Nervous System: Systems of the Body Series

Overview

This book brings to life the basic science of the nervous system and its major diseases. After early chapters on its general organisation and cellular and molecular mechanisms, clinical scenarios are used to introduce and discuss the knowledge required for diagnosis and treatment of major conditions of the nervous system. Organisation of the nervous system, Elements of cellular and molecular neuroscience, Clinical examination, The spinal cord, Pain and analgesia, Cranial nerves and the brainstem, The visual ...
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Overview

This book brings to life the basic science of the nervous system and its major diseases. After early chapters on its general organisation and cellular and molecular mechanisms, clinical scenarios are used to introduce and discuss the knowledge required for diagnosis and treatment of major conditions of the nervous system. Organisation of the nervous system, Elements of cellular and molecular neuroscience, Clinical examination, The spinal cord, Pain and analgesia, Cranial nerves and the brainstem, The visual system, Hearing and balance: the auditory and vestibular systems, Motor systems I: descending pathways and cerebellum, Motor systems II: the basal ganglia, Stroke and head injury, Infection of the central nervous system, Epilepsy, Dementia, Schizophrenia, Depression and anxiety, Addiction.
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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Celso Agner, MD, MS, MSc (Michigan Neurology Partners)
Description: This book is part of a series designed to address the new trend in medical teaching, which involves a much closer correlation between basic sciences and clinical medicine.
Purpose: The main purpose is to reflect the new modality of teaching, addressing basic neuroanatomy and clinical cases. These are worthy objectives, since U.S. board examinations are constantly modifying their testing standards.
Audience: Medical and graduate students are the main audience. All of the authors have been teaching in the field for many years.
Features: In its 17 chapters, the book covers the most important aspects of neuroanatomy and physiology. Despite the fact that the topic is so common in neurosciences books, this book includes some unique features, including a case study at the end of each chapter. In a study guide, case studies always trigger different thought processes and make recall much easier. Each of the cases is discussed in an appropriate manner at the end of the book. The illustrations are standard and appropriate.
Assessment: This is a good, affordable book for students to use as a study guide in preparation for their USMLE examinations.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780443071799
  • Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
  • Publication date: 3/26/2007
  • Series: Systems of the Body Series
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 8.60 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Senior Lecturer in Neuroscience and Pharmacology, St Bartholomew's and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

Head of Educational Technology, Lecturer in Neurophysiology, Neuroscience Section, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London, UK

Lecturer in Anatomy, Neuroscience Section, Queen Mary and Westfield College, London, UK

