Network Basics Course Booklet

Overview

The Network Basics Course Booklet offers a way for students enrolled in a Cisco Networking Academy Network Basics course to easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available. The text is extracted directly from the online course, with headings that have exact page correlations to the online course. An icon system directs the reader to the online course to take full advantage of the images, labs, Packet Tracer activities, and dynamic activities. The books are intended to be used ...

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Overview

The Network Basics Course Booklet offers a way for students enrolled in a Cisco Networking Academy Network Basics course to easily read, highlight, and review on the go, wherever the Internet is not available. The text is extracted directly from the online course, with headings that have exact page correlations to the online course. An icon system directs the reader to the online course to take full advantage of the images, labs, Packet Tracer activities, and dynamic activities. The books are intended to be used with the course.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587133145
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 8/14/2013
  • Series: Course Booklets Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 331
  • Sales rank: 1,472,229
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 0 Course Introduction 1

0.0 Welcome to Network Basics 1

0.0.1 Message to the Student 1

0.0.1.1 Welcome 1

0.0.1.2 A Global Community 1

0.0.1.3 More Than Just Information 1

0.0.1.4 How We Teach 2

0.0.1.5 Practice Leads to Mastery 2

0.0.1.6 Mind Wide Open 2

0.0.1.7 Engineering Journals 2

0.0.1.8 Explore the World of Networking 2

0.0.1.9 Create Your Own Worlds 2

0.0.1.10 How Packet Tracer Helps Master Concepts 3

0.0.1.11 Course Overview 3

0.1 Navigating the Course 3

0.1.1 Control Your Experience 3

0.1.1.1 Course GUI Tutorial 3

Your Chapter Notes 4

Chapter 1 Exploring the Network 5

1.0 Exploring the Network 5

1.0.1.1 Introduction 5

1.0.1.2 Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet 5

1.1 Communicating in a Network-Centric World 6

1.1.1 Interconnecting our Lives 6

1.1.1.1 Networks in Our Daily Lives 6

1.1.1.2 Technology Then and Now 6

1.1.1.3 The Global Community 7

1.1.1.4 Networks Support the Way We Learn 7

1.1.1.5 Networks Support the Way We Communicate 8

1.1.1.6 Networks Support the Way We Work 9

1.1.1.7 Networks Support the Way We Play 10

1.1.1.8 Lab - Researching Network Collaboration Tools 10

1.1.2 Supporting Communication 10

1.1.2.1 What is Communication? 10

1.1.2.2 Quality of Communication 11

1.1.2.3 Internal QoS Factors 12

1.2 The Network as a Platform 12

1.2.1 Converged Networks 12

1.2.1.1 Traditional Service Networks 12

1.2.1.2 Planning for the Future 13

1.2.1.3 Lab - Researching Converged Network Services 13

1.2.2 Reliable Network 13

1.2.2.1 The Supporting Network Architecture 13

1.2.2.2 Fault Tolerance in Circuit Switched Networks 14

1.2.2.3 Packet-Switched Networks 14

1.2.2.4 Scalable Networks 15

1.2.2.5 Providing QoS 16

1.2.2.6 Providing Network Security 17

1.2.2.7 Activity - Reliable Networks 18

1.3 LANs, WANs, and the Internet 18

1.3.1 Components of a Network 18

1.3.1.1 Components of the Network 18

1.3.1.2 End Devices 19

1.3.1.3 Intermediary Devices 19

1.3.1.4 Network Media 20

1.3.1.5 Network Representations 20

1.3.1.6 Topology Diagrams 21

1.3.1.7 Activity - Network Component Representations and Functions 21

1.3.2 LANs and WANs 21

1.3.2.1 Types of Networks 21

