The .NET Developer's Guide to Directory Services Programming / Edition 1

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Overview

“If you have any interest in writing .NET programs using Active Directory or ADAM, this is the book you want to read.”
—Joe Richards, Microsoft MVP, directory services

Identity and Access Management are rapidly gaining importance as key areas of practice in the IT industry, and directory services provide the fundamental building blocks that enable them. For enterprise developers struggling to build directory-enabled .NET applications, The .NET Developer’s Guide to Directory Services Programming will come as a welcome aid.

Microsoft MVPs Joe Kaplan and Ryan Dunn have written a practical introduction to programming directory services, using both versions 1.1 and 2.0 of the .NET Framework. The extensive examples in the book are in C#; a companion Web site includes both C# and Visual Basic source code and examples.

Readers will

  • Learn to create, rename, update, and delete objects in Active Directory and ADAM
  • Learn to bind to and search directories effectively and efficiently
  • Learn to read and write attributes of all types in the directory
  • Learn to use directory services within ASP.NET applications
  • Get concrete examples of common programming tasks such as managing Active Directory and ADAM users and groups, and performing authentication

Experienced .NET developers—those building enterprise applications or simply interested in learning about directory services—will find that The .NET Developer’s Guide to Directory Services Programming unravels the complexities and helps them to avoid the common pitfalls that developers face.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321350176
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 5/22/2006
  • Series: Microsoft .NET Development Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 512
  • Sales rank: 1,430,156
  • Product dimensions: 6.97 (w) x 9.19 (h) x 1.21 (d)

Meet the Author

Joe Kaplan works in Accenture’s internal IT organization, building enterprise applications using the .NET Framework. He specializes in directory services programming, for which he has been recognized as a Microsoft MVP. An industry veteran of more than thirteen years, he also thrives on working with the development community and solving real-world problems.

Ryan Dunn of Avanade is a .NET developer and architect with experience in a wide range of industries and technologies. He has consulted on a number of projects to integrate clients’ applications with Active Directory and ADAM. Ryan is a Microsoft MVP for ASP.NET, though he currently focuses primarily on directory services. Ryan can be reached on the Web in the ASP.NET forums or through his blog at http://dunnry.com/blog.

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Read an Excerpt

We wrote this book with the vision that it would be the definitive guide for helping developers leverage directory services from Active Directory and Active Directory/Application Mode (ADAM) in their .NET applications. Even though version 1.0 of the .NET Framework shipped in 2001 with a namespace called

System.DirectoryServices (SDS) for doing this kind of work, the resources available to developers using these technologies have lagged behind. This is the book that we fervently wished we had back when we were first developing software for Active Directory. It was an idea that took a little while to come to fruition: Perhaps a bit of our back story will help to frame our perspective.

Ryan was working at a very large professional services firm that was selling off its consulting services capabilities. As part of the separation, a new IT infrastructure needed to be created. It fell to Ryan to figure out how to automate HR data feeds to provision Active Directory accounts and how to manage all of it with only a skeleton crew and a few custom apps. This was in the .NET version 1.0 beta 2 timeframe and .NET seemed promising.

Separately, but in an eerily similar vein, Joe was working in the IT organization of a large professional services firm that was contemplating a massive email system migration from a popular groupware platform to Microsoft’s Exchange 2000 Server. Exchange works on top of Active Directory, and Joe was asked to help out on the integration project between Active Directory and the groupware system’s directory.

Both projects required a heavy dose of directory services magic to tie the systems together and migrate from the competing platforms. The applications were not simple scripts, but complex systems and web applications requiring a more in-depth approach. But as we began to wade into the code, we noticed there were quite a few rough edges to be sorted out. Exactly how do we make the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) code work correctly in ASP.NET? What were all of those flags used for? How do we make these objects behave the way we expect? How do we extend the schema to accommodate our own custom business logic?

Naturally, we went to the web-based message boards and newsgroups seeking advice, but found very little. Some people had some of the answers if we translated their logic from scripts or C++ programs, but more people were asking than answering. With hard work and sometimes-fortuitous chance, we eventually pieced it together, but it was far more difficult than it needed to be.

