Neurophysiological Basis of Movement - 2nd Edition / Edition 2

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Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, has been thoroughly updated and expanded, making it more comprehensive and accessible to students. With eight new chapters and 130 pages of fresh material, this second edition covers a wide range of topics, including movement disorders and current theories of motor control and coordination. By emphasizing the neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to the processes of generating voluntary movements, the text targets advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students who want to better understand how the brain generates control signals and how the peripheral apparatus executes them.

The new chapters in Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, focus on motor control and motor synergies, prehension, changes in movement with aging, typical and atypical development, neuromuscular peripheral disorders, and disorders of the spinal cord, basal ganglia, cerebellum, and cortex. The text is designed so that instructors can cover all chapters or select the topics most relevant to their specific courses. In addition, this edition of Neurophysiological Basis of Movement offers these features:

-A new reference section with more than 700 references, providing supplemental resources that encourage students to read and understand research literature on the neurophysiology of movements

-A more reader-friendly presentation of material with an added color, improved illustrations, and introductions to the chapters that provide better transitions

-A new PowerPoint presentation package that includes 8 to 15 slides of art and text for every chapter, helping instructors prepare for lectures and allowing students to better understand the material
Author Mark Latash presents the material using six levels, or worlds, of analysis of the neurophysiology of movements. These worlds are cells, connections, structures, behaviors (control and coordination), evolving and changing behaviors, and motor disorders. The first three levels are the basis for the analysis of a variety of actions, such as standing, locomotion, eye movements, and reaching. Further, changes in movement with fatigue, development, aging, disorder, and rehabilitation are discussed.

The text also presents six labs to help students perform experiments to address typical “template” research problems, and one-minute drills and self-test questions encourage students to think independently and to test their knowledge as they read. The answers to the self-test questions require students to think critically and explain why they selected a particular answer, as the problems have several answers with varying degrees of correctness.

Neurophysiological Basis of Movement, Second Edition, promotes independent thinking and enhances knowledge of basic facts about the design of cells, muscles, neuronal structures, and the whole body for better understanding of typical and atypical movement production related to the nervous system and the functioning brain.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Jason B Hand, MS (University of Oregon)
Description: This is a comprehensive and carefully organized book that provides depth and breadth for entry-level students and individuals new to the field of human movement. Ten years after the first edition, this update includes helpful figures, questions, and summaries for every chapter.
Purpose: Through thought-provoking questions and scenarios, the author helps readers understand the numerous structure types and functions of the human body in a research-oriented manner that is appropriate for the demands of today's medical community.
Audience: This is an excellent book for undergraduate and graduate students, as well as professionals looking to better understand the intricacies of human movement.
Features: The author has succeeded in disseminating a great deal of information by systematically introducing material of separate "worlds." A simplistic examination of cellular components helps to provide a framework for exploring how central and peripheral systems function in synergy. Creative examples aid in the visualization of how neurophysiology plays a role in everyday tasks, illnesses, and rehabilitation. One limitation of this book, however, is the lack of in-text citation.
Assessment: This is a valuable resource for students and entry-level professionals in fields related to motor control. The author has diligently and successfully critiqued his previous edition to produce a book that can help students learn and teachers facilitate in a critical thinking environment.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780736063678
  • Publisher: Human Kinetics Publishers
  • Publication date: 12/13/2007
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 440
  • Sales rank: 1,158,487
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

Mark L. Latash, PhD, is a professor in the department of kinesiology at Penn State University in University Park, Pennsylvania. Dr. Latash has authored two other books, edited or coedited six other books, and published more than 200 peer-reviewed articles. He also initiated, and has edited for more than 10 years, the scientific journal Motor Control. Latash organized a series of conferences called Progress in Motor Control and has served as president for the International Society of Motor Control. He is a member of the Society for Neuroscience and the American Society of Biomechanics, and he is a fellow of the American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE).

Dr. Latash was appointed a distinguished professor of kinesiology in 2005 and has received numerous other awards, including some from Penn State, the University of Otago in New Zealand, and AAKPE. In his leisure time, he enjoys hiking, mushroom hunting, reading, and playing soccer.