1.3.2.2 Local Area Networks 22

1.3.2.3 Wide Area Networks 22

1.3.3 The Internet 22

1.3.3.1 The Internet 22

1.3.3.2 Intranet and Extranet 23

1.3.3.3 Lab - Mapping the Internet 23

1.3.4 Connecting to the Internet 24

1.3.4.1 Internet Access Technologies 24

1.3.4.2 Connecting Remote Users to the Internet 24

1.3.4.3 Connecting Businesses to the Internet 25

1.3.4.4 Packet Tracer - Network Representation 26

1.4 The Expanding Network 26

1.4.1 Network Trends 26

1.4.1.1 New Trends 26

1.4.1.2 BYOD 27

1.4.1.3 BYOD Considerations 27

1.4.1.4 Online Collaboration 28

1.4.1.5 Collaboration Considerations 28

1.4.1.6 Video Communication 29

1.4.1.7 Cloud Computing 30

1.4.1.8 Types of Clouds 30

1.4.1.9 Data Centers 31

1.4.2 Network Security 31

1.4.2.1 Security Threats 31

1.4.2.2 Security Solutions 32

1.4.2.3 Activity - Network Security Terminology 33

1.4.3 Network Architectures 33

1.4.3.1 Cisco Network Architectures 33

1.4.3.2 Cisco Borderless Network 34

1.4.3.3 Collaboration Architecture 34

1.4.3.4 Data Center Architecture 35

1.4.3.5 CCNA 35

1.4.3.6 Lab - Researching IT and Networking Job Opportunities 36

1.5 Summary 36

1.5.1.1 Class Activity - Draw Your Concept of the Internet Now 36

1.5.1.2 Summary 36

Chapter 1 Quiz 38

Chapter 1 Exam 38

Your Chapter Notes 38

Chapter 2 Configuring a Network Operating System 39

2.0 Configuring a Network Operating System 39

2.0.1.1 Introduction 39

2.0.1.2 Class Activity - It Is Just an Operating System 39

2.1 IOS Bootcamp 40

2.1.1 Cisco IOS 40

2.1.1.1 Purpose of OS 40

2.1.1.2 Location of the Cisco IOS 40

2.1.1.3 IOS Functions 41

2.1.1.4 Video Demonstration - CCO Accounts and IOS Image

Exploration 41

2.1.2 Accessing a Cisco IOS Device 41

2.1.2.1 Console Access Method 41

2.1.2.2 Telnet, SSH, and AUX Access Methods 42

2.1.2.3 Terminal Emulation Programs 43

2.1.2.4 Activity — Accessing Devices 43

2.1.3 Navigating the IOS 43

2.1.3.1 Cisco IOS Modes of Operation 43

2.1.3.2 Primary Modes 44

2.1.3.3 Global Configuration Mode and Submodes 44

2.1.3.4 Navigating between IOS Modes 45

2.1.3.5 Navigating between IOS Modes, Cont. 46

2.1.3.6 Video Demonstration - Navigating the IOS 47

2.1.4 The Command Structure 47

2.1.4.1 IOS Command Structure 47

2.1.4.2 Cisco IOS Command Reference 48

2.1.4.3 Context-Sensitive Help 49

2.1.4.4 Command Syntax Check 50

2.1.4.5 Hot Keys and Shortcuts 50

2.1.4.6 IOS Examination Commands 52

2.1.4.7 The show version Command 52

2.1.4.8 Packet Tracer - Navigating the IOS 53

2.1.4.9 Lab - Establishing a Console Session with Tera Term 53

2.2 Getting Basic 53

2.2.1 Hostnames 53

2.2.1.1 Why the Switch 53

2.2.1.2 Device Names 54

2.2.1.3 Hostnames 55

2.2.1.4 Configuring Hostnames 55

2.2.2 Limiting Access to Device Configurations 56

2.2.2.1 Securing Device Access 56

2.2.2.2 Securing Privileged EXEC Access 56

2.2.2.3 Securing User EXEC Access 57

2.2.2.4 Encrypting Password Display 58

2.2.2.5 Banner Messages 58

2.2.3 Saving Configurations 59

2.2.3.1 Configuration Files 59

2.2.3.2 Capturing Text 61

2.2.3.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring Initial Switch Settings 62

2.3 Address Schemes 62

2.3.1 Ports and Addresses 62

2.3.1.1 IP Addressing of Devices 62

2.3.1.2 Interfaces and Ports 62

2.3.2 Addressing Devices 63

2.3.2.1 Configuring a Switch Virtual Interface 63

2.3.2.2 Manual IP Address Configuration for End Devices 64

2.3.2.3 Automatic IP Address Configuration for End Devices 64

2.3.2.4 IP Address Conflicts 65

2.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Implementing Basic Connectivity 65

