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|Pt. I||Introduction Local-Area Networks (LANs)||7|
|Ch. 1||A Network is Just Like Tin Cans and String - Only Better!||9|
|Ch. 2||Message in a Bottle (Or How Communications Work)||23|
|Ch. 3||Which Kind of Communication Am I Dealing With?||31|
|Pt. II||Setting Up a Network||41|
|Ch. 4||Linking Up Your Network, or Lost in the Wires||43|
|Ch. 5||Installing a Network Interface Card||69|
|Ch. 6||Making a Network Map||87|
|Ch. 7||Keeping Your Network Running||93|
|Pt. III||Setting Up a NetWare Network||101|
|Ch. 8||Which NetWare Version Should I Use?||103|
|Ch. 9||NetWare Installation Chores||121|
|Ch. 10||NetWare 101: Server Basics||135|
|Ch. 11||Setting Up NetWare Directory Services||149|
|Ch. 12||Setting Up a NetWare File System||163|
|Ch. 13||Setting Up a NetWare Printer (or Getting More Bang for Your Buck)||177|
|Pt. IV||Protecting Your NetWare Network||195|
|Ch. 14||Network Security: It's Not Just for Cops and Robbers||197|
|Ch. 15||Covering Your Assets: Backing Up and Restoring Your Data||221|
|Pt. V||Maintaining Your NetWare Network||239|
|Ch. 16||Empowering Your Users: Utilities They Can Use||241|
|Ch. 17||Master of the Utilities Universe||257|
|Ch. 18||NDS Tools and Utilities||281|
|Ch. 19||The Many Moods of NetWare and Internet Connections||297|
|Ch. 20||Adding a Web Server to NetWare||315|
|Ch. 21||Troubleshooting Common Problems||321|
|Pt. VI||The Part of Tens||333|
|Ch. 22||Ten Tons of Trouble: The Network's Broken!||335|
|Ch. 23||Keeping Track: Ten Things to Know (and Write Down) About Your Network||343|
|Ch. 24||Ten Things You Have to Know Before Anyone Else Can Help You||347|
|Ch. 25||Ten Things to Do Before Making Changes to a NetWare Server||351|
|Ch. 26||(Nearly) Ten Paths to Perfect Printing||355|
|Ch. 27||Ten Unbeatable Backup Techniques||359|
|Ch. 28||Ten Symptoms of Growing Pains||363|
|Appendix A||Everyday Explanations of Technobabble Networking Terms||369|
|Appendix B||Screaming for Help: When and How to Get It||383|
|Appendix C||An Incredibly Concise Guide to Online NetWare Information||389|
|Book Registration Information|
In This Chapter
With the release of NetWare 4.11, Novell also launched a new product family called IntranetWare. This product name is meant to suggest the addition of intra- and Internet capabilities to the core NetWare network operating system.
In fact, IntranetWare marks a terrific step forward in Novell's understanding of the marketplace. In particular, IntranetWare underscores Novell's long-overdue recognition of the centrality of TCP/IP-based networking for most organizations. But probably the easiest way to understand IntranetWare is as a bundle that contains NetWare 4.11, plus a number of other already-established NetWare add-ons, and a few new elements, just to round out the product's functionality.
In the section that follows, we unpack the bundle to introduce what's inside IntranetWare; next, we discuss the pros and cons of connecting your network to the Internet or building your own intranet. Then, we take you through each of IntranetWare's major components and describe what they can do, why you may want to use them, and what you must do to install them for yourself. And we suggest reasonable alternatives and useful resources wherever they're appropriate. Because IntranetWare covers so much ground, we can't do complete justice to these add-on products (that would be the topic for another entire book), but we can help you understand them better -- so that's just what we'll do!
Unbundling IntranetWare is heady stuff, indeed. The bottom line is that IntranetWare includes nearly everything you need to run a NetWare network that can accommodate TCP/IP services with the same aplomb as the native file, print, directory, and other services that you've come to expect from NetWare.
If you take a look at the press releases and news stories surrounding the release of IntranetWare, several things are clear:
Now that you're all excited about IntranetWare, you can look over this list of all the products that used to be sold separately but are now included with IntranetWare:
Atop this powerful Web platform, IntranetWare even includes Web-based server access and management utilities as well. In competitive testing, the NetWare Web Server was recognized as a bona fide screamer (it's fast) and offers top-notch security and document access controls.
