Neuropsychology of HIV Infection

Overview


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) commonly enters the central nervous system, disturbs brain function, and ultimately results in serious brain damage. The most serious manifestation of this infection of the brain is HIV-associated dementia, which includes severe memory loss, slowness in thinking, disorientation, and social incapacity. Most persons who are HIV infected do not develop severe dementia; however, perhaps 50% of those with AIDS and a smaller proportion of HIV-infected carriers suffer from more ...
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Overview


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) commonly enters the central nervous system, disturbs brain function, and ultimately results in serious brain damage. The most serious manifestation of this infection of the brain is HIV-associated dementia, which includes severe memory loss, slowness in thinking, disorientation, and social incapacity. Most persons who are HIV infected do not develop severe dementia; however, perhaps 50% of those with AIDS and a smaller proportion of HIV-infected carriers suffer from more subtle brain disorders that can be revealed by proper neuropsychological testing. This book summarizes the current state of our knowledge about the neurocognitive disorders associated with HIV-1 infection. The book brings together contributions from leading authorities on the prevalence, qualitative features, natural course, and effects of neuropsychological impairments in persons with HIV infection. Neuropsychological data are related to findings from studies of brain imaging, neuropathology, and the effects of antiretroviral treatments.

This book contains black-and-white illustrations.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Eileen Martin, PhD (University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine)
Description: This new book reviews current research findings on the neuropsychological effects of HIV-1 infection. The book presents current information on neurological syndromes associated with HIV-l infection and their effects on cognition; describes methods for brief and extended neuropsychological evaluation of HIV-related neurobehavioral disorders; and addresses issues of neuropsychological research germane to differing HIV-infected subject populations.
Purpose: The authors intend to acquaint the reader with the types and prevalence of neurocognitive disorders observed at different stages of disease, from asymptomatic infection to AIDS.
Audience: This timely volume is the first of its kind and generally meets its objective. The book is targeted for neuropsychologists, neurologists, and psychiatrists, but infectious disease specialists and other health care professionals working with HIV-positive patients will find it worthwhile reading. The authors and contributors are well-known contributors to the HIV-l neuropsychological and neurological literature.
Features: The book contains many excellent illustrations, figures, and photographs. In particular, the neuroimaging examples presented are outstanding, although limited to structural studies. The references are extensive and as up-to-date as possible in this fast-moving topic area.
Assessment: This is an excellent review of current neuropsychological studies in this new and often controversial area. Both standard clinical and more experimental cognitive methods of assessment are reviewed. In addition, extensive review chapters on neurology, neuropathology, immunology, and virology are included, providing the necessary background for readers unfamiliar with neurological manifestations of HIV-l. The book focuses primarily on neuropsychological studies of homosexual males, with single chapters on intravenous drug users and children; more extensive treatment of different high-risk groups would have been welcome. However, this volume represents a welcome addition to the AIDS literature and is recommended reading both for researchers and clinicians.
Eileen Martin
This new book reviews current research findings on the neuropsychological effects of HIV-1 infection. The book presents current information on neurological syndromes associated with HIV-l infection and their effects on cognition; describes methods for brief and extended neuropsychological evaluation of HIV-related neurobehavioral disorders; and addresses issues of neuropsychological research germane to differing HIV-infected subject populations. "The authors intend to acquaint the reader with the types and prevalence of neurocognitive disorders observed at different stages of disease, from asymptomatic infection to AIDS. "This timely volume is the first of its kind and generally meets its objective. The book is targeted for neuropsychologists, neurologists, and psychiatrists, but infectious disease specialists and other health care professionals working with HIV-positive patients will find it worthwhile reading. The authors and contributors are well-known contributors to the HIV-l neuropsychological and neurological literature. "The book contains many excellent illustrations, figures, and photographs. In particular, the neuroimaging examples presented are outstanding, although limited to structural studies. The references are extensive and as up-to-date as possible in this fast-moving topic area. "This is an excellent review of current neuropsychological studies in this new and often controversial area. Both standard clinical and more experimental cognitive methods of assessment are reviewed. In addition, extensive review chapters on neurology, neuropathology, immunology, and virology are included, providing the necessary background for readers unfamiliar with neurological manifestationsof HIV-l. The book focuses primarily on neuropsychological studies of homosexual males, with single chapters on intravenous drug users and children; more extensive treatment of different high-risk groups would have been welcome. However, this volume represents a welcome addition to the AIDS literature and is recommended reading both for researchers and clinicians.

4 Stars! from Doody
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780195072259
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
  • Publication date: 4/28/1994
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 402
  • Product dimensions: 6.44 (w) x 9.78 (h) x 1.13 (d)

Table of Contents

Contributors
Introduction: Neurocognitive Disorders Associated with HIV-1 Infection 3
I Background: Medical, Immunological, and Neurological Aspects of HIV 21
1 Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection 23
2 Immunopathogenesis of HIV Infections: CNS-Immune Interactions 41
3 Neurological and Neuropathological Manifestations of HIV Infection 56
4 Structural Brain Imaging of HIV Infection 108
II Neuropsychological Aspects of HIV: Issues, Approaches, and Findings 131
5 The Dementias and AIDS 133
6 Methodological and Conceptual Issues in the Study of Cognitive Change in HIV Infection 146
7 Computerized Testing to Assess Cognition in HIV-Positive Individuals 161
8 Development of a Screening Battery for HIV-Related Cognitive Impairment: The MACS Experience 176
9 The Utility of Clinical Ratings for Detecting Cognitive Change in HIV Infection 188
10 Everyday Functioning and Its Relationship to Cognitive Impairment in HIV Disease 207
11 Neuropsychological Assessment of Seropositive Intravenous Drug Users 220
12 HIV, Cognition, and the Basal Ganglia 234
13 Neuroimaging in HIV Infection: Neuropsychological and Pathological Correlation 260
14 Neuropsychological Response to Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV Infection 276
15 The Use of Methylphenidate in HIV Patients: A Clinical Perspective 295
16 Developmental Deficits and Behavioral Change in Pediatric AIDS 310
17 Motor and Cognitive Functioning in Nonhuman Primates Infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus 339
Epilogue: Neuropsychological Investigations: The Challenge of HIV 359
Index 367
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