2.3.3 Verifying Connectivity 65

2.3.3.1 Test the Loopback Address on an End Device 65

2.3.3.2 Testing the Interface Assignment 66

2.3.3.3 Testing End-to-End Connectivity 66

2.3.3.4 Lab - Building a Simple Network 67

2.3.3.5 Lab - Configuring a Switch Management Address 67

2.4 Summary 67

2.4.1.1 Class Activity - Tutor Me 67

2.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 68

2.4.1.3 Summary 68

Chapter 2 Quiz 69

Chapter 2 Exam 69

Your Chapter Notes 69

Chapter 3 Network Protocols and Communications 71

3.0 Network Protocols and Communications 71

3.0.1.1 Introduction 71

3.0.1.2 Class Activity - Designing a Communications System 71

3.1 Network Protocols and Standards 72

3.1.1 Protocols 72

3.1.1.1 Protocols: Rules that Govern Communications 72

3.1.1.2 Network Protocols 72

3.1.1.3 Interaction of Protocols 73

3.1.2 Protocol Suites 73

3.1.2.1 Protocol Suites and Industry Standards 73

3.1.2.2 Creation of the Internet and Development of TCP/IP 74

3.1.2.3 TCP/IP Protocol Suite and Communication Process 75

3.1.2.4 Activity - Mapping the Protocols of the TCP/IP Suite 76

3.1.3 Standards Organizations 76

3.1.3.1 Open Standards 76

3.1.3.2 ISOC, IAB, and IETF 76

3.1.3.3 IEEE 77

3.1.3.4 ISO 77

3.1.3.5 Other Standards Organizations 78

3.1.3.6 Lab - Researching Networking Standards 78

3.1.3.7 Activity - Standards Body Scavenger Hunt 79

3.1.4 Reference Models 79

3.1.4.1 The Benefits of Using a Layered Model 79

3.1.4.2 The OSI Reference Model 80

3.1.4.3 The TCP/IP Protocol Model 80

3.1.4.4 Comparing the OSI Model with the TCP/IP Model 80

3.1.4.5 Activity - Identify Layers and Functions 81

3.1.4.6 Packet Tracer - Investigating the TCP/IP and OSI Models in Action 81

3.2 Using Requests for Comments 81

3.2.1 Why RFCs 81

3.2.1.1 Request for Comments (RFC) 81

3.2.1.2 History of RFCs 82

3.2.1.3 Sample RFC 82

3.2.2 RFC Processes 83

3.2.2.1 RFC Process 83

3.2.2.2 RFC Types 84

3.2.2.3 Lab - Researching RFCs 85

3.3 Moving Data in the Network 85

3.3.1 Data Encapsulation 85

3.3.1.1 Elements of Communication 85

3.3.1.2 Communicating the Messages 85

3.3.1.3 Protocol Data Units (PDUs) 86

3.3.1.4 Encapsulation 87

3.3.1.5 De-encapsulation 87

3.3.1.6 Activity - Identify the PDU Layer 87

3.3.2 Accessing Local Resources 87

3.3.2.1 Network Addresses and Data Link addresses 87

3.3.2.2 Communicating with a Device on the Same Network 88

3.3.2.3 MAC and IP Addresses 89

3.3.3 Accessing Remote Resources 89

3.3.3.1 Default Gateway 89

3.3.3.2 Communicating with a Device on a Remote Network 90

3.3.3.3 Packet Tracer - Explore a Network 91

3.3.3.4 Lab - Using Wireshark to View Network Traffic 91

3.4 Summary 91

3.4.1.1 Class Activity - Guaranteed to Work! 91

3.4.1.2 Summary 91

Chapter 3 Quiz 93

Chapter 3 Exam 93

Your Chapter Notes 93

Chapter 4 Application Layer 95

4.0 Application Layer 95

4.0.1.1 Introduction 95

4.0.1.2 Class Activity - Application Investigation 95

4.1 Application Layer Protocols 96

4.1.1 Application, Session and Presentation 96

4.1.1.1 OSI and TCP/IP Models Revisited 96

4.1.1.2 Application Layer 96

4.1.1.3 Presentation and Session Layers 97

4.1.1.4 TCP/IP Application Layer Protocols 97

4.1.1.5 Services at the Application Layer 98

4.1.1.6 Services at the Application Layer (Continued) 98

4.1.1.7 Applications Interface with People and Other Applications 99

4.1.1.8 Activity — Application Protocols and Standards 99

4.1.2 How Application Protocols Interact with End-User Applications 99

4.1.2.1 Peer-to-Peer Networks 99

4.1.2.2 Peer-to-Peer Applications 100

4.1.2.3 Common P2P Applications 100

4.1.2.4 Lab - Researching Peer-to-Peer File Sharing 101

4.1.2.5 Client-Server Model 101

4.2 Well-Known Application Layer Protocols and Services 101

4.2.1 Everyday Application Layer Protocols 101

4.2.1.1 Application Layer Protocols Revisited 101

4.2.1.2 Hypertext Transfer Protocol and Hypertext Markup Language 102

4.2.1.3 HTTP and HTTPS 102

4.2.1.4 SMTP and POP 103

4.2.1.5 SMTP and POP (cont.) 103

4.2.1.6 SMTP and POP (cont.) 104

4.2.1.7 SMTP and POP (cont.) 104

4.2.1.8 Packet Tracer - Web and Email 104

4.2.2 Providing IP Addressing Services 105

4.2.2.1 Domain Name Service 105

4.2.2.2 DNS Message Format 105

4.2.2.3 DNS Hierarchy 106

4.2.2.4 nslookup 107

4.2.2.5 Syntax Checker - DNS CLI Commands in Windows and UNIX 107

4.2.2.6 Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol 107

4.2.2.7 DHCP Operation 108

4.2.2.8 Packet Tracer - DNS and DHCP 109

4.2.2.9 Lab - Observing DNS Resolution 109

4.2.3 Providing File Sharing Services 109

4.2.3.1 File Transfer Protocol 109

4.2.3.2 Packet Tracer - FTP 110

4.2.3.3 Lab - Exploring FTP 110

4.2.3.4 Server Message Block 110

4.3 Summary 111

4.3.1.1 Class Activity - Make it happen! 111

4.3.1.2 Packet Tracer Multiuser - Tutorial 111

4.3.1.3 Packet Tracer Multiuser - Implement Services 112

4.3.1.4 Summary 112

Chapter 4 Quiz 113

Chapter 4 Exam 113

Your Chapter Notes 113

Chapter 5 Transport Layer 115

5.0 Transport Layer 115

5.0.1.1 Introduction 115

5.0.1.2 Class Activity - We Need to Talk - Game 115

5.1 Transport Layer Protocols 116

5.1.1 Transportation of Data 116

5.1.1.1 Role of the Transport Layer 116

5.1.1.2 Role of the Transport Layer (Cont.) 116