Great sources of IntranetWare information
Because IntranetWare takes an already rich and interesting product -- NetWare 4.11 -- and triples its functionality, we can't do justice to all its many pieces and parts in a single chapter. That's why we want to point out some of the best places to look for more information on IntranetWare and its many constituent products:
One thing's for sure -- a shortage of information won't be a problem. As we gathered information for this chapter, even before the product was officially released, we already found hundreds of pages of information online at the Novell Web site. By the time you read this, the amount of information will probably be much greater!
In the spirit of those timeless RonCo ads, we're tempted to say, "But wait! There's more!!" And in fact, there's more to IntranetWare than we mentioned in this book, but the rest is esoteric enough that we can let you discover it yourself without doing you a major disservice. If you're dying to satisfy your curiosity, check out the sidebar entitled "Great sources of IntranetWare information" -- otherwise, skip it!
If you want to use the TCP/IP-oriented capabilities included with IntranetWare and you're not already familiar with this world, you've got some catching up to do. In a nutshell, you need to deal with the following:
TCP/IP networking is an area that has been the subject of many books. We describe some of these tomes later; first, we'll tell you a little bit about each of the things we just mentioned.
Typically, IP addresses appear in one of two forms:
22.214.171.124is the address for one of our ISP's servers.
.com(for a commercial business),
.gov(for a government address),
.edu(for an educational institution),
.org(for a non-profit organization), or
.net(for a network service provider). Outside the U.S., domain names end in two-letter country codes, of which over 140 are currently defined. The domain name that corresponds to the preceding numeric address is
The really interesting thing about IP addresses and domain names on the Internet is that they must be unique. On a single network, this restriction is no big problem because ensuring that no duplicate addresses are issued simply requires a bit of care on the network administrator's part. But on the global Internet, with millions of users and domain names, an agency must be responsible for tracking address and name assignments. The group responsible for the way IP numbers are laid out in a general way is the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA); the group responsible for domain names and overall address assignments is the Internet Network Information Center (usually called the InterNIC).
IP addresses carry a certain amount of baggage with them. In addition to being unique, they also contain two parts: a network ID and a node ID, where the number of bits assigned to the network and node IDs vary, depending on the type of IP address that's involved. This two-part organization results in a sharing of the address space allocated for all machines on a network between network IDs and node IDs. If more network IDs are present, then less space is available for node IDs, and vice-versa. Address classes are distinguished as A, B, and C, as shown in Table 21-1.
|Network Class||Network ID||Node ID||Totals|
*The bits in parentheses, like (0) to the right of the three class designations, are required start bits used to identify each class. The Totals column indicates the maximum number of network and node IDs for each address type. (The start bits, which are required, reduce the total number of networks in each class; more start bits mean less network IDs.)
The important thing to notice about the IP addresses is that only a few huge Class A IP networks exist, with many node addresses, and many small Class C IP networks exist, with only a few node addresses each (relatively speaking). In fact, running out of IP addresses is a major concern in some circles. A D address class also exists, but it's seldom used, and we don't cover it here.
Furthermore, many networks are subdivided into separate components, known as subnets, to create several smaller networks from one larger one. Such subnets are normally connected by network devices called routers (which is part of what a NetWare server can do, in fact). Most configuration entries for IP addresses ask for something called a subnet mask, in addition to requiring specification of a number of individual IP addresses. The address for a subnet uses the entire network ID part and borrows some bits from the node ID part to extend the network section. The borrowed bits create a unique, but related, network address for each subnet that can be used without obtaining permission from anybody, because it's a way of further subdividing what's already yours. Network administrators use subnets as a convenient way to partition their network addresses into smaller, more manageable chunks.
In most cases, people don't worry about the general structure of IP names and addresses; they worry about their own. IP addresses for use on the Internet are assigned by the InterNIC through an application process. In most cases, unless you have a very large network, you can obtain your IP addresses from your ISP as part of the service that they deliver to you. In fact, many ISPs also handle domain name registration on your behalf. Your ISP can also furnish your subnet mask information for configuring the various NetWare IP utilities, as well.
If you want to obtain IP addresses or a domain name on your own, you can contact the InterNIC at the following URL:
The Yahoo! site provides pointers to all kinds of InterNIC-related information resources and commentary and is worth visiting, especially for those curious about the politics and experience of working with that body. These days, getting a domain name takes two to three weeks and costs $100 for the first two years. That means that planning ahead is important -- without a domain name, installing your Web server, FTP server, and so on won't be as easy or convenient.