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Table of Contents

World I. Cells

Chapter 1. Membranes, Particles, and Potentials
1.1. Complex System Approach
1.2. The Biological Membrane
1.3. Movement in a Solution
1.4. Concentration of Water: Osmosis
1.5. Movement of Ions: The Nernst Equation

Chapter 2. Action Potential
2.1. Creation of Membrane Potential
2.2. Basic Features of Action Potential
2.3. Mechanism of Generation of Action Potential

Chapter 3. Information Conduction and Transmission
3.1. Conduction of Action Potential
3.2. Myelinated Fibers
3.3. The Structure of Neuron
3.4. Information Coding in the Nervous System
3.5. Synaptic Transmission
3.6. Neurotransmitters
3.7. Temporal and Spatial Summation

Chapter 4. Skeletal Muscle
4.1. Skeletal muscle: Structure
4.2. Myofilaments
4.3. Neuromuscular Synapse
4.4. Mechanism of Contraction
4.5. Types of Muscle Contraction
4.6. Elements of Mechanics
4.7. Force–Length and Force–Velocity Relations
4.8. External Regimes of Muscle Contraction

Chapter 5. Receptors
5.1. General Classification and Properties of Receptors
5.2. Muscle Spindles
5.3. The Gamma System
5.4. Golgi Tendon Organs
5.5. Other Muscle Receptors
5.6. Articular Receptors
5.7. Cutaneous Receptors
5.8. Where Does the Information Go?

Chapter 6. Motor Units and Electromyography
6.1. The Notion of Motor Unit
6.2. Fast and Slow Motor Units
6.3. The Henneman Principle (the Size Principle)
6.4. Functional Role of Motor Units
6.5. Electromyography
6.6. Filtering, Rectification, and Integration

World I Problems

World II. Connections

Chapter 7. Excitation and Inhibition Within the Spinal Cord
7.1. The Spinal Cord
7.2. Excitation Within the Central Nervous System
7.3. Postsynaptic Inhibition
7.4. Renshaw Cells
7.5. Ia-Interneurons
7.6. Presynaptic Inhibition
7.7. Persistent Inward Current

Chapter 8. Monosynaptic Reflexes
8.1. Reflexes
8.2. Reflex Arc
8.3. H- and T-Reflexes and M-Response
8.4. Effects of Voluntary Muscle Activation on Monosynaptic Reflexes
8.5. F-Wave

Chapter 9. Oligosynaptic and Polysynaptic Reflexes
9.1. Oligosynaptic Reflexes
9.2. Polysynaptic Reflexes
9.3. Flexor Reflex
9.4. Tonic Stretch Reflex
9.5. Tonic Vibration Reflex
9.6. Interaction Among Reflex Pathways
9.7. Interjoint and Interlimb Reflexes

Chapter 10. Voluntary Control of a Single Muscle
10.1. Feedforward and Feedback Control
10.2. Servo Control
10.3. The Servo-Hypothesis
10.4. Alpha-Gamma Coactivation
10.5. Voluntary Activation of Muscles
10.6. Equilibrium-Point Control

Chapter 11. Patterns of Single-Joint Movements
11.1. Isotonic Movements and Isometric Contractions
11.2. Performance and Task Parameters
11.3. EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isotonic Movements
11.4. EMG Patterns During Single-Joint Isometric Contractions
11.5. The Dual-Strategy Hypothesis

Chapter 12. Preprogrammed Reactions
12.1. Preprogrammed Reactions
12.2. Preprogrammed Reaction Is not a Stretch Reflex
12.3. In Search of the Afferent Source of Preprogrammed Reactions
12.4. Preprogrammed Reactions During Movement Perturbations
12.5. Basic Features of Preprogrammed Reactions
12.6. Preprogrammed Corrections of Vertical Posture
12.7. Corrective Stumbling Reaction

World II Problems

World III. Structures

Chapter 13. Elements of the Brain Anatomy
13.1. Single-Neuron Recording
13.2. Electroencephalography
13.3. Evoked Potentials
13.4. Radiography
13.5. Computerized Tomography
13.6. Positron Emission Tomography
13.7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.8. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
13.9. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
13.10. Neuroanatomical Tracing
13.11. Major Brain Structures

Chapter 14. Cerebral Cortex
14.1. Cerebral Hemispheres
14.2. Structure of the Cerebral Cortex
14.3. Primary Motor and Premotor Areas
14.4. Inputs to Motor Cortex
14.5. Outputs of Motor Cortex
14.6. Preparation for a Voluntary Movement
14.7. Neuronal Population Vectors
14.8. What Variables May Be Encoded in the Cortical Neuronal Activity?