5.1.1.3 Conversation Multiplexing 117

5.1.1.4 Transport Layer Reliability 117

5.1.1.5 TCP 118

5.1.1.6 UDP 118

5.1.1.7 The Right Transport Layer Protocol for the Right Application 119

5.1.1.8 Activity - TCP, UDP or Both 120

5.1.2 Introducing TCP and UDP 120

5.1.2.1 Introducing TCP 120

5.1.2.2 Role of TCP 121

5.1.2.3 Introducing UDP 121

5.1.2.4 Role of UDP 122

5.1.2.5 Separating Multiple Communications 122

5.1.2.6 TCP and UDP Port Addressing 123

5.1.2.7 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 123

5.1.2.8 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 124

5.1.2.9 TCP and UDP Port Addressing (Cont.) 125

5.1.2.10 TCP and UDP Segmentation 125

5.1.2.11 Activity - Compare TCP and UDP Characteristics 126

5.2 TCP and UDP 126

5.2.1 TCP Communication 126

5.2.1.1 TCP Reliable Delivery 126

5.2.1.2 TCP Server Processes 126

5.2.1.3 TCP Connection Establishment 127

5.2.1.4 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 1 128

5.2.1.5 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 2 128

5.2.1.6 TCP Three-way Handshake Analysis - Step 3 129

5.2.1.7 TCP Session Termination Analysis 129

5.2.1.8 Lab - Using Wireshark to Observe the TCP 3-Way Handshake 130

5.2.1.9 Activity - TCP Connection and Termination Process 130

5.2.2 Protocol Data Units 130

5.2.2.1 TCP Reliability — Ordered Delivery 130

5.2.2.2 TCP Reliability - Acknowledgement and Window Size 130

5.2.2.3 TCP Reliability - Data Loss and Retransmission 131

5.2.2.4 TCP Flow Control - Window Size and Acknowledgements 132

5.2.2.5 TCP Flow Control - Congestion Avoidance 132

5.2.3 UDP Communication 133

5.2.3.1 UDP Low Overhead versus Reliability 133

5.2.3.2 UDP Datagram Reassembly 134

5.2.3.3 UDP Server Processes and Requests 134

5.2.3.4 UDP Client Processes 134

5.2.3.5 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine a UDP DNS Capture 134

5.2.4 TCP or UDP, that is the Question 135

5.2.4.1 Applications that use TCP 135

5.2.4.2 Applications that use UDP 135

5.2.4.3 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine FTP and TFTP Captures 136

5.3 Summary 136

5.3.1.1 Class Activity - We Need to Talk, Again - Game 136

5.3.1.2 Packet Tracer Simulation - TCP and UDP Communications 137

5.3.1.3 Summary 137

Chapter 5 Quiz 138

Chapter 5 Exam 138

Your Chapter Notes 138

Chapter 6 Network Layer 139

6.0 Network Layer 139

6.0.1.1 Introduction 139

6.0.1.2 Class Activity - The road less traveled...or is it? 139

6.1 Network Layer Protocols 140

6.1.1 Network Layer in Communication 140

6.1.1.1 The Network Layer 140

6.1.1.2 Network Layer Protocols 141

6.1.2 Characteristics of the IP Protocol 141

6.1.2.1 Characteristics of IP 141

6.1.2.2 IP — Connectionless 141

6.1.2.3 IP — Best Effort Delivery 142

6.1.2.4 IP — Media Independent 142

6.1.2.5 Encapsulating IP 143

6.1.2.6 Activity - IP Characteristics 143

6.1.3 IPv4 Packet 143

6.1.3.1 IPv4 Packet Header 143

6.1.3.2 IPv4 Header Fields 144

6.1.3.3 Sample IPv4 Headers 145

6.1.3.4 Activity - IPv4 Header Fields 145

6.1.4 IPv6 Packet 145

6.1.4.1 Limitations of IPv4 145

6.1.4.2 Introducing IPv6 146

6.1.4.3 Encapsulating IPv6 146

6.1.4.4 IPv6 Packet Header 147

6.1.4.5 Sample IPv6 Header 148

6.1.4.6 Activity - IPv6 Header Fields 148

6.2 Routing 148

6.2.1 Host Routing Tables 148

6.2.1.1 Host Packet Forwarding Decision 148

6.2.1.2 IPv4 Host Routing Table 149

6.2.1.3 IPv4 Host Routing Entries 150

6.2.1.4 Sample IPv4 Host Routing Table 151

6.2.1.5 Sample IPv6 Host Routing Table 151

6.2.1.6 Activity - Identify Elements of a Host Routing Table Entry 152

6.2.2 Router Routing Tables 152

6.2.2.1 Router Packet Forwarding Decision 152

6.2.2.2 IPv4 Router Routing Table 152

6.2.2.3 Directly Connected Routing Table Entries 153

6.2.2.4 Remote Network Routing Table Entries 154

6.2.2.5 Next-Hop Address 154

6.2.2.6 Sample Router IPv4 Routing Table 155

6.2.2.7 Activity - Identify Elements of a Router Routing Table Entry 156

6.2.2.8 Lab - View Host Routing Tables 156

6.3 Routers 156

6.3.1 Anatomy of a Router 156

6.3.1.1 A Router is a Computer 156

6.3.1.2 Router CPU and OS 157

6.3.1.3 Router Memory 157

6.3.1.4 Inside a Router 158

6.3.1.5 Router Backplane 159

6.3.1.6 Connecting to a Router 159

6.3.1.7 LAN and WAN Interfaces 160

6.3.1.8 Activity - Identify Router Components 160

6.3.1.9 Lab - Exploring Router Physical Characteristics 160

6.3.1.10 Packet Tracer - Exploring Internetworking Devices 161

6.3.2 Router Boot-up 161

6.3.2.1 Cisco IOS 161

6.3.2.2 Bootset Files 161

6.3.2.3 Router Bootup Process 162

6.3.2.4 Show Version Output 163

6.3.2.5 Video Demonstration - The Router Boot Process 163

6.3.2.6 Activity - The Router Boot Process 163

6.4 Configuring a Cisco Router 163

6.4.1 Configure Initial Settings 163

6.4.1.1 Router Configuration Steps 163

6.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Configure Initial Router Settings 164

6.4.2 Configure Interfaces 164

6.4.2.1 Configure LAN Interfaces 164

6.4.2.2 Verify Interface Configuration 165

6.4.3 Configuring the Default Gateway 166

6.4.3.1 Default Gateway on a Host 166

6.4.3.2 Default Gateway on a Switch 166

6.4.3.3 Packet Tracer - Connect a Router to a LAN 167

6.4.3.4 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting Default Gateway Issues 167

