Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging

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Overview

A comprehensive, multidisciplinary review, Neural Plasticity and Memory: From Genes to Brain Imaging provides an in-depth, up-to-date analysis of the study of the neurobiology of memory. Leading specialists share their scientific experience in the field, covering a wide range of topics where molecular, genetic, behavioral, and brain imaging techniques have been used to investigate how cellular and brain circuits may be modified by experience. In each chapter, researchers present findings and explain their innovative methodologies.

The book begins by introducing key issues and providing a historical overview of the field of memory consolidation. The following chapters review the putative genetic and molecular mechanisms of cell plasticity, elaborating on how experience could induce gene and protein expression and describing their role in synaptic plasticity underlying memory formation. They explore how putative modifications of brain circuits and synaptic elements through experience can become relatively permanent and hence improve brain function.

Interdisciplinary reviews focus on how nerve cell circuitry, molecular expression, neurotransmitter release, and electrical activity are modified during the acquisition and consolidation of long-term memory. The book also covers receptor activation/deactivation by different neurotransmitters that enable the intracellular activation of second messengers during memory formation. It concludes with a summary of current research on the modulation and regulation that different neurotransmitters and stress hormones have on formation and consolidation of memory.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780849390708
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 4/28/2007
  • Series: Frontiers in Neuroscience Series
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 1.80 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Table of Contents

SEARCHING FOR MEMORY IN THE BRAIN: CONFRONTING THE COLLUSION OF CELLS AND SYSTEMS, J.L. McGaugh
One Hundred and Fifty Years of Controversy
The Great Debate: What is Learned - Knowledge or Responses?
Brain Systems and Forms of Memory
Brain Systems and Memory Functions.
Cells and Systems
Two Centuries of Progress in Research on Brain and Memory
References

LONG-TERM POTENTIATION AND DEPRESSION AS PUTATIVE MECHANISMS FOR MEMORY FORMATION, M.L. Escobar and B. Derrick
Introduction
Long-Lasting Forms of Synaptic Modification: A Methodological Approach
LTP and LTD: Triggering, Expression, and Maintenance Mechanisms
Persistent Synaptic Plasticity: A Metaplastic Point of View
The Role of Activity-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Brain Function
Substrates of LTP and LTD - Structural Plasticity
Neurotrophins and Synaptic Plasticity
Experience-Dependent Modifications - Is LTP Involved in Learning and Memory?
Outstanding Questions and New Directions

MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY UNDERLYING LONG-TERM MEMORY FORMATION, V. Ramirez-Amaya
Early Signals.
Ca2+ and its transducer
Immediate early genes.
Trophic Factors.
Conclusions

MODIFICATION OF BRAIN CIRCUITS THROUGH EXPERIENCE, M.R. Rosenzweig
Brain Plasticity Discovered through Serendipity
Unexpected Discovery of Brain Plasticity
Cerebral Effects of Experience Occur in All Species Tested
Enriched Environments and the Brain
Neurochemical Cascades Underlie Modification of Neural Circuits
Acknowledgments
References

PRESYNAPTIC STRUCTURAL PLASTICITY AND LONG-LASTING MEMORY: FOCUS ON THE LEARNING-INDUCED REDISTRIBUTION OF HIPPOCAMPAL MOSSY FIBERS, J.L. Rekart, M.R. Holahan, and A. Routtenberg
Learning And Structural Plasticity
Hippocampal Granule Cell Axon Terminals And Learning
Mechanisms Of Presynaptic Structural Plasticity
The Presynaptic Disparity: Anti-Boutonism or a Biological Reality?

ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION OF TASTE MEMORY, T. Yamamoto and Y. Yasoshima
Introduction
CTA paradigm
Enhanced response to the CS
Alteration of responses reflecting hedonic shift
CS-US association
Importance of amygdala in CTA formation
Involvement of reward system
Summary

CHANGES IN NEUROTRANSMITTERS EXTRACELLULAR LEVELS DURING MEMORY FORMATION, M.I. Miranda
Introduction
The Free Moving Microdialysis Technique
Acetylcholine Release During Motor Activity, Attention, and Novelty
Novelty and Other Neurotransmitter Release
Lesions and Blockade of Cholinergic Activity During Memory Formation
Acetylcholine and Long Term Memory Tasks
Noradrenaline Release During Memory Formation
Glutamate and GABA Release During Memory Formation
Conclusions

