Network Basics Companion Guide [NOOK Book]

Overview

Network Basics Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Network Basics course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

Using a top-down OSI model approach, the course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and computer networks. The principles of IP addressing and fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the ...

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Network Basics Companion Guide

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Overview

Network Basics Companion Guide is the official supplemental textbook for the Network Basics course in the Cisco® Networking Academy® CCNA® Routing and Switching curriculum.

Using a top-down OSI model approach, the course introduces the architecture, structure, functions, components, and models of the Internet and computer networks. The principles of IP addressing and fundamentals of Ethernet concepts, media, and operations are introduced to provide a foundation for the curriculum. By the end of the course, you will be able to build simple LANs, perform basic configurations for routers and switches, and implement IP addressing schemes.

The Companion Guide is designed as a portable desk reference to use anytime, anywhere to reinforce the material from the course and organize your time.

The book’s features help you focus on important concepts to succeed in this course:

Chapter Objectives—Review core concepts by answering the focus questions listed at the beginning of each chapter.

Key Terms—Refer to the lists of networking vocabulary introduced and highlighted in context in each chapter.

Glossary—Consult the comprehensive Glossary with more than 250 terms.

Summary of Activities and Labs—Maximize your study time with this complete list of all associated practice exercises at the end of each chapter.

Check Your Understanding—Evaluate your readiness with the end-ofchapter questions that match the style of questions you see in the online course quizzes. The answer key explains each answer.

How To—Look for this icon to study the steps you need to learn to performcertain tasks.

Interactive Activities—Reinforce your understanding of topics with more than 50 different exercises from the online course identified throughout the book with this icon.

Videos—Watch the videos embedded within the online course.

Packet Tracer Activities—Explore and visualize networking concepts using Packet Tracer exercises interspersed throughout the chapters.

Hands-on Labs—Work through all 68 course labs and Class Activities that are included in the course and published in the separate Lab Manual.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780133475470
  • Publisher: Pearson Education
  • Publication date: 11/11/2013
  • Series: Companion Guide
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 720
  • File size: 45 MB
  • Note: This product may take a few minutes to download.

Meet the Author

Antoon (Tony) W. Rufi is Campus Director of Academic Affairs, ECPI University, Newport News, Virginia. Tony is a networking professional who retired from the U.S. Air Force in June 2000 after 29 years. He worked on communication systems. Since retirement, Tony has worked for ECPI University teaching a variety of networking courses. The courses he has led include CCNA, CCNP, and Fundamentals of Network Security in the Cisco Academy at ECPI University, as well as numerous courses in the university’s Cloud Computing program. Tony is a PhD candidate, Applied Management and Decision Science, with an Information Systems Management specialty at Walden University.

Rick McDonald is an Associate Professor in the Information Systems department at the University of Alaska Southeast, in Ketchikan, Alaska, where he teaches computer and networking courses. He specializes in developing and delivering networking courses via e-learning. Rick worked in the airline industry for several years before returning to full-time teaching. He taught CCNA and CCNP courses in North Carolina before moving to Alaska in 2003.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxiv

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 1

Objectives 1

Key Terms 1

Introduction (1.0.1.1) 3

Communicating in a Network-Centric World (1.1) 4

Interconnecting Our Lives (1.1.1) 4

Networks in Our Daily Lives (1.1.1.1) 4

Technology Then and Now (1.1.1.2) 5

The Global Community (1.1.1.3) 6

Networks Support the Way We Learn (1.1.1.4) 6

Networks Support the Way We Communicate (1.1.1.5) 7

Networks Support the Way We Work (1.1.1.6) 9

Networks Support the Way We Play (1.1.1.7) 9

Supporting Communication (1.1.2) 10

What Is Communication? (1.1.2.1) 10

Quality of Communication (1.1.2.2) 12

The Network as a Platform (1.2) 13

Converged Networks (1.2.1) 13

Traditional Service Networks (1.2.1.1) 13

Planning for the Future (1.2.1.2) 14

Reliable Network (1.2.2) 15

The Supporting Network Architecture (1.2.2.1) 15

Fault Tolerance in Circuit-Switched Networks (1.2.2.2) 15

Packet-Switched Networks (1.2.2.3) 17

Scalable Networks (1.2.2.4) 18

Providing QoS (1.2.2.5) 20

Providing Network Security (1.2.2.6) 21

LANs, WANs, and the Internet (1.3) 23

Components of a Network (1.3.1) 23

Components of the Network (1.3.1.1) 23

End Devices (1.3.1.2) 24

Intermediary Devices (1.3.1.3) 25

Network Media (1.3.1.4) 25

Network Representations (1.3.1.5) 26

Topology Diagrams (1.3.1.6) 28

LANs and WANs (1.3.2) 28

Types of Networks (1.3.2.1) 28

Local-Area Networks (1.3.2.2) 29

Wide-Area Networks (1.3.2.3) 30

The Internet (1.3.3) 30

The Internet (1.3.3.1) 30

Intranet and Extranet (1.3.3.2) 31

Connecting to the Internet (1.3.4) 32

Internet Access Technologies (1.3.4.1) 32

Connecting Remote Users to the Internet (1.3.4.2) 33

Connecting Businesses to the Internet (1.3.4.3) 34

The Expanding Network (1.4) 35

Network Trends (1.4.1) 36

New Trends (1.4.1.1) 36

Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (1.4.1.2) 36

BYOD Considerations (1.4.1.3) 37

Online Collaboration (1.4.1.4) 38

Collaboration Considerations (1.4.1.5) 38

Video Communication (1.4.1.6) 39

Cloud Computing (1.4.1.7) 40

Types of Clouds (1.4.1.8) 41

Data Centers (1.4.1.9) 41

Network Security (1.4.2) 42

Security Threats (1.4.2.1) 42

Security Solutions (1.4.2.2) 44

Network Architectures (1.4.3) 45

Cisco Network Architectures (1.4.3.1) 45

Cisco Borderless Network (1.4.3.2) 46

Collaboration Architecture (1.4.3.3) 46

Data Center Architecture (1.4.3.4) 47

CCNA (1.4.3.5) 47

Summary (1.5) 49

Practice 50

Class Activities 50

Labs 50

Packet Tracer Activity 50

Check Your Understanding 50

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 55

Objectives 55

Key Terms 55

Introduction (2.0.1.1) 56

IOS Bootcamp (2.1) 56

Cisco IOS (2.1.1) 56

Purpose of OS (2.1.1.1) 56

Location of the Cisco IOS (2.1.1.2) 57

IOS Functions (2.1.1.3) 58

Accessing a Cisco IOS Device (2.1.2) 59

Console Access Method (2.1.2.1) 59

Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods (2.1.2.2) 60

Terminal Emulation Programs (2.1.2.3) 61

Navigating the IOS (2.1.3) 61

Cisco IOS Modes of Operation (2.1.3.1) 62

Primary Modes (2.1.3.2) 63

Global Configuration Mode and Submodes (2.1.3.3) 64

Navigating Between IOS Modes (2.1.3.4, 2.1.3.5) 65

The Command Structure (2.1.4) 66

IOS Command Structure (2.1.4.1) 67

Cisco IOS Command Reference (2.1.4.2) 68

Context-Sensitive Help (2.1.4.3) 70

Command Syntax Check (2.1.4.4) 71

Hot Keys and Shortcuts (2.1.4.5) 72

IOS Examination Commands (2.1.4.6) 74

The show version Command (2.1.4.7) 75

Getting Basic (2.2) 76

Hostnames (2.2.1) 76

Why the Switch (2.2.1.1) 76

Device Names (2.2.1.2) 76

Hostnames (2.2.1.3) 78

Configuring Hostnames (2.2.1.4) 78

Limiting Access to Device Configurations (2.2.2) 79

Securing Device Access (2.2.2.1) 79