6.4.3.5 Lab - Initializing and Reloading a Router and Switch 167

6.5 Summary 168

6.5.1.1 Class Activity - Can you read this map? 168

6.5.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 168

6.5.1.3 Summary 168

Chapter 6 Quiz 170

Chapter 6 Exam 170

Your Chapter Notes 170

Chapter 7 IP Addressing 171

7.0 IP Addressing 171

7.0.1.1 Introduction 171

7.0.1.2 Class Activity —The Internet of Everything (IoE) 171

7.1 IPv4 Network Addresses 172

7.1.1 IPv4 Address Structure 172

7.1.1.1 Binary Notation 172

7.1.1.2 Binary Number System 173

7.1.1.3 Converting a Binary Address to Decimal 174

7.1.1.4 Activity - Binary to Decimal Conversions 174

7.1.1.5 Converting from Decimal to Binary 174

7.1.1.6 Converting from Decimal to Binary (Cont.) 175

7.1.1.7 Activity - Decimal to Binary Conversion Activity 175

7.1.1.8 Activity - Binary Game 175

7.1.2 IPv4 Subnet Mask 175

7.1.2.1 Network Portion and Host Portion of an IPv4 Address 175

7.1.2.2 Examining the Prefix Length 176

7.1.2.3 IPv4 Network, Host and Broadcast Addresses 176

7.1.2.4 First Host and Last Host Addresses 177

7.1.2.5 Bitwise AND Operation 177

7.1.2.6 Importance of ANDing 178

7.1.2.7 Lab - Using the Windows Calculator with Network Addresses 179

7.1.2.8 Lab - Converting IPv4 Addresses to Binary 179

7.1.2.9 Activity - ANDing to Determine the Network Address 179

7.1.3 IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast 179

7.1.3.1 Assigning a Static IPv4 Address to a Host 179

7.1.3.2 Assigning a Dynamic IPv4 Address to a Host 180

7.1.3.3 Unicast Transmission 180

7.1.3.4 Broadcast Transmission 181

7.1.3.5 Multicast Transmission 182

7.1.3.6 Activity - Unicast, Broadcast, or Multicast 183

7.1.3.7 Activity - Calculate the Network, Broadcast and Host Addresses 183

7.1.3.8 Packet Tracer - Investigate Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast Traffic 183

7.1.4 Types of IPv4 Addresses 183

7.1.4.1 Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 183

7.1.4.2 Activity - Pass or Block IPv4 Addresses 184

7.1.4.3 Special Use IPv4 Addresses 184

7.1.4.4 Legacy Classful Addressing 185

7.1.4.5 Assignment of IP Addresses 186

7.1.4.6 Assignment of IP Addresses (Cont.) 187

7.1.4.7 Activity - Public or Private IPv4 Addresses 188

7.1.4.8 Lab - Identifying IPv4 Addresses 188

7.2 IPv6 Network Addresses 188

7.2.1 IPv4 issues 188

7.2.1.1 The Need for IPv6 188

7.2.1.2 IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence 189

7.2.1.3 Activity — IPv4 Issues and Solutions 190

7.2.2 IPv6 Addressing 190

7.2.2.1 Hexadecimal Number System 190

7.2.2.2 IPv6 Address Representation 190

7.2.2.3 Rule 1 - Omitting Leading 0s 191

7.2.2.4 Rule 2 - Omitting All 0 Segments 191

7.2.2.5 Activity - Practicing IPv6 Address Representations 192

7.2.3 Types of IPv6 Addresses 192

7.2.3.1 IPv6 Address Types 192

7.2.3.2 IPv6 Prefix Length 192

7.2.3.3 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 192

7.2.3.4 IPv6 Link-Local Unicast Addresses 194

7.2.3.5 Activity - Identify Types of IPv6 Addresses 194

7.2.4 IPv6 Unicast Addresses 194

7.2.4.1 Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address 194

7.2.4.2 Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address 195

7.2.4.3 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using SLAAC 196

7.2.4.4 Dynamic Configuration of a Global Unicast Address using DHCPv6 197

7.2.4.5 EUI-64 Process or Randomly Generated 198

7.2.4.6 Dynamic Link-local Addresses 199

7.2.4.7 Static Link-Local Addresses 200

7.2.4.8 Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration 200

7.2.5 IPv6 Multicast Addresses 201

7.2.5.1 Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses 201

7.2.5.2 Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses 202

7.2.5.3 Packet Tracer - Configuring IPv6 Addressing 203

7.2.5.4 Lab - Identifying IPv6 Addresses 203

7.2.5.5 Lab - Configuring IPv6 Addresses on Network Devices 203

7.3 Connectivity Verification 203

7.3.1 ICMP 203

7.3.1.1 ICMPv4 and ICMPv6 Messages 203

7.3.1.2 ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages 205

7.3.1.3 ICMPv6 Neighbor Solicitation and Neighbor Advertisement Messages 205

7.3.2 Testing and Verification 206

7.3.2.1 Ping - Testing the Local Stack 206

7.3.2.2 Ping - Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN 206

7.3.2.3 Ping - Testing Connectivity to Remote Device 207

7.3.2.4 Traceroute - Testing the Path 207