Flash forward to 2006: The .NET Framework has matured significantly, with a milestone 2.0 release, and so has the .NET development community. Books and resources abound for just about every topic you could imagine. However, directory services programming still remains obscure and confusing.

This lack of guidance is somewhat ironic given that the enterprise directory continues to gain prominence in the organization. It is no longer just the province of a team of administrators writing scripts. It has become a key source of data for many full-scale applications, with some even building complex identity life cycle management processes on top of it.

We stuck around the message boards, and over the last several years, we worked actively in the online development community to help developers of all stripes solve their directory services development problems. We know from our work in the community that there tends to be a lot of confusion on how best to leverage what became of Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) in the new managed model of

System.DirectoryServices.

We took the most common problems that developers wrestle with in this space and tried to address them in turn. By the time you finish reading this book, we hope that your directory services programming will be much more effective than before.

Our approach for this book tends to be very pragmatic. We focus heavily on code samples showing how to do things the right way, sometimes at the expense of brevity. However, we do not hesitate to dig under the covers and provide answers for how things really work. We start with the basic skills that every directory services developer should understand and build a solid foundation. We then layer on more advanced topics and scenarios that we have run into firsthand and that we know from our work in the community that developers still struggle with. When we are done, you should have all the tools needed to tackle the advanced scenarios and build the types of applications you need.

Outside of this book, we endeavor to support our readers by making examples, errata, additional topics, and tools available on our companion web site, www.directoryprogramming.net.

What Is Covered?

The book primarily focuses on programming LDAP with the

System.DirectoryServices namespace. At times, we address the new additions to .NET,

System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory (SDS.AD) and

System.DirectoryServices.Protocols (SDS.P), when there is functionality or a scenario that is not addressed with

System.DirectoryServices, although complete coverage of all of the new bits will require another book.

We take the approach of covering both the 1.1 and 2.0 versions of the .NET Framework. We realize that many developers will be working in both environments for years to come. Even for developers who may never use older versions, it is useful to learn the newer features by understanding the previous shortcomings.

The book also focuses on Microsoft’s primary LDAP directory service product, Active Directory, with a fair amount of coverage of ADAM as well. While we do not provide specific examples of targeting non-Microsoft directories, we do try to point out the issues that are most likely to affect you, and how to avoid them.

The book is divided into two parts. Part I (Chapters 1-9) is all about the fundamentals of LDAP programming. It introduces the key concepts and provides a solid foundation upon which to build any type of directory services application. Part II (Chapters 10-12) is about applying the fundamentals from Part I to real-world problems and provides more of a “cookbook” approach. The topics in these last chapters come from what we see developers wrestling with everyday and our own experiences as we struggled to learn this.

Chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts of LDAP and discusses the key directory services that the book focuses on, Active Directory and ADAM. In Chapter 2, we continue the introduction with a survey of the APIs available for programming LDAP using the .NET Framework and discuss how they relate to each other.

Starting with Chapters 3 and 4, we cover the basic mechanics of accessing Active Directory or ADAM. In Chapter 3, we focus in detail on connecting to the directory, as well as creating, moving, renaming, and deleting objects. Chapter 4 covers the basics of searching. Searching is the fundamental activity of LDAP programming, so a solid grounding is essential.

Chapter 5 continues with the searching theme, but goes into detail on the advanced topics. The 2.0 release of the .NET Framework has added a host of new searching features, so we cover all of these here and provide complete samples.

Chapter 6 focuses on the intricacies of reading and writing attributes in the directory. We discuss all of the different attribute syntaxes, including the ones that tend to give developers the most trouble.

Chapter 7 covers LDAP schema and extensions, explaining key points that the enterprise developer should know for designing new schema.

We delve into the Windows security model in Chapter 8, addressing not only LDAP security and how it integrates with Windows security, but also the challenges of the security context in the ASP.NET environment. We will show you how to use Kerberos delegation and teach you common issues to look for. We also cover access control lists (ACLs) in Active Directory and ADAM and discuss the code access security (CAS) model in the .NET Framework, as well as how it applies to directory services programming.

Chapter 9 explores

System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory. This new namespace was introduced with .NET 2.0 and included many new capabilities for managing Active Directory and ADAM. We focus on one of the most useful features, the Locator service built into Active Directory that finds domain controllers on the network.

