic-Associated Disorders and Emergencies . . . . 426

Bone Marrow and Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation . . . . 427

Types of Transplants . . . . . . . 428

Nursing Care After Transplantation . . . . . 428

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 431

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 431

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 432

Pharmacologic Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Specific Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . . . . 433

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 440

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 440

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 443

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 445

Chapter 14: Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . . 447

Fractures . . . . . . . . . 448

Major Fracture Sites . . . . . . . 450

General Treatment for Fractures. . . . . . 450

Common Complications Associated with Fractures . . . . 454

Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . 457

Osteoarthritis . . . . . . . . 458

Diagnosis of Osteoarthritis. . . . . . 459

Treatment of the Client with Osteoarthritis . . . . . 459

Fibromyalgia. . . . . . . . . 460

Ankylosing Spondylitis . . . . . . . 460

Gout. . . . . . . . . 461

Rheumatoid Arthritis. . . . . . . . 462

Lupus Erythematosus . . . . . . . . 464

Musculoskeletal Surgical Procedures . . . . . . 466

Fractured Hip and Hip Replacement . . . . . 466

Total Knee Replacement. . . . . . . 467

Amputations . . . . . . . . 468

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 474

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 474

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 474

Pharmacologic Agents Used in Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders. . . . . . . . 475

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 479

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 479

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 481

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 482

Chapter 15: Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . . 483

Prenatal Care . . . . . . . . 483

Signs of Pregnancy. . . . . . . 483

Prenatal Diet and Weight Maintenance . . . . . 484

Measuring Fetal Heart Tones. . . . . . 486

Measuring Fundal Height. . . . . . . 486

Prelabor Testing . . . . . . . . 486

Intrapartal Care . . . . . . . . 488

Stages of Labor. . . . . . . . 489

Important Terms You Should Know . . . . . 489

Complications Associated with Pregnancy. . . . . 490

Cardiac Disease During Pregnancy. . . . . . 490

Diabetes in Pregnancy. . . . . . . 493

Preeclampsia . . . . . . . . 494

Ectopic Pregnancy . . . . . . . 495

Hydatidiform Mole . . . . . . . 495

Incompetent Cervix . . . . . . . 496

Types of Abortions. . . . . . . 496

Placenta Previa . . . . . . . . 497

Abruptio Placenta. . . . . . . 497

Complications Associated with Labor and Delivery . . . . 498

Fetal Malpresentation . . . . . . . 499

Post-term Labor and Birth . . . . . . 499

Precipitate Delivery . . . . . . . 500

Cord Prolapse. . . . . . . . 500

Cesarean Birth . . . . . . . . 500

Assisted Birth . . . . . . . . 501

Fetal Monitoring . . . . . . . 501

Pharmacologic Management of Labor . . . . . . 503

Postpartum Care . . . . . . . . 504

Newborn Care . . . . . . . . 505

Terms Associated with the Normal Newborn . . . . 506

Rh Incompatibility . . . . . . . 507

Women’s Health Issues . . . . . . . 508

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease . . . . . . 508

Menopause . . . . . . . . 508

Maternal Infections . . . . . . . 508

Methods of Contraception . . . . . . 511

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 514

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 514

Diagnostic Tests . . . . . . . . 515

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Obstetric Client . . 516

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 517

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 518

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 520

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 521

Chapter 16: Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . . 523

Growth and Development . . . . . . . 523

Infant (28 Days to 1 Year). . . . . . . 523

Toddler (1–3 Years) . . . . . . . 524

Preschooler (3–5 Years) . . . . . . . 525

School Age (6–12 Years) . . . . . . . 527

Adolescence (12–18 Years) . . . . . . 527

Caring for the Child with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 528

Upper Airway Infections. . . . . . . 529

Lower Airway Infections. . . . . . . 533

Long-Term Respiratory Disorders . . . . . . 535

Cystic Fibrosis (Mucoviscidosis) . . . . . . 536

Caring for the Child with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 537

Disorders of Motility. . . . . . . 538

Structural Defects . . . . . . . 540

Obstructive Disorders . . . . . . . 542

Inflammatory and Parasitic Disorders. . . . . 544

Malabsorptive/Metabolic Syndromes . . . . . 545

Ingestion of Hazardous Substances . . . . . . 547

Caring for the Child with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 549

Congenital Heart Defects. . . . . . . 550

Acquired Heart Disease. . . . . . . 557

Caring for the Child with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . 560

