Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies (Paperback)


Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies

The definitive guide to collecting usage information from Cisco networks

Benoit Claise, CCIE® No. 2868

Ralf Wolter

Understanding network performance and effectiveness is now crucial to business success. To ensure user satisfaction, both service providers and enterprise IT teams must provide service-level agreements ...

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Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies

The definitive guide to collecting usage information from Cisco networks

Benoit Claise, CCIE® No. 2868

Ralf Wolter

Understanding network performance and effectiveness is now crucial to business success. To ensure user satisfaction, both service providers and enterprise IT teams must provide service-level agreements (SLA) to the users of their networks–and then consistently deliver on those commitments. Now, two of the Cisco® leading network performance and accounting experts bring together all the knowledge network professionals need to do so.

Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies imparts a deep understanding of Cisco IOS® embedded management for monitoring and optimizing performance, together with proven best strategies for both accounting and performance management.

Benoit Claise and Ralf Wolter begin by introducing the role of accounting and performance management in today’s large-scale data and voice networks. They present widely accepted performance standards and definitions, along with today’s best practice methodologies for data collection.

Next, they turn to Cisco devices and the Cisco IOS Software, illuminating embedded management and device instrumentation features that enable you to thoroughly characterize performance, plan network enhancements, and anticipate potential problems and prevent them. Network standards, technologies, and Cisco solutions covered in depth include Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) and Management Information Bases (MIB), Remote Monitoring (RMON), IP accounting, NetFlow, BGP policy accounting, AAA Accounting, Network Based Application Recognition (NBAR), and IP SLA (formerly known as SAA). For each, the authors present practical examples and hands-on techniques.

The book concludes with chapter-length scenarios that walk you through accounting and performance management for five different applications: data network monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice network performance.

Network Management: Accounting and Performance Strategies will be indispensable to every professional concerned with network performance, effectiveness, or profitability, especially NMS/OSS architects, network and service designers, network administrators, and anyone responsible for network accounting or billing.

Benoit Claise, CCIE® No. 2868, is a Cisco Distinguished Engineer working as an architect for embedded management and device instrumentation. His area of expertise includes accounting, performance, and fault management. Claise is a contributor to the NetFlow standardization at the IETF in the IPFIX and PSAMP Working Groups. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a customer support engineer in the Technical Assistance Center network management team and became an escalation engineer before joining the engineering team.

Ralf Wolter is a senior manager, consulting engineering at Cisco. He leads the Cisco Core and NMS/OSS consulting team for Europe, works closely with corporate engineering, and supports large-scale customer projects. He specializes in device instrumentation related to accounting and performance management.

  • Compare accounting methods and choose the best approach for you
  • Apply network performance best practices to your network
  • Leverage built-in Cisco IOS network management system components to quantify performance
  • Uncover trends in performance statistics to help avoid service degradation before it occurs
  • Identify under use of network paths, so you can improve overall network efficiency
  • Walk through hands-on case studies that address monitoring, capacity planning, billing, security, and voice networks
  • Understand Cisco network performance, deliver on your SLAs, and improve accounting and billing

This book is part of the Networking Technology Series from Cisco Press®, which offers networking professionals valuable information for constructing efficient networks, understanding new technologies, and building successful careers.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781587142734
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
  • Publication date: 8/29/2012
  • Series: Networking Technology Series
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 672
  • Product dimensions: 7.50 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Benoit Claise, CCIE No. 2686, is a Cisco Distinguished Engineer working as an architect for embedded

management and device instrumentation. His area of expertise includes accounting, performance,

and fault management. Claise is a contributor to the NetFlow standardization at the IETF in the IPFIX

and PSAMP working groups. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a customer support engineer in the Technical

Assistance Center network management team. He then became an escalation engineer before joining the

engineering team.

Ralf Wolteris a senior manager, Consulting Engineering at Cisco Systems. He leads the Core and

NMS/OSS consulting team for Europe and works closely with corporate engineering, as well as supporting

large customer projects. His special field of interest is device instrumentation, related to

accounting and performance management. He joined Cisco in 1996 as a systems engineer. He has provided

technical leadership for many large network management projects in Europe, the Middle East,

and Africa. Before his current position, he worked as a networking consultant at AT&T/NCR, focusing

on the design and management of data networks.