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Table of Contents


Organisation of the Nervous System     1
Introduction     2
Overview of brain anatomy     3
Internal anatomy of the brain     6
Ventricular system     11
Forebrain     13
Hemisphere specialisation     13
Limbic system     16
Orbitofrontal cortex     19
Basal ganglia     19
Diencephalon     19
Thalamus     20
Hypothalamus     21
Peripheral nervous system     23
Putting it all together: from anatomy to behaviour     31
Self-assessment questions     32
Elements of Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience     33
Introduction     34
Neurones     34
Glial cells     35
Neurone excitability     37
Neurotransmitters     43
Postsynaptic events and postsynaptic receptors     44
Self-assessment questions     49
Clinical Examination     51
Introduction     52
Parts of the clinical examination     52
Other investigations     59
General comments     62
Self-assessment questions     62
The Spinal Cord     63
Introduction     64
Gross anatomy of the spinal cord and vertebral column     64
Case history     64
Functional organisation of the spinal cord     65
Spinal cord cell types     67
Receptive fields     69
Somatosensory pathways     69
Blood supply to the spinal cord     75
Damage to the spinal cord     76
Comments on the case history     83
Self-assessment case study     83
Self-assessment questions     83
Pain and Analgesia     85
Introduction     86
Case history     86
Nociceptors     87
Pain pathways     89
How does the central nervous system interpret a stimulus as painful?     93
Physiology of pain modulation     93
Pain mechanisms after tissue damage: peripheral and central sensitisation     98
Neuropathic pain mechanisms     100
Pharmacology of pain     101
Other approaches to pain management     107
General comments on pain management     111
Self-assessment case study     111
Self-assessment questions     111
Cranial Nerves and the Brainstem     113
Introduction     114
Anatomical organisation of cranial nerves in the brain     114
Case history     114
Internal organisation of the brainstem     115
Reticular formation     117
Blood supply to the brainstem     120
Brainstem reflexes     123
Brainstem lesions     125
Comments on the case history     127
Self-assessment case study     128
Self-assessment questions     128
The Visual System     129
Introduction     130
Case history     130
Structure of the eye     130
Visual pathways     132
Visual field defects     132
Pupillary light reflexes     134
Focusing of light on the retina     134
Control of eye movements     136
Structure and function of the retina     138
Processing of visual information     145
Summary     147
Self-assessment case study     149
Self-assessment questions     149
Hearing and Balance: The Auditory and Vestibular Systems     151
Introduction     152
Auditory system      152
Case history     152
Vestibular system     162
Comments on case history     168
Self-assessment case study     169
Self-assessment questions     169
Motor Systems I: Descending Pathways and Cerebellum     171
Introduction     172
Case history     173
Skeletal muscle contraction     173
Reflexes     176
Descending pathways     179
Clinical importance of reflexes     184
Cerebellum     186
Self-assessment case study     192
Self-assessment questions     193
Motor Systems II: The Basal Ganglia     195
Introduction     196
Case history     196
The basal ganglia: structure and organisation     196
Parkinson's disease     198
Huntington's disease     213
Self-assessment case study     215
Self-assessment questions     215
Stroke and Head Injury     217
Introduction     218
Case history     218
Physiological control of cerebral blood flow     218
Blood supply to the brain     219
Venous system      222
Functional anatomy of the cerebral vasculature     222
Angiography     223
Stroke     224
Head injury     237
Comments on the case history     243
Self-assessment case study     243
Self-assessment questions     243
Infection in the Central Nervous System     245
Introduction     246
Case history     246
Types of infection of the central nervous system     246
The meninges     247
Cerebrospinal fluid production and circulation     248
The blood-brain barrier     249
Meningitis     250
Diagnosis and treatment of meningitis     252
Encephalitis     254
Cerebral abscesses     254
Brain infections in the immunocompromised patient     255
Self-assessment case study     255
Self-assessment questions     255
Epilepsy     257
Introduction     258
General description of epilepsy     258
Case history     258
Epidemiology of epilepsy     258
Types of epileptic syndrome     259
Diagnostic investigations of epilepsy      259
Different types of seizure     262
Neurobiology of epilepsy     264
Pharmacological treatment of epilepsy     266
Other treatments for epilepsy     269
Treatment of status epilepticus     269
Social consequences of epilepsy     270
Self-assessment case study     270
Self-assessment questions     270
Dementia     271
Introduction     272
Case history     272
Causes and diagnosis of dementia     272
Neurobiology of learning and memory     273
Alzheimer's disease     276
Treatment of Alzheimer's disease     281
Other types of dementia     284
General considerations in the management of Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia     287
Self-assessment case study     287
Self-assessment questions     288
Schizophrenia     289
Introduction     290
Case history     290
Schizophrenia: the clinical diagnosis     290
Aetiology of schizophrenia     293
Neurobiology of schizophrenia     294
Treatment of schizophrenia     297
Comments on the management of schizophrenia and the long-term prognosis     300
Other psychoses and schizophrenia-like syndromes     301
Self-assessment case study     302
Self-assessment questions     302
Depression and Anxiety     303
Introduction     304
Classification of mood disorders     304
Clinical features of mood disorders     304
Case history     304
Epidemiology of depression and natural evolution of the disease     305
Genetics of mood disorders     305
Neurobiology of depression     308
Treatment of depression     310
Bipolar disorder and its treatment     313
General comments on mood disorders     315
Need for new therapeutic targets     316
Comments on the case history     316
Anxiety disorders     316
Treatment of anxiety disorders     317
Insomnia     319
Self-assessment case study     321
Self-assessment questions     322
Addiction     323
Introduction     324
Addiction and drug misuse: general comments     324
Case history     324
Opiates     324
Cocaine and crack      327
Cannabis     328
Nicotine     329
Alcohol     331
Phencyclidine     332
Amphetamines     332
Ecstasy-or the beginning of agony?     333
Hallucinogens     334
Solvents     334
Neurobiology of addiction     335
Addiction and rehabilitation: general issues     336
Self-assessment case study     337
Self-assessment questions     337
Answers     339
Index     353
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