Obstructive Uropathy . . . . . . . 561

External Defects (Hypospadias, Epispadias, Exstrophy of the Bladder). . 561

Epispadias/Exstrophy of the Bladder . . . . . 562

Caring for the Child with Neoplastic Disorders. . . . . 563

Leukemia. . . . . . . . 563

Wilms’ Tumor (Nephroblastoma) . . . . . . 563

Retinoblastoma. . . . . . . . 564

Neuroblastoma . . . . . . . . 564

Osteosarcoma and Ewing’s Sarcoma . . . . . 564

Rhabdomyosarcoma. . . . . . . 565

Surviving Childhood Cancer . . . . . . 565

Caring for the Child with Cerebral Disorders . . . . . 566

Intracranial Infections (Encephalitis and Bacterial Meningitis) . . . 566

Reye’s Syndrome . . . . . . . 567

Caring for the Child with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 568

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) . . . . . . 568

Scabies . . . . . . . . . 569

Pediculosis Capitis (Head Lice) . . . . . . 569

Lyme Disease . . . . . . . . 570

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever . . . . . . 570

Caring for the Child with Communicable Disease. . . . . 571

Caring for the Child with Musculoskeletal Disorders . . . . 573

Congenital Clubfoot . . . . . . . 573

Developmental Hip Dysplasia . . . . . . 573

Osteogenesis Imperfecta . . . . . . . 574

Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (Coxa Plana) . . . . . 575

Scoliosis . . . . . . . . 576

Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis) . . . 576

Caring for the Child with Neuromuscular Disorders . . . . 577

Cerebral Palsy. . . . . . . . 577

Neural Tube Defects . . . . . . . 578

Spina Bifida. . . . . . . . 578

Muscular Dystrophies . . . . . . . 579

Caring for the Abused and Neglected Child . . . . . 580

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 583

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 583

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 584

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of Pediatric Clients . . . 584

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 584

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 585

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 587

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 588

Chapter 17: Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders . . . . . . 589

Anxiety-related Disorders. . . . . . . 589

Generalized Anxiety Disorder . . . . . . 590

Post-traumatic Stress Disorder . . . . . . 590

Dissociative Identity Disorder . . . . . . 591

Somatoform Disorder . . . . . . . 591

Panic Disorder . . . . . . . . 591

Phobic Disorders . . . . . . . 592

Obsessive-compulsive Disorder . . . . . . 592

Personality Disorders . . . . . . . . 593

Cluster A . . . . . . . . 593

Cluster B . . . . . . . . 594

Cluster C. . . . . . . . 595

Managing Clients with Personality Disorders . . . . 596

Psychotic Disorders. . . . . . . . 597

Schizophrenia . . . . . . . . 597

Bipolar Disorders . . . . . . . 599

Substance Abuse. . . . . . . . 602

Alcoholism . . . . . . . . 602

Chemical Dependence. . . . . . . 604

Psychological Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence . . . . 606

Autistic Disorder . . . . . . . 607

Conduct Disorder . . . . . . . 607

Oppositional Defiant Disorder . . . . . . 608

Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder . . . . . 608

Eating Disorders . . . . . . . 608

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 611

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 611

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 612

Pharmacological Agents Used in the Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . . . . 612