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Table of Contents

Part I Data Collection and Methodology Standards 3

Chapter 1 Understanding the Need for Accounting and Performance Management 5

Definitions and the Relationship Between Accounting and Performance

Management 11

Defining Accounting Management 11

Defining Performance Management 13

The Relationship Between Accounting and Performance 17

A Complementary Solution 20

The Purposes of Accounting 22

Network Monitoring 22

User Monitoring and Profiling 24

Application Monitoring and Profiling 26

Capacity Planning 31

Traffic Profiling and Engineering 34

Peering and Transit Agreements 37

Billing 43

Security Analysis 57

Purposes of Performance 61

Device Performance Monitoring 62

Network Performance Monitoring 65

Service Monitoring 66

Baselining 68

Fault Management 70

Applying the Information to the Business 74

Summary 80

Chapter 2 Data Collection Methodology 85

Data Collection Details: What to Collect 86

What Are the Keys? 89

What Are the Values? 89

What Are the Required Versus Nice-to-Have Types of Data? 93

Data Types List 93

Example: Application Monitoring 94

Example: Traffic Matrix 98

Example: SLA Monitoring 99

Defining the User 100

Metering Methods: How to Collect Data Records 102

Active Versus Passive Monitoring 103

Passive Monitoring Concepts 104

Active Monitoring Concepts 120

Best Practice: How to Position Active and Passive Monitoring 128

Outlook: Passive Monitoring for One-Way Delay Analysis 129

Metering Positions: Where to Collect Data Records 130

Network Element Versus End Device Collection 130

Edge Versus Core Collection 132

Embedded Versus External Device Collection 136

Ingress Versus Egress Collection 138

Flow Destination or Source Lookup 140

Technology-Dependent Special Constraints 141

Collection Infrastructure: How to Collect Data Records 144

Pull Versus Push Model 144

Event-Based Model 145

Export Protocols 146

Network Design for the Collection Infrastructure 151

Communication Concepts 152

Collection Server Concepts 154

Mediation Device Functionality: How to Process Data Records 157

Filtering 157

Estimation from Sampling 159

Threshold Monitoring 159

Data Aggregation 160

Data Record Correlation and Enrichment 164

Flow De-Duplication 165

Data Record Formatting and Storage 165

Security Considerations: How to Ensure Data Authenticity and Integrity 167

Source Authentication 167

Ensuring Data and Device Integrity 168

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks 169

Summary 170

Chapter 3 Accounting and Performance Standards and Definitions 173

Understanding Standards and Standards Organizations 173

Architectural and Framework Standards: The TMN/FCAPS Model (ITU-T) 176

Fault Management 180

Configuration Management 181

Accounting Management 181

Performance Management 182

Security Management 183

The TMN Framework 184

Architectural and Framework Standards: the eTOM Model (TMF) 185

Informational IETF Standards 189

IETF RFC 2924, Accounting Attributes and Record Formats 189

IETF RFC 2975, Introduction to Accounting Management 189

Information Modeling 190

Data Collection Protocols: SNMP, SMI, and MIB 191

Internet Management Model and Terminology 191

MIB Modules and Object Identifiers 193

SMI Definitions 194

SNMP Versions 196

References for SMIv1 and SMIv2 199

Data Collection Protocols: NetFlow Version 9 and IPFIX Export Protocols 201

NetFlow Version 9 Export Protocol 202


Data Collection Protocols: PSAMP 212

PSAMP Protocol Specifications 212

PSAMP References 213

Data Collection Protocols: AAA (RADIUS, Diameter, and TACACS+) 214



Diameter 216

Data Collection Protocols: IPDR 217

Data Collection Protocols: CMISE/CMIP and GDMO 218

Service Notions 219

Summary 222

Part II Implementations on the Cisco Devices 225

Chapter 4 SNMP and MIBs 227

MIBs 228

IOS Support for SNMP Versions 229

net-snmp Utilities 229

CLI Operations and Configuration Example for SNMPv2c 230

SNMPv2c Configuration Example 230

SNMPv2c Data Retrieval 231

Displaying SNMPv2c Statistics 231

CLI Operations and Configuration Examples for SNMPv3 231

authNoPriv SNMP Example 233

authPriv SNMP Example 235

MIB Table Retrieval Example 235

MIB Functional Area Comparison Table 237

General-Purpose MIBs for Accounting and Performance 239







Advanced Device Instrumentation 247

Technology-Specific MIBs for Accounting and Performance 247

Frame Relay 247

IPv6 251

Multicast 252

VLAN 253

Traffic Management and Control 255

Telephony 257

Creating New MIB Objects: EXPRESSION-MIB 265


EVENT-MIB Associated with EXPRESSION-MIB 268

Obtaining MIBs 269

Chapter 5 RMON 273

RMON 1 and RMON 2 MIBs 273

RMON Principles 277

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 277

Cisco NAM Modules 278

CLI Operations 279

SNMP Operations 280

Examples 282


DSMON MIB Principles 286

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 286

CLI Operations 286

SNMP Operations 286

Examples 287


Supported Devices and IOS Versions 288

CLI Operations 288