Securing Privileged EXEC Access (2.2.2.2) 80

Securing User EXEC Access (2.2.2.3) 81

Encrypting Password Display (2.2.2.4) 82

Banner Messages (2.2.2.5) 83

Saving Configurations (2.2.3) 84

Configuration Files (2.2.3.1) 84

Capturing Text (2.2.3.2) 87

Address Schemes (2.3) 88

Ports and Addresses (2.3.1) 88

IP Addressing of Devices (2.3.1.1) 88

Interfaces and Ports (2.3.1.2) 89

Addressing Devices (2.3.2) 90

Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface (2.3.2.1) 90

Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.2) 91

Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices (2.3.2.3) 91

IP Address Conflicts (2.3.2.4) 92

Verifying Connectivity (2.3.3) 93

Test the Loopback Address on an End Device (2.3.3.1) 93

Testing the Interface Assignment (2.3.3.2) 94

Testing End-to-End Connectivity (2.3.3.3) 94

Summary (2.4) 96

Practice 97

Class Activities 97

Labs 97

Packet Tracer Activities 97

Check Your Understanding 97

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 101

Objectives 101

Key Terms 101

Introduction (3.0.1.1) 103

Network Protocols and Standards (3.1) 103

Protocols (3.1.1) 103

Protocols: Rules that Govern Communications (3.1.1.1) 103

Network Protocols (3.1.1.2) 105

Interaction of Protocols (3.1.1.3) 105

Protocol Suites (3.1.2) 106

Protocol Suites and Industry Standards (3.1.2.1) 106

Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP (3.1.2.2) 107

TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process (3.1.2.3) 108

Standards Organizations (3.1.3) 109

Open Standards (3.1.3.1) 109

ISOC, IAB, and IETF (3.1.3.2) 110

IEEE (3.1.3.3) 111

ISO (3.1.3.4) 112

Other Standards Organizations (3.1.3.5) 112

Reference Models (3.1.4) 113

The Benefits of Using a Layered Model (3.1.4.1) 113

The OSI Reference Model (3.1.4.2) 115

The TCP/IP Protocol Model (3.1.4.3) 116

Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model (3.1.4.4) 116

Using Requests for Comments (3.2) 118

Why RFCs (3.2.1) 118

Request for Comments (RFC) (3.2.1.1) 118

History of RFCs (3.2.1.2) 119

Sample RFC (3.2.1.3) 119

RFC Processes (3.2.2) 120

RFC Process (3.2.2.1) 120

RFC Types (3.2.2.2) 121

Moving Data in the Network (3.3) 123

Data Encapsulation (3.3.1) 123

Elements of Communication (3.3.1.1) 123

Communicating the Messages (3.3.1.2) 124

Protocol Data Units (PDUs) (3.3.1.3) 125

Encapsulation (3.3.1.4) 126

De-encapsulation (3.3.1.5) 127

Accessing Local Resources (3.3.2) 127

Network Addresses and Data Link Addresses (3.3.2.1) 127

Communicating with a Device on the Same Network (3.3.2.2) 128

MAC and IP Addresses (3.3.2.3) 129

Accessing Remote Resources (3.3.3) 130

Default Gateway (3.3.3.1) 130

Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network (3.3.3.2) 131

Summary (3.4) 134

Practice 135

Class Activities 135

Labs 135

Packet Tracer Activities 135

Check Your Understanding 135

Chapter 4 Application Layer 139

Objectives 139

Key Terms 139

Introduction (4.0.1.1) 140

Application Layer Protocols (4.1) 140

Application, Session, and Presentation (4.1.1) 140

OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited (4.1.1.1) 140

Application Layer (4.1.1.2) 141

Presentation and Session Layers (4.1.1.3) 141

TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols (4.1.1.4) 143

Services at the Application Layer (4.1.1.5; 4.1.1.6) 144

Applications Interface with People and Other Applications (4.1.1.7) 145

How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications (4.1.2) 145

Peer-to-Peer Networks (4.1.2.1) 145

Peer-to-Peer Applications (4.1.2.2) 146

Common P2P Applications (4.1.2.3) 147

Client-Server Model (4.1.2.5) 148

Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services (4.2) 149

Everyday Application Layer Protocols (4.2.1) 149

Application Layer Protocols Revisited (4.2.1.1) 149

Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language (4.2.1.2) 150

HTTP and HTTPS (4.2.1.3) 151

SMTP and POP (4.2.1.4–4.2.1.7) 152

Providing IP Addressing Services (4.2.2) 154

Domain Name Service (4.2.2.1) 154

DNS Message Format (4.2.2.2) 155

DNS Hierarchy (4.2.2.3) 156

nslookup (4.2.2.4) 157

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (4.2.2.6) 158

DHCP Operation (4.2.2.7) 159

Providing File Sharing Services (4.2.3) 161

File Transfer Protocol (4.2.3.1) 161

Server Message Block (4.2.3.4) 162

Summary (4.3) 164

Practice 165

Class Activities 165

Labs 165

Packet Tracer Activities 165

Check Your Understanding 166

Chapter 5 Transport Layer 169

Objectives 169

Key Terms 169

Introduction (5.0.1.1) 170

Transport Layer Protocols (5.1) 170

Transportation of Data (5.1.1) 170

Role of the Transport Layer (5.1.1.1, 5.1.1.2) 170

Conversation Multiplexing (5.1.1.3) 173

Transport Layer Reliability (5.1.1.4) 174

TCP (5.1.1.5) 175

UDP (5.1.1.6) 176

The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right

Application (5.1.1.7) 176

Introducing TCP and UDP (5.1.2) 178

Introducing TCP (5.1.2.1) 178

Role of TCP (5.1.2.2) 179

Introducing UDP (5.1.2.3) 180

Role of UDP (5.1.2.4) 181

Separating Multiple Communications (5.1.2.5) 181

TCP and UDP Port Addressing (5.1.2.6–5.1.2.9) 183

TCP and UDP Segmentation (5.1.2.10) 187

TCP and UDP (5.2) 188

TCP Communication (5.2.1) 188

TCP Reliable Delivery (5.2.1.1) 188

TCP Server Processes (5.2.1.2) 189

TCP Connection Establishment (5.2.1.3) 189

TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 1 (5.2.1.4) 191

TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 2 (5.2.1.5) 192

TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis: Step 3 (5.2.1.6) 193

TCP Session Termination Analysis (5.2.1.7) 194

Protocol Data Units (5.2.2) 195

TCP Reliability—Ordered Delivery (5.2.2.1) 195

TCP Reliability—Acknowledgement and Window Size (5.2.2.2) 196

TCP Reliability—Data Loss and Retransmission (5.2.2.3) 197

TCP Flow Control—Window Size and Acknowledgements (5.2.2.4) 198

TCP Flow Control—Congestion Avoidance (5.2.2.5) 199

UDP Communication (5.2.3) 201

UDP Low Overhead Versus Reliability (5.2.3.1) 201

UDP Datagram Reassembly (5.2.3.2) 201

UDP Server Processes and Requests (5.2.3.3) 202

UDP Client Processes (5.2.3.4) 202

TCP or UDP—That Is the Question (5.2.4) 203

Applications That Use TCP (5.2.4.1) 203

Applications That Use UDP (5.2.4.2) 203

Summary (5.3) 205

Practice 206

Class Activities 206

Labs 206

Packet Tracer Activity 206

Check Your Understanding 206

Chapter 6 Network Layer 211

Objectives 211

Key Terms 211

Introduction (6.0.1.1) 213

Network Layer Protocols (6.1) 213

Network Layer in Communication (6.1.1) 213

The Network Layer (6.1.1.1) 213

Network Layer Protocols (6.1.1.2) 214

Characteristics of the IP Protocol (6.1.2) 215

Characteristics of IP (6.1.2.1) 215

IP – Connectionless (6.1.2.2) 215

IP – Best-Effort Delivery (6.1.2.3) 216

IP – Media Independent (6.1.2.4) 217

Encapsulating IP (6.1.2.5) 217

IPv4 Packet (6.1.3) 218

IPv4 Packet Header (6.1.3.1) 218

IPv4 Header Fields (6.1.3.2) 220

Sample IPv4 Headers (6.1.3.3) 221

IPv6 Packet (6.1.4) 221

Limitations of IPv4 (6.1.4.1) 221

Introducing IPv6 (6.1.4.2) 222

Encapsulating IPv6 (6.1.4.3) 223

IPv6 Packet Header (6.1.4.4) 224

Sample IPv6 Headers (6.1.4.5) 225

Routing (6.2) 226

Host Routing Tables (6.2.1) 226

Host Packet Forwarding Decision (6.2.1.1) 226

IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.2) 227