In Chapters 10, 11, and 12, we shift our focus from fundamentals to practical solutions for common problems. Some of these scenarios are advanced, but by this point, we should have you prepared to tackle them. Chapter 10 discusses user management in detail and provides a wealth of useful samples, as well as real answers to common problems. Chapter 11 covers group management in detail. We conclude in Chapter 12 with a variety of different approaches for authentication with LDAP, including a discussion of the alternatives.

We also include three appendices. Appendix A shows some different approaches for doing COM interop in .NET. COM interop is often required when working with these technologies, so it is useful to know the options here. Appendix B provides our list of “must-have” tools for LDAP programmers working with Active Directory and ADAM. Finally, Appendix C attempts to provide a cross-reference of common errors to topics in the book that deal with those problems. If you are stuck and need an answer fast, Appendix C might help you to use the book more effectively. We also tell you how to get in touch with us if you can’t find what you are looking for here.

Target Audience

This book was written with the .NET enterprise application developer in mind. While it is generally applicable to any .NET developer doing directory services programming, we have included many topics of specific interest to the enterprise audience, including performance, scalability, and security scenarios. If you are new to .NET or programming in general, this may not be the book for you. We assume an overall moderate level of comfort and do not explain basic programming techniques.

The samples in the book are primarily in C#, but we do not specifically target C# developers. The samples try to focus on the usage of the classes themselves and not on the specific programming language. In cases where there are substantial differences beyond curly braces and semicolons, we show Visual Basic .NET samples as well. Additionally, all of the book’s samples are available in both C# and Visual Basic .NET on the book’s web site.

Prerequisites

To run the samples in this book, you will need the following.

  • The .NET Framework (either SDK or redistributable). Version 2.0 is preferred, but 1.1 will suffice to a lesser extent.
  • Active Directory on Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003, or ADAM on Windows XP or Windows Server 2003.
  • For ASP.NET examples, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, or Windows XP running IIS is required.

Visual Studio .NET (either the 2005 or the 2003 version) is helpful, but not required.