SNMP Operations 288

Examples 289

Collection Monitoring 289


Supported Devices and IOS Versions 291

CLI Operations 291

SNMP Operations 291

Examples 291

Collection Monitoring 291

Applicability 292

Further Reading 293

Chapter 6 IP Accounting 297

IP Accounting (Layer 3) 298

IP Accounting (Layer 3) Principles 298

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 299

CLI Operations 299

SNMP Operations 300

Examples (CLI and SNMP) 301

IP Accounting Access Control List (ACL) 303

IP Accounting ACL Principles 304

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 304

CLI Operations 304

SNMP Operations 305

Examples (CLI and SNMP) 305

IP Accounting MAC Address 308

IP Accounting MAC Address Principles 308

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 309

CLI Operations 309

SNMP Operations 310

Examples (CLI and SNMP) 311

IP Accounting Precedence 312

IP Accounting Precedence Principles 313

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 313

CLI Operations 314

SNMP Operations 314

Examples (CLI and SNMP) 315

Applicability 317

Chapter 7 NetFlow 319

Fundamentals of NetFlow 322

Flow Definition 322

Cache Concept 325

Aging Flows on a Router 327

Aging Flows on a Catalyst 328

Export Version and Related Information Elements 329

Supported Interfaces 339

Export Protocol: UDP or SCTP 340

NetFlow Device-Level Architecture: Combining the Elements 342

Cisco NetFlow Collector 344

CLI Operations 345

SNMP Operations with the NETFLOW-MIB 346

Example: NetFlow Version 5 on a Router 347

Example: NetFlow Configuration on the Catalyst 348

Example: NetFlow Version 8 350

Example: NetFlow Version 9 350

New Features Supported with NetFlow Version 9 351

SCTP Export 351

Sampled NetFlow 353

NetFlow Input Filters 358

MPLS-Aware NetFlow 360

BGP Next-Hop Information Element 362

NetFlow Multicast 363

NetFlow Layer 2 and Security Monitoring Exports 365

Top Talkers 366

Flexible NetFlow 370

Deployment Guidelines 385

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 387

Chapter 8 BGP Policy Accounting 389

Input BGP Policy Accounting 390

Output BGP Policy Accounting 391

Summary of All Four BGP Policy Accounting Combinations 392

Fundamentals 393

BGP Policy Accounting Commands 394

SNMP Operations 395

Examples (CLI and SNMP) 396

Initial Configuration 396

Collection Monitoring 397

Destination-Sensitive Services 398

Destination-Sensitive Billing 398

Destination-Sensitive Traffic Shaping (DSTS) 399

Applicability 400

Chapter 9 AAA Accounting 403

Fundamentals of AAA Accounting 405

High-Level Comparison of RADIUS, TACACS+, and Diameter 406


RADIUS Attributes 409

RADIUS CLI Operations 415

Voice Extensions for RADIUS 416

Diameter Details 428

Chapter 10 NBAR 433

NBAR Functionality 434

Distributed NBAR 435

NBAR Classification Details 435

NBAR Packet Description Language Module (PDLM) 437

NBAR Scope 438

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 438

NBAR Protocol Discovery (PD) MIB 439

NBAR Supported Protocols 440

NBAR Protocol Discovery Statistics 440

NBAR Top-N Statistics 441

NBAR Protocol Discovery Thresholds, Traps, and History 442

NBAR Configuration Commands 443

NBAR show Commands 443

NBAR Examples (CLI and SNMP) 445

Basic NBAR Configuration 445

Custom Application Example 446

Limiting Peer-to-Peer Traffic 447

HTTP Requests Payload Inspection 447

NBAR Applicability 449

Chapter 11

IP SLA 451

Measured Metrics: What to Measure 453

Network Delay 454

Jitter 454

Packet Loss 455

Measurement Accuracy 455

TCP Connect 456

DHCP and DNS Response Time 456

HTTP Response Time 456

Linking Metrics to Applications 456

Operations: How to Measure 457

Operations Parameters 457

MPLS VPN Awareness 459

IP SLA Responder 459

Operation Types 463

IP SLA CLI Operations 480

SNMP Operations with the CISCO-RTTMON-MIB 482

Application-Specific Scenario: HTTP 483

Application-Specific Scenario: VoIP 486

Advanced Features 488

Scheduling 488

Distribution of Statistics 491

History Collection 494

Thresholds and Notifications 495

Enhanced Object Tracking for IP SLA 499

Implementation Considerations 501

Supported Devices and IOS Versions 501

Performance Impact 503

Accuracy 504

Security Considerations 506

IP SLA Deployment 507

Chapter 12 Summary of Data Collection Methodology 515

Applicability 515

Part III Assigning Technologies to Solutions 523

Chapter 13 Monitoring Scenarios 525

Network Blueprint for Monitoring 525

Device and Link Performance 526

Network Connectivity and Performance 530

Application Monitoring 534

Service Monitoring and Routing Optimization 536

Chapter 14 Capacity Planning Scenarios 541

Link Capacity Planning 541

Network Blueprint for Capacity Planning 543

Problem Space 544

Capacity Planning Tools 546

Methods for Generating the Core Traffic Matrix 548

NetFlow BGP Next Hop ToS Aggregation 551

Flexible NetFlow 552

MPLS-Aware NetFlow 553

BGP Passive Peer on the NetFlow Collector 554

BGP Policy Accounting 555

Other Methods 556

Additional Considerations: Peer-to-Peer Traffic 557