IPv4 Host Routing Entries (6.2.1.3) 228

Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.4) 229

Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table (6.2.1.5) 231

Router Routing Tables (6.2.2) 232

Router Packet Forwarding Decision (6.2.2.1) 232

IPv4 Router Routing Table (6.2.2.2) 233

Directly Connected Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.3) 234

Remote Network Routing Table Entries (6.2.2.4) 235

Next-Hop Address (6.2.2.5) 236

Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table (6.2.2.6) 236

Routers (6.3) 240

Anatomy of a Router (6.3.1) 240

A Router Is a Computer (6.3.1.1) 240

Router CPU and OS (6.3.1.2) 241

Router Memory (6.3.1.3) 241

Inside a Router (6.3.1.4) 243

Router Backplane (6.3.1.5) 244

Connecting to a Router (6.3.1.6) 245

LAN and WAN Interfaces (6.3.1.7) 245

Router Bootup (6.3.2) 247

Cisco IOS (6.3.2.1) 247

Bootset Files (6.3.2.2) 247

Router Bootup Process (6.3.2.3) 248

Show Version Output (6.3.2.4) 249

Configuring a Cisco Router (6.4) 251

Configure Initial Settings (6.4.1) 251

Router Configuration Steps (6.4.1.1) 251

Configure Interfaces (6.4.2) 252

Configure LAN Interfaces (6.4.2.1) 252

Verify Interface Configuration (6.4.2.2) 253

Configuring the Default Gateway (6.4.3) 254

Default Gateway on a Host (6.4.3.1) 254

Default Gateway on a Switch (6.4.3.2) 255

Summary (6.5) 258

Practice 259

Class Activities 259

Labs 259

Packet Tracer Activities 259

Check Your Understanding 260

Chapter 7 IP Addressing 265

Objectives 265

Key Terms 265

Introduction (7.0.1.1) 267

IPv4 Network Addresses (7.1) 267

IPv4 Address Structure (7.1.1) 267

Binary Notation (7.1.1.1) 267

Binary Number System (7.1.1.2) 269

Converting a Binary Address to Decimal (7.1.1.3) 271

Converting from Decimal to Binary (7.1.1.5, 7.1.1.6) 272

IPv4 Subnet Mask (7.1.2) 278

Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address (7.1.2.1) 278

Examining the Prefix Length (7.1.2.2) 279

IPv4 Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses (7.1.2.3) 281

First Host and Last Host Addresses (7.1.2.4) 284

Bitwise AND Operation (7.1.2.5) 286

Importance of ANDing (7.1.2.6) 288

IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast (7.1.3) 290

Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host (7.1.3.1) 290

Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host (7.1.3.2) 292

Unicast Transmission (7.1.3.3) 293

Broadcast Transmission (7.1.3.4) 294

Multicast Transmission (7.1.3.5) 296

Types of IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4) 298

Public and Private IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4.1) 298

Special-Use IPv4 Addresses (7.1.4.3) 299

Legacy Classful Addressing (7.1.4.4) 301

Assignment of IP Addresses (7.1.4.5, 7.1.4.6) 304

IPv6 Network Addresses (7.2) 307

IPv4 Issues (7.2.1) 307

The Need for IPv6 (7.2.1.1) 307

IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence (7.2.1.2) 309

IPv6 Addressing (7.2.2) 310

Hexadecimal Number System (7.2.2.1) 310

IPv6 Address Representation (7.2.2.2) 312

Rule 1: Omitting Leading 0s (7.2.2.3) 313

Rule 2: Omitting All 0 Segments (7.2.2.4) 315

Types of IPv6 Addresses (7.2.3) 317

IPv6 Address Types (7.2.3.1) 317

IPv6 Prefix Length (7.2.3.2) 318

IPv6 Unicast Addresses (7.2.3.3) 319

IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses (7.2.3.4) 321

IPv6 Unicast Addresses (7.2.4) 322

Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address (7.2.4.1) 322

Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address (7.2.4.2) 324

Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using SLAAC (7.2.4.3) 326

Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address Using DHCPv6 (7.2.4.4) 329

EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated (7.2.4.5) 330

Dynamic Link-Local Addresses (7.2.4.6) 332

Static Link-Local Addresses (7.2.4.7) 333

Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration (7.2.4.8) 334

IPv6 Multicast Addresses (7.2.5) 337

Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses (7.2.5.2) 338

Connectivity Verification (7.3) 340

ICMP (7.3.1) 340

ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages (7.3.1.1) 340

ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages (7.3.1.2) 342

ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor

Advertisement Messages (7.3.1.3) 343

Testing and Verification (7.3.2) 344

Ping: Testing the Local Stack (7.3.2.1) 344

Ping: Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN (7.3.2.2) 345

Ping: Testing Connectivity to Remote Device (7.3.2.3) 346

Traceroute: Testing the Path (7.3.2.4) 347

Summary (7.4) 349

Practice 350

Class Activities 350

Labs 350

Packet Tracer Activities 350

Check Your Understanding 351

Chapter 8 Subnetting IP Networks 355

Objectives 355

Key Terms 355

Introduction (8.0.1.1) 356

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (8.1) 357

Network Segmentation (8.1.1) 357

Reasons for Subnetting (8.1.1.1) 357

Communication Between Subnets (8.1.1.2) 358

Subnetting an IPv4 Network (8.1.2) 359

Basic Subnetting (8.1.2.1) 359

Subnets in Use (8.1.2.2) 361

Subnetting Formulas (8.1.2.3) 364

Creating 4 Subnets (8.1.2.4) 365

Creating 8 Subnets (8.1.2.5) 368

Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 Prefix (8.1.2.10) 372

Calculating the Hosts (8.1.2.11) 374

Creating 1000 Subnets with a /8 Prefix (8.1.2.12) 375

Determining the Subnet Mask (8.1.3) 378

Subnetting Based on Host Requirements (8.1.3.1) 378

Subnetting Network-Based Requirements (8.1.3.2) 379

Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements (8.1.3.3, 8.1.3.4) 380