7.3.2.5 Packet Tracer - Verifying IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing 208

7.3.2.6 Packet Tracer - Pinging and Tracing to Test the Path 208

7.3.2.7 Lab - Testing Network Connectivity with Ping and Traceroute 208

7.3.2.8 Packet Tracer - Troubleshooting IPv4 and IPv6 Addressing 208

7.4 Summary 209

7.4.1.1 Class Activity - The Internet of Everything...Naturally! 209

7.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 209

7.4.1.3 Summary 209

Chapter 7 Quiz 211

Chapter 7 Exam 211

Your Chapter Notes 211

Chapter 8 Subnetting IP Networks 213

8.0 Subnetting IP Networks 213

8.0.1.1 Introduction 213

8.0.1.2 Class Activity - Call Me! 213

8.1 Subnetting an IPv4 Network 214

8.1.1 Network Segmentation 214

8.1.1.1 Reasons for Subnetting 214

8.1.1.2 Communication between Subnets 214

8.1.2 Subnetting an IPv4 Network 215

8.1.2.1 Basic Subnetting 215

8.1.2.2 Subnets in Use 216

8.1.2.3 Subnetting Formulas 216

8.1.2.4 Creating 4 Subnets 217

8.1.2.5 Creating 8 Subnets 218

8.1.2.6 Activity - Determining the Network Address - Basic 219

8.1.2.7 Activity - Calculate the Number of Hosts - Basic 219

8.1.2.8 Activity - Determining the Valid Addresses for Hosts - Basics 219

8.1.2.9 Activity - Calculate the Subnet Mask 219

8.1.2.10 Creating 100 Subnets with a /16 prefix 219

8.1.2.11 Calculating the Hosts 220

8.1.2.12 Creating 1,000 Subnets with a /8 prefix 220

8.1.2.13 Activity - Determining the Network Address - Advanced 221

8.1.2.14 Activity - Calculating the Number of Hosts - Advanced 221

8.1.2.15 Activity - Determining the Valid Addresses for Hosts - Advanced 221

8.1.3 Determining the Subnet Mask 221

8.1.3.1 Subnetting Based on Host Requirements 221

8.1.3.2 Subnetting Network-Based Requirements 222

8.1.3.3 Subnetting to Meet Network Requirements 222

8.1.3.4 Subnetting To Meet Network Requirements, Cont. 223

8.1.3.5 Activity - Determining the Number of Bits to Borrow 223

8.1.3.6 Packet Tracer - Subnetting Scenario 1 223

8.1.3.7 Packet Tracer - Subnetting Scenario 2 223

8.1.3.8 Lab - Calculating IPv4 Subnets 224

8.1.3.9 Lab - Subnetting Network Topologies 224

8.1.3.10 Lab - Researching Subnet Calculators 224

8.1.4 Benefits of Variable Length Subnet Masking 224

8.1.4.1 Traditional Subnetting Wastes Addresses 224

8.1.4.2 Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM) 225

8.1.4.3 Basic VLSM 225

8.1.4.4 VLSM in Practice 226

8.1.4.5 VLSM Chart 226

8.1.4.6 Activity - Practicing VLSM 227

8.2 Addressing Schemes 227

8.2.1 Structured Design 227

8.2.1.1 Planning to Address the Network 227

8.2.1.2 Assigning Addresses to Devices 228

8.2.1.3 Lab - Designing and Implementing a Subnetted IPv4 Addressing Scheme 229

8.2.1.4 Lab - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 230

8.2.1.5 Packet Tracer - Designing and Implementing a VLSM Addressing Scheme 230

8.3 Design Considerations for IPv6 230

8.3.1 Subnetting an IPv6 Network 230

8.3.1.1 Subnetting Using the Subnet ID 230

8.3.1.2 IPv6 Subnet Allocation 230

8.3.1.3 Subnetting into the Interface ID 231

8.3.1.4 Packet Tracer - Implementing a Subnetted IPv6 Addressing Scheme 231

8.4 Summary 231

8.4.1.1 Class Activity - Can you call me now? 231

8.4.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 232

8.4.1.3 Summary 232

Chapter 8 Quiz 234

Chapter 8 Exam 234

Your Chapter Notes 234

Chapter 9 Network Access 235

9.0 Network Access 235

9.0.1.1 Introduction 235

9.0.1.2 Class Activity — Managing the Medium 235

9.1 Data Link Layer 236

9.1.1 Data Link Layer 236

9.1.1.1 The Data Link Layer 236

9.1.1.2 Data Link Subayers 237

9.1.1.3 Media Access Control 237

9.1.1.4 Providing Access to Media 238

9.1.2 Layer 2 Frame Structure 238

9.1.2.1 Formatting Data for Transmission 238

9.1.2.2 Creating a Frame 239

9.1.2.3 Activity - Generic Frame Fields 240

9.1.3 Layer 2 Standards 240

9.1.3.1 Data Link Layer Standards 240

9.1.3.2 Activity - Data Link Layer Standards Organizations 240

9.2 Media Access Control 240

9.2.1 Topologies 240

9.2.1.1 Controlling Access to the Media 240

9.2.1.2 Physical and Logical Topologies 241

9.2.2 WAN Topologies 241

9.2.2.1 Common Physical WAN Topologies 241

9.2.2.2 Physical Point-to-Point Topology 242

9.2.2.3 Logical Point-to-Point Topology 242

9.2.2.4 Half and Full Duplex 242

9.2.3 LAN Topologies 243

9.2.3.1 Physical LAN Topologies 243

9.2.3.2 Logical Topology for Shared Media 243

9.2.3.3 Contention-Based Access 244

9.2.3.4 Multi-Access Topology 244

