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Low-molecular-weight chemicals, which are produced and secreted by neurons and a limited range of non-neural cells, are the major vehicles for communication of nerve cells with each other and with neurally controlled non-neural cells. Research over the past several decades has identified a wide spectrum of such neuromediators, delineated their structures, elucidated pathways of biosynthesis and biodegradation, and determined the processes of development and function that they influence physiologically. These results have revealed the nature of cellular receptors that recognize neuromediators selectively and the pathways that transduce signals from neuromediator-occupied receptors to the target cells. For most neuromediators and their receptors, pharmacological agonists and antagonists of high specificity also have been discovered or designed and synthesized.
In the past decade, a broad range of animal models has been developed in which modern genetic methods have allowed overexpression and deletion of neuromediators and/or of their receptors for sophisticated analyses of their roles in normal physiology and some diseases. The availability of pharmacological agents directed to neuromediators or their receptors also has stimulated early studies of the involvement of these systems in some human diseases. At the same time as these revolutionary advances, most established conference series dedicated to this subject area have become narrower and have focused more sharply on individual neuromediators to permit deeper and more penetrating presentations and discussions.
At this time, it seems appropriate to organize a volume that examines the conceptual, methodological, and practical progress in the field from broader biological and pathophysiological perspectives. This volume describes a new international conference in the integrated field of neuromediators that has no predecessors and is set in a biomedical context of possible diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
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Part I: New Biology of Cellular Receptors for Neuromediators: Regulation of Expression, Signal Transduction, and Mechanisms of Cross-talk:.
1. G Protein-coupled Receptor Structures, Molecular Associations, and Modes of Regulation: Laurence J. Miller.
2. Discovery of PACAP-regulated Genes through Microarray Analyses in Cell Culture and in Vivo: Lee E. Eiden, Babru Samal, Matthew J. Gerdin, Tomris Mustafa, and Nikolas Stroth.
3. Monitoring the State of Cholecystokinin Receptor Oligomerization after Ligand Binding Using Decay of Time-resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy: Kaleeckal G. Harikumar and Laurence J. Miller.
4. Role of Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide in the Pancreatic Endocrine System: Bo Ahrén.
5. PTHrP Regulates Gli Transcriptional Activation: Lessons Learned from Bone Development and Cartilage Neoplasia: Benjamin A. Alman and Jay S. Wunder.
6. Molecular Mechanisms of TRPV4-Mediated (neural) Signaling: Wolfgang Liedtke.
7. The Sall2 Transcription Is a Novel p75NTR Binding Protein That Promotes the Development and Function of Neurons: Roxana Pincheira and David B. Donner.
Part II: Neuromediator Participation in Host Defense, Immunity, and Inflammation:.
8. Diverse Mechanisms and Consequences of Immunoadoption of Neuromediator Systems: Edward J. Goetzl, Robert C. Chan, Mahesh Yadav.
9. Substance P in Stress and Anxiety: NK1 Receptor Antagonism Interacts with Key Brain Areas of the Stress Circuitry: Karl Ebner, Patrik Muigg, Georg Singewald, Nicolas Singewald.
10. Mast Cells Stimulate Activated T Cells: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis: Theoharis C. Theoharides, Duraisamy Kempuraj, Taxiarchis Kourelis Akrivi Manola.
11. VIP-mediated Th17 Differentiation: An Expanding Spectrum of VIP Effects in Immunity and Autoimmunity: Mahesh Yadav and Edward J. Goetzl.
12. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Expression and Function Macrophages and Brain- Role in HIV Neuropathogenesis – (Perspective): Steven D. Douglas, Jian-Ping Lai, Florin Tuluc, Lynnae Schwartz, and Laurie E. Kilpatrick.
Part III: Neuromediators in Diseases:.
13. Glutamate and Neurotrophic Factors in Neuronal Plasticity and Disease: Mark P. Mattson.
14. Diversity of Neuropathogenic Mechanisms and Implications of Neuromediation of Diseases: Susan E Leeman.
15. Inhibitory Effects of a Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonist on Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesion Formation: Karen L. Reed, Arthur F. Stucchi, Susan E. Leeman, and James M. Becker.
16. Neuropeptides, Mesenteric Fat, and Intestinal Inflammation: Iordanes Karagiannides and Charalabos Pothoulakis.
17. Gastrin-Releasing Peptide, Immune Responses, and Lung Disease: Simone Degan, Giselle Y. Lopez, and Mary E. Sunday.
18. The VIP Gene Is a Key Modulator of Pulmonary Vascular Remodeling and Inflammation: Sami I. Said.
Part IV: Neuromediators in Prenatal Development and Stress:.
19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Vulnerability to Stress and Anxiety-like Disorders in Adulthood: Kim G.C. Hellemans, Pamela Verma, Esther Yoon, Wayne Yu, and Joanne Weinberg.
20. Role of Various Neurotransmitters in Mediating the Long-term Endocrine Consequences of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Soon Lee, Irene Choi, Sang Kang and Catherine Rivier.
21. Perinatal Maternal Fat Intake Affects Metabolism and Hippocampal Function in the Offspring: A Potential Role for Leptin: Claire-Dominique Walker, Lindsay Naef, Esterina d’Asti, Hong Long, Zhifang Xu, Alain Moreau, and Bouziane Azeddine.
Part V: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Strategies for Neuromediators in Diseases:.
22. Informed Development of Drugs Acting at Family B G Protein-coupled Receptors: Laurence J. Miller.
23. Experimental Therapeutic Strategies for Severe Sepsis: Mediators and Mechanisms: William R. Parrish, Margot Gallowitsch-Puerta, Christopher J. Czura, and Kevin J. Tracey.
24. A New Hypothesis: Activation of the Pro-opiomelanocortin Gene with Ketoconazole as a Treatment for Parkinson’s Disease: Alberto Halabe Bucay.
25. Opportunities and Challenges in the Discovery of New Central Nervous System Drugs: James E. Krause and Bertrand L. Chenard.
26. Molecular Imaging to Biomarker Development in Neuroscience: J. James Frost.
27. Studying the Brain Gut Axis with Pharmacological Imaging: Kirsten Tillisch, Zhuo Wang, Lisa Kilpatrick, Daniel P. Holschneider, and Emeran A. Mayer.
Index of Contributors