Benefits of Variable Length Subnet Masking (8.1.4) 384

Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses (8.1.4.1) 384

VLSM (8.1.4.2) 386

Basic VLSM (8.1.4.3) 387

VLSM in Practice (8.1.4.4) 389

VLSM Chart (8.1.4.5) 391

Addressing Schemes (8.2) 393

Structured Design (8.2.1) 393

Planning to Address the Network (8.2.1.1) 393

Assigning Addresses to Devices (8.2.1.2) 394

Design Considerations for IPv6 (8.3) 397

Subnetting an IPv6 Network (8.3.1) 397

Subnetting Using the Subnet ID (8.3.1.1) 397

IPv6 Subnet Allocation (8.3.1.2) 399

Subnetting into the Interface ID (8.3.1.3) 400

Summary (8.4) 402

Practice 404

Class Activities 404

Labs 404

Packet Tracer Activities 404

Check Your Understanding 405

Chapter 9 Network Access 409

Objectives 409

Key Terms 409

Introduction (9.0.1.1) 411

Data Link Layer (9.1) 412

The Data Link Layer (9.1.1.1) 412

Data Link Sublayers (9.1.1.2) 413

Media Access Control (9.1.1.3) 414

Providing Access to Media (9.1.1.4) 415

Layer 2 Frame Structure (9.1.2) 416

Formatting Data for Transmission (9.1.2.1) 416

Creating a Frame (9.1.2.2) 417

Layer 2 Standards (9.1.3) 418

Data Link Layer Standards (9.1.3.1) 418

Media Access Control (9.2) 419

Topologies (9.2.1) 419

Controlling Access to the Media (9.2.1.1) 419

Physical and Logical Topologies (9.2.1.2) 420

WAN Topologies (9.2.2) 421

Common Physical WAN Topologies (9.2.2.1) 421

Physical Point-to-Point Topology (9.2.2.2) 422

Logical Point-to-Point Topology (9.2.2.3) 423

Half and Full Duplex (9.2.2.4) 424

LAN Topologies (9.2.3) 425

Physical LAN Topologies (9.2.3.1) 425

Logical Topology for Shared Media (9.2.3.2) 426

Contention-Based Access (9.2.3.3) 427

Multi-Access Topology (9.2.3.4) 429

Controlled Access (9.2.3.5) 429

Ring Topology (9.2.3.6) 431

Data Link Frame (9.2.4) 431

The Frame (9.2.4.1) 431

The Header (9.2.4.2) 433

Layer 2 Address (9.2.4.3) 433

The Trailer (9.2.4.4) 435

LAN and WAN Frames (9.2.4.5) 435

Ethernet Frame (9.2.4.6) 436

Point-to-Point (PPP) Frame (9.2.4.7) 437

802.11 Wireless Frame (9.2.4.8) 438

Physical Layer (9.3) 441

Purpose of the Physical Layer (9.3.1) 441

The Physical Layer (9.3.1.1) 441

Physical Layer Media (9.3.1.2) 442

Physical Layer Standards (9.3.1.3) 443

Characteristics of the Physical Layer (9.3.2) 444

Physical Layer Functions (9.3.2.1) 445

Physical Components (9.3.2.2) 445

Frame Encoding Techniques (9.3.2.3) 446

Signaling Method (9.3.2.4) 447

Bandwidth (9.3.2.5) 449

Throughput (9.3.2.6) 450

Network Media (9.4) 451

Copper Cabling (9.4.1) 452

Characteristics of Copper Media (9.4.1.1) 452

Copper Media (9.4.1.2) 453

UTP Cable (9.4.1.3) 454

STP Cable (9.4.1.4) 454

Coaxial Cable (9.4.1.5) 455

Copper Media Safety (9.4.1.6) 457

UTP Cabling (9.4.2) 458

Properties of UTP Cabling (9.4.2.1) 458

UTP Cabling Standards (9.4.2.2) 459

UTP Connectors (9.4.2.3) 460

Types of UTP Cable (9.4.2.4) 461

LAN Cabling Areas (9.4.2.5) 462

Testing UTP Cables (9.4.2.6) 464

Fiber Optic Cabling (9.4.3) 465

Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling (9.4.3.1) 465

Fiber Media Cable Design (9.4.3.2) 466

Types of Fiber Media (9.4.3.3) 466

Network Fiber Connectors (9.4.3.4) 468

Testing Fiber Cables (9.4.3.5) 470

Fiber Versus Copper (9.4.3.6) 471

Wireless Media (9.4.4) 472

Properties of Wireless Media (9.4.4.1) 472

Types of Wireless Media (9.4.4.2) 473

Wireless LAN (9.4.4.3) 475

802.11 Wi-Fi Standards (9.4.4.4) 476

Summary (9.5) 478

Practice 480

Class Activities 480

Labs 480

Packet Tracer Activity 480

Check Your Understanding 481

Chapter 10 Ethernet 485

Objectives 485

Key Terms 485

Introduction (10.0.1.1) 486

Ethernet Protocol (10.1) 487

Ethernet Operation (10.1.1) 487

LLC and MAC Sublayers (10.1.1.1) 487

MAC Sublayer (10.1.1.2) 489

Media Access Control (10.1.1.3) 490

MAC Address: Ethernet Identity (10.1.1.4) 492

Frame Processing (10.1.1.5) 493

Ethernet Frame Attributes (10.1.2) 494

Ethernet Encapsulation (10.1.2.1) 494

Ethernet Frame Size (10.1.2.2) 495

Introduction to the Ethernet Frame (10.1.2.3) 496

Ethernet MAC (10.1.3) 497

MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal (10.1.3.1) 497

MAC Address Representations (10.1.3.2) 500

Unicast MAC Address (10.1.3.3) 500

Broadcast MAC Address (10.1.3.4) 501

Multicast MAC Address (10.1.3.5) 501

Mac and IP (10.1.4) 502

MAC and IP (10.1.4.1) 502

End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP (10.1.4.2) 503