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Table of Contents

Listings xv

Tables xix

Foreword xxi

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxix

About the Authors xxxi

Part I: Fundamentals 1

Chapter 1: Introduction to LDAP and Active Directory 3

A Brief History of Directory Services 3

Definition of LDAP 4

Definition of Active Directory 5

Definition of ADAM 7

LDAP Basics 11

Chapter 2: Introduction to .NET Directory Services Programming 27

.NET Directory Services Programming Landscape 27

Native Directory Services Programming Landscape 29

System.DirectoryServices Overview 32

System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory Overview 40

System.DirectoryServices.Protocols Overview 43

Selecting the Right Technology 49

Chapter 3: Binding and CRUD Operations with DirectoryEntry 53

Property and Method Overview 54

Binding to the Directory 62

Directory CRUD Operations 98

Chapter 4: Searching with the DirectorySearcher 109

LDAP Searching Overview 109

DirectorySearcher Overview 111

The Basics of Searching 115

Building LDAP Filters 118

Controlling the Content of Search Results 136

Executing the Query and Enumerating Results 139

Returning Many Results with Paged Searches 143

Sorting Search Results 146

Chapter 5: Advanced LDAP Searches 149

Administrative Limits Governing Active Directory and ADAM 150

Understanding Searching Timeouts 152

Optimizing Search Performance 154

Searching the Global Catalog 158

Chasing Referrals 161

Virtual List View Searches 162

Searching for Deleted Objects 169

Directory Synchronization Queries 171

Using Attribute Scope Query 178

Extended DN Queries 181

Reading Security Descriptors with Security Masks 183

Asynchronous Searches 185

Chapter 6: Reading and Writing LDAP Attributes 193

Basics of Reading Attribute Values 193

Collection Class Usage 195

Understanding the ADSI Property Cache 199

LDAP Data Types in .NET 200

ADSI Schema Mapping Mechanism 206

.NET Attribute Value Conversion 213

Standard Data Types 214

Binary Data Conversion 215

COM Interop Data Types 216

Syntactic versus Semantic Conversion 229

Dealing with Attributes with Many Values 230

Basics of Writing Attribute Values 234

Writing COM Interop Types 241

Chapter 7: Active Directory and ADAM Schema 247

Schema Extension Best Practices 247

Choosing an Object Class 251

Choosing Attribute Syntaxes 253

Modeling One-to-Many and Many-to-Many Relationships 256

Search Flags and Indexing 261

Techniques for Extending the Schema 264

Discovering Schema Information at Runtime 266

Chapter 8: Security in Directory Services Programming 273

Binding and Delegation 274

Directory Object Permissions in Active Directory and ADAM 300

Code Access Security 315

Chapter 9: Introduction to the ActiveDirectory Namespace 325

Working with the DirectoryContext Class 326

Locating Domain Controllers 332

Understanding the Active Directory RPC APIs 339

Useful Shortcuts for Developers 339

Part II: Practical Applications 345

Chapter 10: User Management 347

Finding Users 347

Creating Users 351

Managing User Account Features 353

Managing Passwords for Active Directory Users 376

Managing Passwords for ADAM Users 386

Determining User Group Membership in Active Directory and ADAM 389

Chapter 11: Group Management 397

Creating Groups in Active Directory and ADAM 397

Manipulating Group Membership 400

Expanding Group Membership 403

Primary Group Membership 409

Foreign Security Principals 413

Chapter 12: Authentication 417

Authentication Using SDS 418

Authentication Using SDS.P 424

Authentication Using SSPI 428

Discovering the Cause of Authentication Failures 431

Part III: Appendixes 433

Appendix A: Three Approaches to COM Interop with ADSI 435

The Standard Method 435

The Reflection Method 437

Handcrafted COM Interop Declarations 439

Appendix B: LDAP Tools for Programmers 443

LDP 443

ADSI Edit 445

Active Directory Users and Computers 445

LDIFDE 446

ADFind/ADMod 447

BeaverTail LDAP Browser 447

Softerra LDAP Browser 448

Appendix C: Troubleshooting and Help 449

Error 0x8007203A: “The server is not operational.” 449

Error 0x8007052E: “Login Failure: unknown user name or bad password.” 450

Error 0x80072020: “An operations error occurred.” 450

Error 0x80072030: “There is no such object on the server.” 451

Error 0x8007202F: “A constraint violation occurred.” 451

Error 0x80072035: “The server is unwilling to process the request.” 452

Error 0x80070005: “General access denied error.” 452

InvalidOperationException from DirectorySearcher 452

Getting Help 453

Index 455

Read More Show Less

Preface

We wrote this book with the vision that it would be the definitive guide for helping developers leverage directory services from Active Directory and Active Directory/Application Mode (ADAM) in their .NET applications. Even though version 1.0 of the .NET Framework shipped in 2001 with a namespace called System.DirectoryServices (SDS) for doing this kind of work, the resources available to developers using these technologies have lagged behind. This is the book that we fervently wished we had back when we were first developing software for Active Directory. It was an idea that took a little while to come to fruition: Perhaps a bit of our back story will help to frame our perspective.

Ryan was working at a very large professional services firm that was selling off its consulting services capabilities. As part of the separation, a new IT infrastructure needed to be created. It fell to Ryan to figure out how to automate HR data feeds to provision Active Directory accounts and how to manage all of it with only a skeleton crew and a few custom apps. This was in the .NET version 1.0 beta 2 timeframe and .NET seemed promising.

Separately, but in an eerily similar vein, Joe was working in the IT organization of a large professional services firm that was contemplating a massive email system migration from a popular groupware platform to Microsoft’s Exchange 2000 Server. Exchange works on top of Active Directory, and Joe was asked to help out on the integration project between Active Directory and the groupware system’s directory.

Both projects required a heavy dose of directory services magic to tie the systems together and migrate from the competing platforms. The applications were not simple scripts, but complex systems and web applications requiring a more in-depth approach. But as we began to wade into the code, we noticed there were quite a few rough edges to be sorted out. Exactly how do we make the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) code work correctly in ASP.NET? What were all of those flags used for? How do we make these objects behave the way we expect? How do we extend the schema to accommodate our own custom business logic?