Chapter 15. The Cerebellum
15.1. Anatomy of the Cerebellum
15.2. Cerebellar Inputs
15.3. Cerebellar Outputs
15.4. Relation of Cerebellar Activity to Voluntary Movement
15.5. Neuronal Population Vectors
15.6. The Effects of Cerebellar Lesions

Chapter 16. The Basal Ganglia
16.1. Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia
16.2. Inputs and Outputs of the Basal Ganglia
16.3. Motor Circuits Involving the Basal Ganglia
16.4. Activity of Basal Ganglia During Movements
16.5. Effects of Lesions of the Basal Ganglia

Chapter 17. Ascending and Descending Pathways
17.1. Basic Properties of Neural Pathways
17.2. Afferent Input to the Spinal Cord
17.3. Dorsal Column Pathway
17.4. Spinocervical Pathway
17.5. Spinothalamic Tract
17.6. Spinocerebellar Tracts
17.7. Spinoreticular Tract
17.8. Pyramidal Tract
17.9. Rubrospinal Tract
17.10. Vestibulospinal Tracts
17.11. Reticulospinal Tracts and Other Descending Tracts
17.12. Propriospinal Tracts
17.13. Cranial Nerves

Chapter 18. Memory
18.1. Descartes' Dualism and Cellular Mechanisms of Memory
18.2. Muscle Memory
18.3. Types of Memory and Learning
18.4. Habituation of Reflexes: An Example of Nonassociative Learning
18.5. Conditioned Reflexes: An Example of Associative Learning
18.6. Motor Learning
18.7. Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
18.8. Neuronal and Synaptic Mechanisms of Memory
18.9. Retrieval of Memory
18.10. Genetic Code as an Example of Memory
18.11. Plasticity in the Brain
18.12. Korsakoff Syndrome
18.13. Possible Role of Hippocampus and Cerebellum in Memory
18.14. Spinal Memory

World III Problems

World IV. Behaviors: Control and Coordination

Chapter 19. General Issues of Motor Control
19.1. Design of the Human Body: A Source of Problems
19.2 Force Control
19.3. Engrams and the Generalized Motor Program
19.4. Internal Models
19.5. The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: The Main Ideas
19.6. The Equilibrium-Point Hypothesis: More Subtle Points
19.7. Dynamic Systems Approach

Chapter 20. Motor Synergies
20.1. Motor Redundancy Problem
20.2. Optimization Approaches
20.3. Principle of Abundance
20.4. Structural Units and Synergies
20.5. Studies of Motor Synergies: Principal Component Analysis
20.6. Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis

Chapter 21. Postural Control
21.1. Vertical Posture
21.2. Postural Sway
21.3. Vestibular System
21.4. The Role of Vision in Postural Control
21.5. The Role of Proprioception in Postural Control
21.6. Anticipatory Postural Adjustments
21.7. Corrective Postural Reactions
21.8. Postural Synergies

Chapter 22. Locomotion
22.1. Two Approaches to Locomotion
22.2. Central Pattern Generator
22.3. Locomotor Centers
22.4. Spinal Locomotion
22.5. Spinal Control of Locomotion in Humans
22.6. Gait Patterns
22.7. Dynamic Pattern Generation
22.8. Step Initiation
22.9. Corrective Stumbling Reaction

Chapter 23. Multijoint Movement
23.1. General Features of Targeted Reaching Movements
23.2. Major Problems of Controlling Natural Reaching Movements
23.3. Interjoint Reflexes
23.4. Spinal Mechanisms of Multijoint Coordination
23.5. Supraspinal Mechanisms
23.6. The Equilibrium-Trajectory Hypothesis
23.7. What Is Controlled During Multijoint Movements?