IP addresses for private networks
These days, you can never be too sure that your network won't someday end up connected to the Internet. Even if you're dead certain that your organization will never take that particular plunge, please consult the Request for Comment (rfc) that the governing body for Internet technology has compiled. This document is called "Address Allocation for Private Internets," and you can obtain it in one of the three following ways:
If you follow the Internet governing body's guidelines for numbering (your IP addresses), your life can be a lot easier when things change and your organization does decide to hook up to the Internet.
Two ingredients are essential to obtaining Internet access:
For both ingredients (the communications link and the service account), how much you pay depends on the kind of connection you use. By and large, more bandwidth costs more money. Also, your ISP's charges are determined in part by the kinds of services that they deliver to your organization. Although IntranetWare can provide most of the Internet services that you may want to offer to your partners and customers, you want to trade off the costs of doing it yourself plus the costs of higher bandwidth against the convenience and customer service that your ISP can provide. Be sure to consider hidden costs, like the 24/7 schedule so typical of Internet sites, and personnel costs involved in running a Web site, FTP server, news server, or whatever.
For more information about IP and the other topics covered in this section, we recommend the following resources:
Whereas the first book is a good introduction to the topic, the last one is a worthwhile resource for any network administrator whose network runs TCP/IP.
Whether you're connecting to the public Internet or simply linking multiple sites on a private intranet, the Multi-Protocol Router (MPR) component of IntranetWare is likely to be of interest. In a nutshell, this facility is a collection of NetWare NLMs that understand your network's layout and addressing scheme to the point where they can distinguish local addresses from remote ones.
In essence, what the MPR does is to examine the addresses within packets of data moving across your network: It simply passes local traffic across the right local network segments (or leaves them alone if the traffic is between two nodes on a single segment). But MPR is also capable of recognizing remote traffic and passes it across whatever link is appropriate to direct that traffic on its way from your local network to its ultimate destination.
The version of MPR that ships with IntranetWare also includes support for a facility that Novell calls WAN Links. Instead of describing a peculiar brand of sausage, this facility permits the MPR to communicate with the kinds of interface cards that are necessary to direct traffic over the conventional or digital telephone lines used to exchange data with ISPs and other network service providers. For small or branch offices, this traffic direction capability is great, because it means that the NetWare server can act as a router, in addition to performing its other duties. That is, smaller operations won't need to purchase a dedicated device for routing purposes. (Larger operations, with more traffic on and off the remote link, probably want to dedicate a device to handle routing anyway, so this feature is probably of less interest in such circumstances.)
Together, MPR and WAN Links help your users to communicate with remote networks, be it through the Internet or some other type of wide-area network. These components makes access to all kinds of data resources possible, for e-mail, hypertext, and even distributed applications of all kinds. Even better, the MPR can handle multiple protocols (as its name is meant to imply), so that you can use it to route IPX, IP, SNA, and other kinds of traffic as well.
For TCP/IP-related traffic, you need to know the following to configure the MPR for Internet or private intranet access:
With the preceding information in hand (most of which you can obtain from your ISP, if you're connecting to the Internet), and a properly-configured link to a remote network, you are ready to install and use MPR.
The NetWare Web Server exploits NetWare's well-documented capabilities to provide superior performance and file-server capacity. Because most of what Web servers do is to respond to requests for individual documents and related objects -- all of which are usually stored in separate files -- this job is one at which NetWare excels. Of course, using a Web server requires a knowledge of the HyperText Markup Language (HTML) and an understanding of how to build and exploit documents written in that markup language.
For more information on this topic, we can think of no better place to start than another one of our books: HTML For Dummies, 2nd Edition, IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. You may find Dave Taylor's Creating Cool Web Pages with HTML, also IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., a useful resource, too.
To provide complete Web capabilities, the NetWare Web Server also includes support for Web extension software written to the standard Common Gateway Interface (CGI). Such software, usually called CGI programs or CGI scripts, is commonly written in a programming language called Perl (practical extraction and report language); that's why the NetWare Web Server includes NLMs that can interpret and execute Perl scripts. And because NetWare 4.11 includes a BASIC interpreter called NetBasic as well, you can also create and use Web extensions written in NetBasic. Furthermore, NetWare can run CGI programs remotely on another server, if written to a special remote CGI (R-CGI) interface, or locally, if written to the local CGI (L-CGI) interface. These CGI support features give the server a great deal of flexibility and capability.