Naturally, we went to the web-based message boards and newsgroups seeking advice, but found very little. Some people had some of the answers if we translated their logic from scripts or C++ programs, but more people were asking than answering. With hard work and sometimes-fortuitous chance, we eventually pieced it together, but it was far more difficult than it needed to be.

Flash forward to 2006: The .NET Framework has matured significantly, with a milestone 2.0 release, and so has the .NET development community. Books and resources abound for just about every topic you could imagine. However, directory services programming still remains obscure and confusing.

This lack of guidance is somewhat ironic given that the enterprise directory continues to gain prominence in the organization. It is no longer just the province of a team of administrators writing scripts. It has become a key source of data for many full-scale applications, with some even building complex identity life cycle management processes on top of it.

We stuck around the message boards, and over the last several years, we worked actively in the online development community to help developers of all stripes solve their directory services development problems. We know from our work in the community that there tends to be a lot of confusion on how best to leverage what became of Active Directory Service Interfaces (ADSI) in the new managed model of System.DirectoryServices.

We took the most common problems that developers wrestle with in this space and tried to address them in turn. By the time you finish reading this book, we hope that your directory services programming will be much more effective than before.

Our approach for this book tends to be very pragmatic. We focus heavily on code samples showing how to do things the right way, sometimes at the expense of brevity. However, we do not hesitate to dig under the covers and provide answers for how things really work. We start with the basic skills that every directory services developer should understand and build a solid foundation. We then layer on more advanced topics and scenarios that we have run into firsthand and that we know from our work in the community that developers still struggle with. When we are done, you should have all the tools needed to tackle the advanced scenarios and build the types of applications you need.

Outside of this book, we endeavor to support our readers by making examples, errata, additional topics, and tools available on our companion web site, www.directoryprogramming.net.

What Is Covered?

The book primarily focuses on programming LDAP with the System.DirectoryServices namespace. At times, we address the new additions to .NET, System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory (SDS.AD) and System.DirectoryServices.Protocols (SDS.P), when there is functionality or a scenario that is not addressed with System.DirectoryServices, although complete coverage of all of the new bits will require another book.

We take the approach of covering both the 1.1 and 2.0 versions of the .NET Framework. We realize that many developers will be working in both environments for years to come. Even for developers who may never use older versions, it is useful to learn the newer features by understanding the previous shortcomings.

The book also focuses on Microsoft’s primary LDAP directory service product, Active Directory, with a fair amount of coverage of ADAM as well. While we do not provide specific examples of targeting non-Microsoft directories, we do try to point out the issues that are most likely to affect you, and how to avoid them.

The book is divided into two parts. Part I (Chapters 1-9) is all about the fundamentals of LDAP programming. It introduces the key concepts and provides a solid foundation upon which to build any type of directory services application. Part II (Chapters 10-12) is about applying the fundamentals from Part I to real-world problems and provides more of a “cookbook” approach. The topics in these last chapters come from what we see developers wrestling with everyday and our own experiences as we struggled to learn this.

Chapter 1 introduces the basic concepts of LDAP and discusses the key directory services that the book focuses on, Active Directory and ADAM. In Chapter 2, we continue the introduction with a survey of the APIs available for programming LDAP using the .NET Framework and discuss how they relate to each other.

Starting with Chapters 3 and 4, we cover the basic mechanics of accessing Active Directory or ADAM. In Chapter 3, we focus in detail on connecting to the directory, as well as creating, moving, renaming, and deleting objects. Chapter 4 covers the basics of searching. Searching is the fundamental activity of LDAP programming, so a solid grounding is essential.

Chapter 5 continues with the searching theme, but goes into detail on the advanced topics. The 2.0 release of the .NET Framework has added a host of new searching features, so we cover all of these here and provide complete samples.

Chapter 6 focuses on the intricacies of reading and writing attributes in the directory. We discuss all of the different attribute syntaxes, including the ones that tend to give developers the most trouble.

Chapter 7 covers LDAP schema and extensions, explaining key points that the enterprise developer should know for designing new schema.

We delve into the Windows security model in Chapter 8, addressing not only LDAP security and how it integrates with Windows security, but also the challenges of the security context in the ASP.NET environment. We will show you how to use Kerberos delegation and teach you common issues to look for. We also cover access control lists (ACLs) in Active Directory and ADAM and discuss the code access security (CAS) model in the .NET Framework, as well as how it applies to directory services programming.