Address Resolution Protocol (10.2) 504

Introduction to ARP (10.2.1.1) 504

ARP Functions (10.2.1.2) 504

ARP Operation (10.2.1.3) 505

ARP Role in Remote Communication (10.2.1.4) 508

Removing Entries from an ARP Table (10.2.1.5) 512

ARP Tables on Networking Devices (10.2.1.6) 512

ARP Issues (10.2.2) 514

How ARP Can Create Problems (10.2.2.1) 514

Mitigating ARP Problems (10.2.2.2) 515

LAN Switches (10.3) 516

Switching (10.3.1) 516

Switch Port Fundamentals (10.3.1.1) 516

Switch MAC Address Table (10.3.1.2) 517

Duplex Settings (10.3.1.3) 521

Auto-MDIX (10.3.1.4) 522

Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches (10.3.1.5) 523

Cut-Through Switching (10.3.1.6) 524

Memory Buffering on Switches (10.3.1.8) 525

Fixed or Modular (10.3.2) 526

Fixed Versus Modular Configuration (10.3.2.1) 526

Fixed Configuration Cisco Switches (10.3.2.2) 528

Modular Configuration Cisco Switches (10.3.2.3) 531

Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots (10.3.2.4) 533

Layer 3 Switching (10.3.3) 535

Layer 2 Versus Layer 3 Switching (10.3.3.1) 535

Cisco Express Forwarding (10.3.3.2) 536

Types of Layer 3 Interfaces (10.3.3.3) 537

Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch (10.3.3.4) 538

Summary (10.4) 540

Practice 541

Class Activities 542

Labs 542

Packet Tracer Activities 542

Check Your Understanding 542

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 545

Objectives 545

Key Terms 545

Introduction (11.0.1.1) 547

Create and Grow (11.1) 547

Devices in a Small Network (11.1.1) 547

Small Network Topologies (11.1.1.1) 547

Device Selection for a Small Network (11.1.1.2) 548

IP Addressing for a Small Network (11.1.1.3) 550

Redundancy in a Small Network (11.1.1.4) 551

Design Considerations for a Small Network (11.1.1.5) 552

Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2) 553

Common Applications in a Small Network (11.1.2.1) 554

Common Protocols in a Small Network (11.1.2.2) 555

Real-Time Applications for a Small Network (11.1.2.3) 556

Growing to Larger Networks (11.1.3) 557

Scaling a Small Network (11.1.3.1) 557

Protocol Analysis of a Small Network (11.1.3.2) 558

Evolving Protocol Requirements (11.1.3.3) 559

Keeping the Network Safe (11.2) 560

Network Device Security Measures (11.2.1) 560

Categories of Threats to Network Security (11.2.1.1) 560

Physical Security (11.2.1.2) 561

Types of Security Vulnerabilities (11.2.1.3) 562

Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks (11.2.2) 564

Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses (11.2.2.1) 564

Network Attacks (11.2.2.2) 565

Mitigating Network Attacks (11.2.3) 567

Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch (11.2.3.1) 567

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (11.2.3.2) 568

Firewalls (11.2.3.3) 570

Endpoint Security (11.2.3.4) 571

Securing Devices (11.2.4) 572

Introduction to Securing Devices (11.2.4.1) 572

Passwords (11.2.4.2) 573

Basic Security Practices (11.2.4.3) 574

Enable SSH (11.2.4.4) 576

Basic Network Performance (11.3) 578

Ping (11.3.1) 578

Interpreting Ping Results (11.3.1.1) 578

Extended Ping (11.3.1.2) 580

Network Baseline (11.3.1.3) 581

Tracert (11.3.2) 583

Interpreting Tracert Messages (11.3.2.1) 583

show Commands (11.3.3) 585

Common show Commands Revisited (11.3.3.1) 585

Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.2) 588

Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command (11.3.3.3) 589

Host and IOS Commands (11.3.4) 590

ipconfig Command Options (11.3.4.1) 590

arp Command Options (11.3.4.2) 591

show cdp neighbors Command Options (11.3.4.3) 592

Using the show ip interface brief Command (11.3.4.4) 594

Managing IOS Configuration Files (11.4) 596

Router and Switch File Systems (11.4.1) 596

Router File Systems (11.4.1.1) 596

Switch File Systems (11.4.1.2) 598

Back Up and Restore Configuration Files (11.4.2) 599

Backing Up and Restoring Using Text Files (11.4.2.1) 600

Backing Up and Restoring Using TFTP (11.4.2.2) 601

Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router (11.4.2.3) 602

Backing Up and Restoring Using a USB (11.4.2.4) 603

Summary (11.5) 607

Practice 608

Class Activities 609

Labs 609

Packet Tracer Activities 609

Check Your Understanding 609

Appendix A Answers to the “Check Your Understanding” Questions 613

Glossary 625

TOC, 9781587133176, MF

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