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 617

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 618

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 620

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 621

Chapter 18: Emergency Care. . . . . . . . . 623

The ABCDs of Emergency Care. . . . . . 624

Airway . . . . . . . . . 624

Breathing. . . . . . . . 625

Circulation . . . . . . . . 625

Deficits . . . . . . . . 626

Obtaining Client Information . . . . . . 627

Trauma . . . . . . . . . 627

Head Injuries . . . . . . . . 627

Chest Injuries . . . . . . . . 628

Abdominal Injuries. . . . . . . 628

Documenting and Protecting Forensic Evidence . . . . 629

Poisoning . . . . . . . . . 630

Poisonous Stings and Bites . . . . . . . 631

Bioterrorism . . . . . . . . . 632

Chemical and Biological Agents . . . . . . 632

Nuclear Warfare. . . . . . . . 634

Triage Categories for Disaster Victims . . . . . 635

Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 637

Key Terms . . . . . . . . 637

Diagnostics . . . . . . . . 637

Pharmacological Agents Commonly Used in ER Treatment . . . 637

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 638

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 638

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 640

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 641

Chapter 19: Legal Issues in Nursing Practice . . . . . . . 643

Types of Laws. . . . . . . . 644

Statutory Laws/Regulatory Laws. . . . . . 644

Civil Laws . . . . . . . . 644

Criminal Laws . . . . . . . . 644

Common Law. . . . . . . . 644

Code of Ethical Behavior in Nursing Practice . . . . . 645

Legal Theories That Affect Nursing Practice . . . . . 646

Negligence . . . . . . . . 647

Malpractice . . . . . . . . 647

Witnessing Consent for Care. . . . . . 647

Tort . . . . . . . . . 647

Assault and Battery . . . . . . . 648

Fraud . . . . . . . . . 648

Managing Client Care. . . . . . . . 648

Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 652

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 652

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 653

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 655

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 656

Chapter 20: Cultural Practices Influencing Nursing Care . . . . . . 657

Cultural Assessment. . . . . . . . 657

Understanding Client Beliefs . . . . . . 657

Working with Clients Who Speak Different Languages . . . 658

Healthcare of Hispanics/Latinos . . . . . . 659

Time Considerations . . . . . . . 660

Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 660

Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 661

Healthcare of Native Americans and Alaskan Natives . . . . 661

Time Considerations . . . . . . . 661

Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 662

Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 662

Healthcare of Asian-Americans . . . . . . . 662

Time Considerations . . . . . . . 663

Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 663

Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 664

Healthcare of Arab-Americans. . . . . . . 664

Time Considerations . . . . . . . 665

Use of Nonverbal/Verbal Communication. . . . . 665

Childbirth and Pain Response . . . . . . 665

Nursing Plan Dietary Considerations Across Cultures . . . . 665

Religious Beliefs and Refusal of Care Considerations . . . . 667

Key Terms. . . . . . . . . 669

Apply Your Knowledge . . . . . . . 669

Exam Questions . . . . . . . . 669

Answers to Exam Questions . . . . . . 671

Suggested Reading and Resources. . . . . . 672

Part II: Final Review

Fast Facts The NCLEX RN Exam Prep . . . . . . . . 673

Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . . 681

Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance. . . . . 682

Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . . 686

Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . . 693

Care of the Client with Immunological Disorders . . . . . 700

Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client . . . . 705

Practice Exam II. . . . . . . . . 717

Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . . 718

Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders. . . . . 723

Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . . 728

Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 731

Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . . 736

Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . . 744

Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 749

Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . . 753

Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . . 754

Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 760

Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . . 767

Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders. . . . . 777

Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . . 786

Practice Exam IV Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 791

Management Questions . . . . . . . 792

Alternative Items . . . . . . . . 808

Answers to Practice Exam I . . . . . . . . 819

Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam I . . . . . . 819

Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 821

Fluid and Electrolytes and Acid/Base Balance . . . . 821

Care of the Client with Cardiovascular Disorders . . . . 823

Care of the Client with Endocrine Disorders . . . . 828

Care of the Client with Immunologic Disorders. . . . 832

Care of the Childbearing Client and the Neonatal Client. . . 835

Answers to Practice Exam II . . . . . . . . 843

Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam II . . . . . . 843

Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 845

Care of the Client with Respiratory Disorders . . . . 845

Care of the Client with Genitourinary Disorders . . . . 848

Care of the Client with Integumentary Disorders . . . . 851

Care of the Client with Sensory Disorders . . . . . 853

Care of the Pediatric Client . . . . . . 855

Care of the Client with Psychiatric Disorders. . . . 859

Emergency Care. . . . . . . . 862

Answers to Practice Exam III . . . . . . . . 865

Answers at a Glance to Practice Exam III . . . . . 865

Answers with Explanations . . . . . . . 867

Care of the Client with Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders . 867

Care of the Client with Gastrointestinal Disorders . . . . 870

Care of the Client with Neoplastic Disorders . . . . 873

Care of the Client with Neurological Disorders . . . . 878

Care of the Client with Hematological Disorders . . . . 883

Answers to Practice Exam IV: Management and Alternative Item Exam Questions. . . . . 885

Answers to Management Questions . . . . . . 885

Alternative Item Answers . . . . . . . 894

Part III: Appendixes

Appendix A: Things You Forgot . . . . . . . . . 899

Appendix B: Need to Know More?. . . . . . . . 905

Appendix C: Calculations . . . . . . . . . 911

Appendix D: Most Commonly-Prescribed Medications in the United States . . . . 915

TOC, 9780789751065, 11/21/2013

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Customer Reviews

Average Rating 4.5
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See All Sort by: Showing 1 – 20 of 25 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted May 12, 2013