Chapter 9 explores System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory. This new namespace was introduced with .NET 2.0 and included many new capabilities for managing Active Directory and ADAM. We focus on one of the most useful features, the Locator service built into Active Directory that finds domain controllers on the network.

In Chapters 10, 11, and 12, we shift our focus from fundamentals to practical solutions for common problems. Some of these scenarios are advanced, but by this point, we should have you prepared to tackle them. Chapter 10 discusses user management in detail and provides a wealth of useful samples, as well as real answers to common problems. Chapter 11 covers group management in detail. We conclude in Chapter 12 with a variety of different approaches for authentication with LDAP, including a discussion of the alternatives.

We also include three appendices. Appendix A shows some different approaches for doing COM interop in .NET. COM interop is often required when working with these technologies, so it is useful to know the options here. Appendix B provides our list of “must-have” tools for LDAP programmers working with Active Directory and ADAM. Finally, Appendix C attempts to provide a cross-reference of common errors to topics in the book that deal with those problems. If you are stuck and need an answer fast, Appendix C might help you to use the book more effectively. We also tell you how to get in touch with us if you can’t find what you are looking for here.

Target Audience

This book was written with the .NET enterprise application developer in mind. While it is generally applicable to any .NET developer doing directory services programming, we have included many topics of specific interest to the enterprise audience, including performance, scalability, and security scenarios. If you are new to .NET or programming in general, this may not be the book for you. We assume an overall moderate level of comfort and do not explain basic programming techniques.

The samples in the book are primarily in C#, but we do not specifically target C# developers. The samples try to focus on the usage of the classes themselves and not on the specific programming language. In cases where there are substantial differences beyond curly braces and semicolons, we show Visual Basic .NET samples as well. Additionally, all of the book’s samples are available in both C# and Visual Basic .NET on the book’s web site.

Prerequisites

To run the samples in this book, you will need the following.

  • The .NET Framework (either SDK or redistributable). Version 2.0 is preferred, but 1.1 will suffice to a lesser extent.
  • Active Directory on Windows 2000 Server or Windows Server 2003, or ADAM on Windows XP or Windows Server 2003.
  • For ASP.NET examples, Windows 2000 Server, Windows Server 2003, or Windows XP running IIS is required.

Visual Studio .NET (either the 2005 or the 2003 version) is helpful, but not required.

Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

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Sort by: Showing all of 4 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted December 18, 2008

    Best Book on .NET and LDAP

    I don't know what the first anonymous user is smoking - but the examples are rockstar quality. Just try to find .NET samples anywhere on the internet and they are written by these guys or come directly from the book. The authors supply 3 sets of examples, C#, VB.NET, and C# with NUnit tests meant to help you bootstrap the process of running the examples. If you can't figure out NUnit, you probably shouldn't be using Visual Studio anyway.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 28, 2008

    Poor Examples

    Did not find the examples very useful. There was little documentation on how to setup the nunit test facility that is a requisite for the samples. Also, the samples are ADSI-specific only and did not think the book was well written.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted June 22, 2006

    many useful code examples

    Active Directory is an important offering by Microsoft, primarily for use within its .NET Framework. What Kaplan and Dunn suggest here is that the programmer-level documentation for Active Directory being furnished by Microsoft is somewhat awkward to use and understand. So this book is offered. The context is how to code LDAP in the namespace of System.DirectoryServices. The code examples are from both .NET 1.1 and .NET 2.0. Though the reader should probably migrate to 2.0 anyway, as this is significantly improved over 1.1. Also, the examples are given in C#. If you are an experienced VB coder, you should still be able to easily follow the C# logic. The code examples are brief enough to enable that, and C# is a very clean language, notationally. Part 2 of the book is probably the key section for most readers. You might be trying to integrate a corporate-wide directory with other applications. Perhaps to authorise those applications, depending on a valid user, as given by Active Directory, say. So Part 2 delves heavily into user and group management. For the latter, its definition and populating it with users is shown to be straightforward. From which you can build higher level logic.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 9, 2008

    No text was provided for this review.

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