Chapter 24. Prehension
24.1. Hand Joints and Muscles
24.2. Cortical Representations of the Hand
24.3. Indices of Finger Interaction
24.4. Multifinger Synergies in Pressing Tasks
24.5. Grasping
24.6. Prehension Synergies and the Principle of Superposition

Chapter 25. Eye Movement and Vision
25.1. The Eye
25.2. Photoreceptors
25.3. Retina and Optic Nerve
25.4. Oculomotor Control
25.5. Central Mechanisms of Visual Perception
25.6. The Role of Visual Information in Voluntary Movements

Chapter 26. Kinesthesia
26.1. Which Physical Variables Are Sensed by Proprioceptors?
26.2. Peripheral Sources of Kinesthetic Information
26.3. The Role of the Motor Command in Kinesthesia
26.4. Where Does the Information Go?
26.5. Kinesthetic Illusions
26.6. Pain

World IV Problems

World V. Evolving and Changing Behaviors

Chapter 27. Fatigue
27.1. Fatigue and Its Contributors
27.2. Muscular Mechanisms of Fatigue
27.3. Spinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
27.4. Supraspinal Mechanisms of Fatigue
27.5. Adaptive Changes During Fatigue
27.6. Abnormal Fatigue

Chapter 28. Effects of Aging
28.1. General Features of Movements in Elderly
28.2. Changes in Muscles and Motor units With Age
28.3. Muscle Reflexes in Elderly
28.4. Changes in the Sensory Function
28.5. Muscle Activation Patterns During Fast Movements
28.6. Changes in Posture and Gait with Age
28.7. Hand Function in Elderly
28.8. Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns
28.9. Effects of Training

Chapter 29. Typical and Atypical Development
29.1. Humans at Birth
29.2. Motor Milestones During Typical Development
29.3. Exploration and Emergent Motor Patterns
29.4. Down Syndrome
29.5. Effects of Practice in Down Syndrome
29.6. Autism
29.7. Development Coordination Disorder

World VI. Motor Disorders

Chapter 30. Peripheral Muscular and Neurological Disorders
30.1. Myopathies and Neuropathies
30.2. Muscular Dystrophies
30.3. Continuous Muscle Fiber Activity Syndromes
30.4. Myasthenia Gravis
30.5 Peripheral Neuropathies
30.6. Motor Disorders Associated With Diabetes
30.7 Radiculopathies
30.8. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Chapter 31. Spinal Cord Injury and Spasticity
31.1. Consequence of Spinal Cord Injury
31.2. Signs and Symptoms of Spasticity
31.3. Possible Mechanisms of Spasticity
31.4. Treatment of Spasticity
31.5. Multiple Sclerosis

Chapter 32. Disorders Involving the Basal Ganglia
32.1. Clinical Features of Parkinson's Disease
32.2. Voluntary Movements in Parkinson's Disease
32.3. Changes in Postural Control and Locomotion
32.4. Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
32.5. Huntington's Chorea
32.6. Hemiballismus
32.7. Dystonia
32.8. Tardive Diskinesia

Chapter 33. Cerebellar Disorders
33.1. Consequences of Cerebellar Injuries in Animals
33.2. Causes of Cerebellar Disorders
33.3. Abnormalities of Stance and Gait
33.4. Voluntary Movements in Cerebellar Disorders
33.5. Cerebellar Tremor
33.6. Ataxias
33.7. Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome

Chapter 34. Cortical Disorders
34.1. Consequences of Lesions of Cortical Lobes
34.2. Stroke
34.3. Myoclonus
34.4. Essential Tremor
34.5. Tics
34.6. Tourette's Syndrome
34.7. Cerebral Palsy
34.8. Williams Syndrome
34.9. Wilson's Disease

Chapter 35. Implications for Motor Rehabilitation
35.1. Do “Normal Movements” Exist?
35.2. Back to the Problem of Structural Units and Synergies
35.3. Changes in CNS Priorities
35.4. The Role of CNS Plasticity
35.5. Adaptive Changes in Motor Patterns of Atypical Individuals
35.6. Amputation
35.7. Practical Considerations

Worlds V and VI Problems

Laboratory 1
Laboratory 2
Laboratory 3
Laboratory 4
Laboratory 5
Laboratory 6

Subject index

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