REVERSIBLE BRAIN INACTIVATION OF BRAIN CIRCUITS IN LEARNING AND MEMORY RESEARCH, M. Gallo
Introduction
The Brain Lesion Approach and the Dynamic Nature of Learning and Memory Systems
Reversible Inactivation Techniques
Learning Behavioral Models and Reversible Inactivation Techniques
Dissociating Independent Learning and Memory Processes
Summary

ENHANCED LEARNING PROTECTS THE BRAIN AGAINST THE EFFECTS OF AMNESIC TREATMENTS, R.A. Prado-Alcalá, R. Salado-Castillo, C. Quiroz, M.E. Garín-Aguilar, A. Díaz-Trujillo, S. Rivas-Arancibia, and G.L. Quirarte
Introduction
Protective Effect of Enhanced Training
Two Models
Conclusions
References

STUDIES ON SHORT-TERM AVOIDANCE MEMORY, M. Cammarota, L.R.M. Bevilaqua, J.H. Medina, I. Izquierdo
Summary
Introduction
STM and LTM: Parallel or Sequential?
The Role of the Hippocampus in Avoidance STM and LTM
The Role of the Entorhinal Cortex in Avoidance STM and LTM
The Role of Other Cortical Areas and of the Amygdala in IA's Memory
Neurobiological Separation of Short and Long Term Avoidance Memory
STM and LTM are Behaviorally Different
The Biochemistry of Short Term Memory
Pharmacological Analysis of IA's Working Memory
Conclusions
References

MEMORY RECONSOLIDATION OR UPDATING CONSOLIDATION? C.J. Rodriguez-Ortiz and F. Bermudez-Rattoni
Abstract
The Consolidation Hypothesis
The Reconsolidation Era
On the Restraints of the Reconsolidation Hypothesis
Are Consolidation and Reconsolidation the Same Process?
The Reconsolidation Hypothesis Reconsidered: The Updating
Consolidation Proposal
Acknowledgments
References

MEMORY IMPAIRMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH STRESS AND AGING, C. Sandi
The Concept Of Stress
The Physiological Stress Response
Stress And Memory Function
Acute Stress And Memory Impairment
Neurobiological Mechanisms Involved In The Acute Effects Of Stress On Memory
Impairing Effects Of Chronic Stress On Cognitive Function
Neurobiological Mechanisms Involved In The Deleterious Effects Of Chronic Stress On Brain And Behavior
Stress And Aging
Aging
Memory Deficits In The Aging Human Population
Neurobiological Mechanisms Associated To Age-Related Cognitive Decline In Humans
Memory Deficits In Aged Rodents
Aging And Structural And Functional Plasticity
Conclusions
References

ADRENAL STRESS HORMONES AND ENHANCED MEMORY FOR EMOTIONALLY AROUSING EXPERIENCES, C.K. McIntyre and B. Roozendaal
Introduction
Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation
Stress Hormones Selectively Enhance Memory Consolidation of Emotionally Arousing Experiences
Involvement of the Amygdala in Mediating Stress Hormone Effects on Memory Consolidation
Role of Emotional Arousal-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Within the Amygdala in Enabling Epinephrine and Glucocorticoid Effects on Memory Consolidation
Conclusions

NEURO-IMMUNE ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING, G. Pacheco-López, M.-B. Niemi, H. Engler, and M. Schedlowski.
Abstract
Introduction
Phenomenon: The Association Between Exteroceptive and Immune Stimuli
Theoretical Framework for Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
Neurobiology of Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
Biological Relevance of Neuro-Immune Associative Learning
Clinical relevance of neuro-immune associative learning
Summary and future perspective
References

HUMAN BRAIN IMAGING STUDIES OF EMOTIONAL MEMORY: UNCOVERING INFLUENCES OF SEX AND HEMISPHERE, L. Cahill
Abstract
Introduction
The Amygdala— Built to Modulate
Human Subject Studies Relating Amygdala Activity to Emotional Memory
An Aside on Sex Differences in the Brain
Sex-Related Influences on the Amygdala Relation to Memory for Emotional Events
Sex Difference in Human Amygdala Functional Connectivity at Rest
Potential Relationship of the Sex-Related Amygdala Hemispheric Specialization to Hemispheric Global/Local Processing Bias
Some Implications for Disease States
Summary

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