    SPARRING AREA

    Train here

    0 out of 5 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 6, 2013

    Featherpool

    Name: Featherclaw * Age: 13 Moons * Gender: She-Cat * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: Blackkit, Ivykit, Silverkit, Spiderkit, And Daisykit * Appearance: Silver She-Cat With Black Stripes And Blue Eyes * Personality: Brave, Loyal, Keeping Many Secrets * Kin: Unknown -------- Name: Blackkit * Age: 2 Moons * Gender: Tom * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: None * Appearance: Black With Pure White Stripes And Blue Eyes * Personality: Evil, Michevous, Cruel * Kin: Featherpool ((Mother)), Ivykit ((Sister)), Silverkit ((Sister)), Spiderkit ((Brother)), Daisykit ((Sister)) ------- Name: Ivykit * Age: 2 Moons * Gender: She-Cat * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: None * Appearance: Silver With White Stripes And Green Eyes * Personality: Shy, Fearful, Weak * Kin: Featherpool ((Mother)), Blackkit ((Brother)), Silverkit ((Sister)), Spiderkit ((Brother)), Daisykit ((Sister)) -------- Name: Silverkit * Age: 2 Moons * Gender: She-Cat * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: None * Appearance: Dark Brown With Green Eyes * Personality: Heroic, Frightened * Kin: Featherpool ((Mother)), Blackkit ((Brother)), Ivykit ((Sister)), Spiderkit ((Brither)), Daisykit ((Sister)) -------- Name: Spiderkit * Age: 2 Moons * Gender: Tom * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: None * Appearance: Pure Black Tom With Green Eyes * Personality: Solitude, Personal * Kin: Featherpool ((Mother)), Blackkit ((Brother)), Ivykit ((Sister)), Silverkit ((Sister)), Daisykit ((Sister)) ------- Name: Daisykit ((The Runt Of The Litter)) * Age: 2 Moons * Gender: She-Cat * Mate: None * Crush: None * Kits: None * Appearance: Flame-Colored With A Mysterious Daisy Mark That Glows Orange On Her Forhead * Personality: Kind, Loyal, Follows Where Her Heart Goes * Kin: Featherpool ((Mother)), Blackkit ((Brother)), Ivykit ((Sister)), Silverkit ((Sister)), Spiderkit ((Brother)) --------

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 6, 2013

    Snow

    Name: snow. Can be changed. Age 6 moons. Looks: all white pelt. Has perfect camoflauge for snowy days unless very dirty. Her eyes change color with her mood but she does not seem to know it.

    0 out of 6 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2013

    Scarletpaw

    Name- scarletpaw. rank- apprentice warrior. Family- long gone and doesnt want to talk about it. Age- eight moons. Looks- russet she with black paws and green eyes. Would like a mate and kits someday. Kind quick and sarcastic alot.

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2013

    Treepool

    Name: treepool age: 14 moons description: beautiful grey she-cat with green eyes crush: ? Mate: none but looking kits: none

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 3, 2013

    Leafkit

    A pretty silver shekit with pretty green eyes

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2013

    Jaywhisker

    ****Name: Jaywhisker ** Age: 7 moons ** Pelt: blueish black with white & black speckled paws ** Eyes: vibrant green ** Mate: none, yet ** Crush: Glaciersun ** Kits: uniquekit: a black tom with one white paw and icy blue eyes, silkkit: a sivery grey shecat with stormy grey eyes & jaykit: a blueish black shecat with vibrant green eyes ** Rank: warrior****

    0 out of 6 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 3, 2013

    Skywings bio

    •APPEARANCE• beautiful silver she cat with black and dark gray flecks, white paws and muzzle, and bright sjy blue eyes •PERSONALITY• Shy, Fun, Loyal, Protective, Forgiving, and Loving •GENDER• She cat •AGE• Unknown •HISTORY• Ask me later O.O •MATE• Nope. But looking •CRUSH• Noo..? •KITS• None. But wants some

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 3, 2013

    Glaciersun and Riverkit bio

    ............GLACIERSUN............ Gender: male. age: 20 moons. Mate: she died three moons ago giving birth to Riverkit, her name was Mayflame. Kits: Riverkit. Description: A white tom with amber eyes, he is missing a front claw and has a long scratch on his flank..........RIVERKIT....... Gender: male. Age: 3 moons old. Description: A gray furry kit, has the same amber eyes as his father...

    0 out of 7 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 12, 2011

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 16, 2010

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 14, 2011

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 19, 2011

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 31, 2013

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    Posted May 18, 2011

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  • Anonymous

    Posted May 18, 2012

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 13, 2010

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 4, 2010

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  • Anonymous

    Posted November 27, 2010

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 23, 2011

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