Summary 557

Chapter 15 Voice Scenarios 559

Network Blueprint for IP Telephony 560

Voice Performance Measurement 561

Standards and Technology 561

Network Elements in the Voice Path 564

Cisco CallManager (CCM) 565

Application Examples 570

Voice Accounting 573

Standards and Technology 573

Network Elements in the Voice Path 574

Gateway, Gatekeeper, Multimedia Conference Manager 575

Cisco CallManager (CCM) 575

Application Example 575

Is Your Network Ready for IP Telephony? 577

Chapter 16 Security Scenarios 579

Network Blueprint for Security Management 580

Security Management Process 582

Preparation 583

Identification 584

Classification 587

Trace Back 591

Reaction 593

Postmortem 594

Summary 596

Chapter 17 Billing Scenarios 599

Network Blueprint for Billing 600

Billing Approaches 602

Time-Based Billing 602

Volume-Based Billing 603

Destination-Sensitive Billing 606

Time- and Distance-Based Billing 606

Service-Based Billing 607

Enterprise Departmental Charge Back 608

Flat Rate Billing 609

Summary 609

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 3, 2007

    great addition to a network manager's arsenal

    Network management is as much an art as it is a science, and like every knowledge based profession it requires informed access to the most cogent set of information. This is more apt, given the growing plethora of network protocols and technologies even by a single vendor. Wadding through the huge hog of information about appropriate technological solutions require either a long period of experience and direct continuous engagement with various (and increasing number of) technology groups and trade association, an extensive reading habit and lots of practice, or access the most relevant up-to- date source about the primary sets of modern tools. The latter is what the book 'Network Management : Accounting and Performance Strategies' by Benoit Claise and Ralf Wolter (from Cisco Press) provides. A concise treatise on basic set of modern network management tools, protocols and services, mostly with strong IETF standard background, but from a Cisco- centric view. Today's network managers have to worry about performance, billing, security, and requirement/use trends. Fortunately, tools exist today to meet help network managers, but identifying the appropriate tools from a wide array of options and potentials is always a major challenge. This book organizes that information in a relatively easy to access manner. Organized into three logical sections, which i characterize as motivation, technologies, and application scenarios, the book is as thorough, as its arrangement is logical. If you are wondering why you should buy the book, the first chapter (Understanding the need for Accounting and Performance Management) provides a quick overview of why. It presents fundamentals of network accounting and performance management, clarifying the differences between both while highlighting the overlaps in the technologies and frameworks for both. Operational areas including security, SLA management, QoS billing, capacity planning, availability and voice management are all addressed in enough details to warrant further reading, but also enough to provide a complete picture of the common worries of today's network manager. Chapter 2, also in the first part is devoted to data collection methodologies for various operational requirements. such as SLA measurements (using IP SLA in Cisco IOS), determination of meter location (network elements or network-edge-device) and so on. The chapter also provides a detailed expose on network data- collection infrastructure including a brief introduction to basic data collection tools including snmp, netflow and ftp. By the end of the chapter, the reader would be apprised of basic data filtering method as well as security considerations for data integrity and confidentiality (privacy) and how to protect against denial of service. And while you're wondering if you had enough, chapter 3 rounds off the first part of the book with a review of current network accounting and performance standards and definitions from ITU-T standards and frameworks through IETF and ISO standards as well as popular proprietary frameworks. Some of the standards and definitions addressed include the ITU-T Telecommunications Management Network(TMN) Fault Configuration, Accounting, Performance, and Security (FCAPS) model the TeleManagement Forum(TMF) eTOM (enhanced Telecom Operations Map) and pertinent IETF RFCs including 2924, 2975 et-cetera. At the end of the chapter, you will be prepared to make informed choices about various data collection, network accounting and performance protocols and technologies. Your next network management purchase will be less of a chore, and you will know what questions to ask of your network administrator as you try to identify what tool sets you may already have or have access to simply by upgrading your network operating system such as Cisco IOS. For the

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