Among the more interesting features delivered with the NetWare Web Server, in addition to its capabilities to handle normal Web document access, is an HTML-based interface to the NetWare Directory Services. Administrators with appropriate rights can access the entire NDS database through any Web browser; ordinary users can perform routine NDS lookups, context changes, and other customary functions. NetWare's built-in access controls and file system security create a Web server environment that's nearly unhackable and make restricted access (like having passwords for certain documents while other documents are accessible to all visitors) easy to impose. For even greater security, the NetWare Web Server lets you create virtual file systems and names for exposure to outsiders, thereby completely hiding the true, underlying filenames and structures.
After you obtain your domain name and IP addresses, setting up the NetWare Web Server is incredibly easy, requiring simply that the name and address information be supplied and a Web directory structure specified. Because IntranetWare also includes client licenses for the Netscape Navigator, after you supply the documents and graphics for your Web site, your users are ready to rock 'n' roll!
As a way of adding easy access to all kinds of information, Web servers have paved the way for the explosion in the use of private IP-based intranets. You can find the NetWare Web Server useful in discovering how to exploit the information resources that are probably already available within your own organization (or even to serve the public Internet). If you need additional document management capabilities for your Web documents or are interested in creating Web documents on the fly (from database contents or other application files), check out Novell's information about its GroupWise product family at its home page at
The inclusion of FleX/IP in IntranetWare supplies a set of NLMs (NetWare Loadable Modules) that support the standard IP-based File Transfer Protocol service. Although its name includes the word protocol, FleX/IP is actually a general-purpose file delivery service that can transfer files to and from any FTP server on an IP-based network.
The NetWare FTP Server supports all the standard scenarios for FTP use: It can be set up to accept anonymous FTP requests, which means that users don't need a password to access the files in a particular root directory established for anonymous service. But the NetWare FTP Server can be configured to provide password protection for entire servers, directories, or even individual files. Because the FTP's file access protection is based on NetWare security, files outside the purview of the FTP Server are secure from access through FTP -- in fact, these files are completely invisible to unauthorized users.
Like the Web Server, this FTP Server can expose a virtual file system to outside users that presents a deliberately different public face from its physical layout and actual file and directory names. This provides an extra layer of security that can repel would-be system crackers. It's even possible to overlay certain directories for both Web-based and FTP file transfer access -- that is, so both the NetWare Web and FTP Servers can access the same files -- so that users can employ the file transfer mechanism that works best for them on your network.
Installing and configuring the NetWare FTP Server is a matter of supplying the root domain name and IP address and configuring the root directory (or directories) for the files to be delivered via FTP. At the same time as you do this configuration, you specify the type of access permitted (anonymous or password-controlled) and establish an access profile for authorized users, where appropriate.
FTP services can deliver a useful mechanism for providing access to a collection of shared documents and other files. Such collections can be quite useful for supplying on-demand printable forms, manuals and instructions of all kinds, organizational policies and procedures, and lots of other information. When used in combination with the World Wide Web, these shared collections (of documents and other files) can help to curtail paper consumption and replace physical movement of documents with e-mail, file transfer, and other forms of electronic delivery.
One of IntranetWare's more interesting capabilities is aimed at the UNIX crowd. Those organizations whose networks include large numbers of UNIX servers (or whose network management is UNIX-based) can appreciate the XCONSOLE utility. Simply put, XCONSOLE supports a NetWare user interface for administration and server access through the X Windows environment, a graphical user interface supported on many UNIX workstations and other, similar computers.
Administrators still must understand the details and behavior of the NetWare Server interface, but XCONSOLE gives them additional flexibility. By using the XCONSOLE utility, network administrators can open a window on any X Windows workstation and perform activities remotely across the network. Without XCONSOLE, they need to do the administrative activities at the NetWare Server's console itself (hence, of course, the name for this utility).
Installing XCONSOLE is just a matter of adding a small number of NLMs to your NetWare (or IntranetWare) server and defining permissions for those who will be allowed to use X Windows to access the server. Of all the utilities we've covered in this chapter, this one comes closest to being a no-brainer to install!
(This chapter has been abridged.)