9.2.3.5 Controlled Access 245

9.2.3.6 Ring Topology 245

9.2.3.7 Activity - Logical and Physical Topologies 246

9.2.4 Data Link Frame 246

9.2.4.1 The Frame 246

9.2.4.2 The Header 246

9.2.4.3 Layer 2 Address 247

9.2.4.4 The Trailer 248

9.2.4.5 LAN and WAN Frames 248

9.2.4.6 Ethernet Frame 249

9.2.4.7 PPP Frame 249

9.2.4.8 802.11 Wireless Frame 250

9.2.4.9 Activity - Frame Fields 251

9.3 Physical Layer 251

9.3.1 Purpose of the Physical Layer 251

9.3.1.1 The Physical Layer 251

9.3.1.2 Physical Layer Media 252

9.3.1.3 Physical Layer Standards 252

9.3.1.4 Lab - Identifying Network Devices and Cabling 253

9.3.2 Characteristics of the Physical Layer 253

9.3.2.1 Physical Layer Functions 253

9.3.2.2 Physical Components 253

9.3.2.3 Frame Encoding Techniques 254

9.3.2.4 Signalling Method 255

9.3.2.5 Bandwidth 255

9.3.2.6 Throughput 256

9.3.2.7 Activity - Physical Layer Terminology 257

9.4 Network Media 257

9.4.1 Copper Cabling 257

9.4.1.1 Characteristics of Copper Media 257

9.4.1.2 Copper Media 258

9.4.1.3 Unshielded-Twisted Pair Cable 258

9.4.1.4 Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) Cable 258

9.4.1.5 Coaxial Cable 259

9.4.1.6 Copper Media Safety 259

9.4.1.7 Activity - Copper Media Characteristics 260

9.4.2 UTP Cabling 260

9.4.2.1 Properties of UTP Cabling 260

9.4.2.2 UTP Cabling Standards 260

9.4.2.3 UTP Connectors 261

9.4.2.4 Types of UTP Cable 261

9.4.2.5 LAN Cabling Areas 262

9.4.2.6 Testing UTP Cables 263

9.4.2.7 Activity - Cable Pinouts 263

9.4.2.8 Lab - Building an Ethernet Crossover Cable 263

9.4.3 Fiber Optic Cabling 263

9.4.3.1 Properties of Fiber Optic Cabling 263

9.4.3.2 Fiber Media Cable Design 264

9.4.3.3 Types of Fiber Media 264

9.4.3.4 Network Fiber Connectors 265

9.4.3.5 Testing Fiber Cables 266

9.4.3.6 Fiber versus Copper 266

9.4.3.7 Activity - Fiber Optics Terminology 267

9.4.4 Wireless Media 267

9.4.4.1 Properties of Wireless Media 267

9.4.4.2 Types of Wireless Media 267

9.4.4.3 Wireless LAN 268

9.4.4.4 802.11 Wi-Fi Standards 268

9.4.4.5 Packet Tracer - Connecting a Wired and Wireless LAN 269

9.4.4.6 Lab - Viewing Wired and Wireless NIC Information 269

9.5 Summary 269

9.5.1.1 Class Activity – Linked In! 269

9.5.1.2 Summary 270

Chapter 9 Quiz 272

Chapter 9 Exam 272

Your Chapter Notes 272

Chapter 10 Ethernet 273

10.0 Ethernet 273

10.0.1.1 Introduction 273

10.0.1.2 Class Activity – Join My Social Circle! 273

10.1 Ethernet Protocol 274

10.1.1 Ethernet Operation 274

10.1.1.1 LLC and MAC Sublayers 274

10.1.1.2 MAC Sublayer 275

10.1.1.3 Media Access Control 276

10.1.1.4 MAC Address: Ethernet Identity 276

10.1.1.5 Frame Processing 277

10.1.1.6 Activity - MAC and LLC Sublayers 278

10.1.2 Ethernet Frame Attributes 278

10.1.2.1 Ethernet Encapsulation 278

10.1.2.2 Ethernet Frame Size 278

10.1.2.3 Introduction to the Ethernet Frame 279

10.1.2.4 Activity - Ethernet Frame Fields 280

10.1.3 Ethernet MAC 280

10.1.3.1 MAC Addresses and Hexadecimal 280

10.1.3.2 MAC Address Representations 280

10.1.3.3 Unicast MAC Address 281

10.1.3.4 Broadcast MAC Address 281

10.1.3.5 Multicast MAC Address 281

10.1.3.6 Lab - Viewing Network Device MAC Addresses 282

10.1.4 MAC and IP 282

10.1.4.1 MAC and IP 282

10.1.4.2 End-to-End Connectivity, MAC, and IP 282

10.1.4.3 Lab - Using Wireshark to Examine Ethernet Frames 283

10.1.4.4 Packet Tracer - Identify MAC and IP Addresses 283

10.2 Address Resolution Protocol 283

10.2.1 ARP 283

10.2.1.1 Introduction to ARP 283

10.2.1.2 ARP Functions 284

10.2.1.3 ARP Operation 284

10.2.1.4 ARP Role in Remote Communication 285

10.2.1.5 Removing Entries from an ARP Table 285

10.2.1.6 ARP Tables on Networking Devices 286

10.2.1.7 Packet Tracer - Examine the ARP Table 286

10.2.1.8 Lab - Observing ARP with the Windows CLI, IOS CLI, and Wireshark 286

10.2.2 ARP Issues 286

10.2.2.1 How ARP Can Create Problems 286

10.2.2.2 Mitigating ARP Problems 287

10.3 LAN Switches 287

10.3.1 Switching 287

10.3.1.1 Switch Port Fundamentals 287

10.3.1.2 Switch MAC Address Table 287

10.3.1.3 Duplex Settings 288

10.3.1.4 Auto-MDIX 289

10.3.1.5 Frame Forwarding Methods on Cisco Switches 290

10.3.1.6 Cut-Through Switching 290

10.3.1.7 Activity - Frame Forwarding Methods 291

10.3.1.8 Memory Buffering on Switches 291

10.3.1.9 Activity - Switch It! 292

10.3.1.10 Lab - Viewing the Switch MAC Address Table 292

10.3.2 Fixed or Modular 292

10.3.2.1 Fixed versus Modular Configuration 292

