Neuroimmune Circuits, Drugs of Abuse, and Infectious Diseases / Edition 1

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This volume focuses on the relationship between the nervous and the immune system with regard to the effects of drugs of abuse and infections, including infection caused by the immunodeficiency virus which causes AIDS, the number one health problem worldwide. Chapters focus on the brain-immune axis, detailing the effects of drugs of abuse. It is well known that recreational drugs of abuse such as morphine, cocaine, and marijuana, as well as other drugs, including the legal drugs alcohol and nicotine, are used by large numbers of individuals. Serious concerns have been raised about the consequences of using such drugs, especially in relation to their effects on normal physiological responses, including immune mechanisms. It is now widely recognized not only that many drugs of abuse have serious consequences on normal parameters of neurologic and neuroendocrine systems in general but also that effects on those systems, in turn, may affect indirectly immunity and also directly affect immune systems. Much data has now been accumulated showing that drugs of abuse markedly alter the immune response in human populations as well as in experimental animals, both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, studies on microbial infections have shown that many drugs of abuse are associated with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, especially opportunistic intracellular microorganisms, including viruses such as HIV which causes AIDS. The mechanisms whereby drugs of abuse increase the likelihood of infections by opportunistic microorganisms in humans as well as in experimental animals are delineated. This volume will further the understanding of the impact of drugs of abuse on the brain-immune axis and its relationship to immunomodulation and infection, especially that caused by the AIDS virus.

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Table of Contents

Preface: Introduction and Perspectives; H. Friedman, T.W. Klein, J. Madden. 1. Targeting the Brain's Immune System: A Psychopharmacological Approach to Central Nervous System Infection; P.K. Peterson, et al. 2. Model Systems for Assessing Cognitive Function: Implications for HIV-1 Infection and Drugs of Abuse; W.E. Zink, et al. 3. Direct and Indirect Mechanisms of HIV-1 Neuropathogenesis in the Human Central Nervous System; J. Hou, E.O. Major. 4. Chemokine Receptors on Brain Endothelia - Keys to HIV-1 Infection and Drugs of Abuse? M. Fiala, et al. 5. Neurotropic Factor Regulation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication in Human Blood Derived Macrophages Through Modulation of Coreceptor Expression; S.M. Harrold, et al. 6. Direct vs. Indirect Modulation of Complex in vitro Human Retroviral Infections by Morphine; S.B. Nyland, et al. 7. Genetic Factors Involved in Central Nervous System/Immune Interactions; R.L. Wilder, et al. 8. Interactions of Opioid Receptors, Chemokines and Chemokine Receptors; I. Szabo, et al. 9. Crosstalk between Chemokine and Opioid Receptors Results in Down-modulation of Cell Migration; I. Szabo, T.J. Rogers. 10. Morphine Upregulates Kappa-Opioid Receptors of Human Lymphocytes; S. Suzuki, et al. 11. Effects of Morphine on T-Cell Recirculation in Rhesus Monkeys; R.M. Donahoe, et al. 12. Mitogen Induced Activation of Mouse T Cells Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Expression; J.M. Bidlack, M.K. Abraham. 13. Self Enhancement of Phagocytosis by Murine Resident Peritoneal Macrophages and its Relationship to Morphine Effects on the Process; W.E. Pagan, et al. 14. Role of Mu-Opioid Receptor in Immune Function; S. Roy, et al. 15. Opiates Promote T Cell Apoptosis Through JNK and Caspase Pathway; P. Singhal, et al. 16. Role of Beta-Endorphin in the Modulation of Immune Responses: Perspectives in Autoimmune Diseases; P. Sacerdote, et al. 17. Modulation of FAS/FASL in a Murine Retroviral Infection by AZT and Methionine Enkephalin; R. Bowden, et al. 18. Acute Effects of Heroin on the Cellularity of the Spleen and the Apoptosis of Splenic Leukocytes; K. Fecho, D.T. Lysle. 19. Alteration of Early T Cell Development by Opioid and Superantigen Stimulation; L.E. McCarthy, T.J. Rogers. 20. Effect of Opioids on Oral Salmonella Infection and Immune Function; T.K. Eisenstein, et al. 21. Altered T-Cell Responsiveness in Morphine 'Tolerant' Rats: Evidence for a Potential Role of the Paraventricular Nucleus of the Hypothalamus; R.D. Mellon, et al. 22. Actions of Endotoxin and Morphine; S. Chang, et al. 23. Pharmaconeuroimmunology in the Intestinal Tract: Opioid and Cannabinoid Receptors, Enteric Neurons and Mucosal Defense; D.R. Brown, et al. 24. Cannabinoid-Mediated Inhibition of Inducible Nitric Oxide Production by Rat Microglial Cells: Evidence for CB1 Receptor Participation; G.A. Cabral, et al. 25. Modulation of CB1 mRNA Upon Activation of Murine Splenocytes; S.N. Noe, et al. 26. Downregulation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Messenger RNA Expression During in vitro Stimulation of Murine Splenocytes with Lipopolysaccharide; Sumi Fong Lee, et al. 27. CB1 and CB2 Receptor mRNA Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) from Various Donor Types; Liang Nong, et al. 28. Effect of Cocaine on Chemokine and CCR-5 Gene Expression by Mononuclear Cells from Normal Donors and HIV-1 Infected Patients; M.P.N. Nair, et al. 29. Intravenous Cocaine Abuse: A Rodent Model for Potential Interactions with HIV Proteins; A.K. Bansal, et al. 30. Substance P Receptor Mediated Macrophage Responses; I. Marriott, K.L. Bost. 31. Lymphocyte Modulation by Seven Transmembrane Receptors: A Brief Review of Session 1; B.M. Sharp. 32. NEUROAIDS Retroviral Pathology and Drugs of Abuse: Session Summary; P.K. Peterson, et al. 33. The Effects of Drugs and Neuropeptides on Immunomodulation and Opportunistic Infection: Summary of Symposium 2; T.K. Eisenstein, et al.

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