10.3.2.2 Fixed Configuration Cisco Switches 293

10.3.2.3 Modular Configuration Cisco Switches 295

10.3.2.4 Module Options for Cisco Switch Slots 296

10.3.3 Layer 3 Switching 297

10.3.3.1 Layer 2 versus Layer 3 Switching 297

10.3.3.2 Cisco Express Forwarding 297

10.3.3.3 Types of Layer 3 Interfaces 298

10.3.3.4 Configuring a Routed Port on a Layer 3 Switch 299

10.3.3.5 Packet Tracer - Configure Layer 3 Switches 299

10.4 Summary 299

10.4.1.1 Class Activity - MAC and Choose... 299

10.4.1.2 Summary 300

Chapter 10 Quiz 301

Chapter 10 Exam 301

Your Chapter Notes 301

Chapter 11 It’s a Network 303

11.0 It’s a Network 303

11.0.1.1 Introduction 303

11.0.1.2 Class Activity - Did You Notice...? 303

11.1 Create and Grow 303

11.1.1 Devices in a Small Network 303

11.1.1.1 Small Network Topologies 303

11.1.1.2 Device Selection for a Small Network 304

11.1.1.3 IP Addressing for a Small Network 305

11.1.1.4 Redundancy in a Small Network 306

11.1.1.5 Design Considerations for a Small Network 306

11.1.1.6 Activity - Identifying Devices in a Small Network 307

11.1.2 Protocols in a Small Network 307

11.1.2.1 Common Applications in a Small Network 307

11.1.2.2 Common Protocols in a Small Network 307

11.1.2.3 Real-Time Applications for a Small Network 308

11.1.3 Growing to Larger Networks 309

11.1.3.1 Scaling a Small Network 309

11.1.3.2 Protocol Analysis of a Small Network 309

11.1.3.3 Evolving Protocol Requirements 310

11.2 Keeping the Network Safe 311

11.2.1 Network Device Security Measures 311

11.2.1.1 Categories of Threats to Network Security 311

11.2.1.2 Physical Security 311

11.2.1.3 Types of Security Vulnerabilities 312

11.2.1.4 Activity – Security Threats and Vulnerabilities 312

11.2.2 Vulnerabilities and Network Attacks 312

11.2.2.1 Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses 312

11.2.2.2 Reconnaissance Attacks 313

11.2.2.3 Access Attacks 313

11.2.2.4 DoS Attacks 314

11.2.2.5 Activity – Types of Attack 314

11.2.2.6 Lab - Researching Network Security Threats 314

11.2.3 Mitigating Network Attacks 314

11.2.3.1 Backup, Upgrade, Update, and Patch 314

11.2.3.2 Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting 315

11.2.3.3 Firewalls 316

11.2.3.4 Endpoint Security 317

11.2.4 Securing Devices 317

11.2.4.1 Introduction to Securing Devices 317

11.2.4.2 Passwords 317

11.2.4.3 Basic Security Practices 318

11.2.4.4 Enable SSH 319

11.2.4.5 Lab - Accessing Network Devices with SSH 320

11.2.4.6 Lab - Securing Network Devices 320

11.3 Basic Network Performance 320

11.3.1 Ping 320

11.3.1.1 Interpreting Ping Results 320

11.3.1.2 Extended Ping 321

11.3.1.3 Network Baseline 322

11.3.2 Tracert 323

11.3.2.1 Interpreting Tracert Messages 323

11.3.2.2 Packet Tracer - Test Connectivity with Traceroute 323

11.3.2.3 Lab - Testing Network Latency with Ping and Traceroute 324

11.3.3 Show Commands 324

11.3.3.1 Common show Commands Revisited 324

11.3.3.2 Viewing Router Settings with the show version Command 324

11.3.3.3 Viewing Switch Settings with the show version Command 325

11.3.3.4 Packet Tracer - Using show Commands 325

11.3.4 Host and IOS Commands 326

11.3.4.1 ipconfig Command Options 326

11.3.4.2 arp Command Options 326

11.3.4.3 show cdp neighbors Command Options 326

11.3.4.4 Using the show ip interface brief Command 327

11.3.4.5 Activity – Show Commands 328

11.3.4.6 Lab - Using the CLI to Gather Network Device Information.pdf 328

11.4 Managing IOS Configuration Files 328

11.4.1 Router and Switch File Systems 328

11.4.1.1 Router File Systems 328

11.4.1.2 Switch File Systems 329

11.4.2 Back up and Restore Configuration files 330

11.4.2.1 Backing up and Restoring using Text Files 330

11.4.2.2 Backing up and Restoring using TFTP 330

11.4.2.3 Using USB Ports on a Cisco Router 331

11.4.2.4 Backing up and Restoring using a USB 332

11.4.2.5 Packet Tracer - Backing up Configuration Files 332

11.4.2.6 Lab - Managing Router Configuration Files with Tera Term 332

11.4.2.7 Lab - Managing Device Configuration Files Using TFTP, Flash, and USB 332

11.4.2.8 Lab - Researching Password Recovery Procedures 333

11.5 Summary 333

11.5.1.1 Capstone Project - Design and Build a Small Business Network 333

11.5.1.2 Packet Tracer - Skills Integration Challenge 333

11.5.1.3 Summary 333

Chapter 11 Quiz 335

Chapter 11 Exam 335

Your Chapter Notes 335

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