The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements

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The Definitive History of the Spirit-Filled Church Encyclopedic coverage of: Activities of the Spirit over 2,000 years of church history in 60 countries and regions Outpourings at Topeka, Mukti Mission (India), Azusa Street, Duquesne University, and many other 20th-century locations Current movements among today’s 500 million-plus Pentecostal and charismatic Christians worldwide The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements sets modern, Spirit-filled Christianity in a context that spans two millennia and the entire Christian world. Like no other resource, this volume reveals in detail the full, sweeping legacy of Spirit-empowered movements that have touched hearts and lives both in modern America and across the centuries and continents: in medieval Europe, Finland in the 1700s, South India in the 1800s, Azusa Street at the turn of the 20th century—and much more, including ongoing moves of the Holy Spirit throughout the world today. One thousand entries provide the most extensive information available on Pentecostal, charismatic, and neocharismatic movements. The diverse topics covered include, as a small sample, glossolalia, black and Hispanic Pentecostalism, prophecy, the role of women, faith healing, music, sociology, missions, church growth, and different historic and contemporary revivals. With its unique international and historical perspective, this completely revised and expanded second edition of the acclaimed Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements offers features that no other reference of its kind approaches. Its extraordinary scope and detailed, up-to-date coverage make this the definitive resource on Pentecostal and charismatic denominations and movements both in North America and worldwide. Includes: Exhaustive coverage of Pentecostal and charismatic movements in 60 countries and regions—individual histories, cultural and theological aspects, and key figures and institutions. Statistical section with a wealth of current information on the growth of classical Pentecostalism as well as charismatic and neocharismatic movements. 1,000 articles. Over 500 photos and illustrations, maps, and timeline. Cross references, bibliographies, and indexes to people, places, and topics.

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Editorial Reviews

Imposing and vast, this reference work contains approximately 1,000 entries on Pentecostal, charismatic, and neocharismatic movements, arising over the last 20 centuries and appearing in all corners of the Christian world. Entries provide brief histories of the various movements, describe their cultural and theological aspects, and explain the contributions of major figures and institutions. General topics, such as Black and Hispanic Pentecostalism, the role of prophesy, the status of women, faith healing, missions, music, and revivals are also discussed. A timeline and about 500 b&w photographs and illustrations support the text. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780310224815
  • Publisher: Zondervan
  • Publication date: 5/28/2002
  • Edition description: REVISED & EXPANDED
  • Pages: 1328
  • Sales rank: 586,739
  • Product dimensions: 7.38 (w) x 9.25 (h) x 2.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Dr. Stanley M. Burgess (Ph D, University of Missouri, Columbia) is a professor of religious studies at Southwest Missouri State University, and a specialist in the history of Christian thought. He has been published widely in the history of pneumatology and in Pentecostal/charismatic studies.

Eduard M. van der Maas (Th M, Dallas Theological Seminary) was formerly an editor of textbooks and reference books at Zondervan.

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The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements

Revised and Expanded Edition


Copyright © 2002 Zondervan
All right reserved.

]ISBN: 0-310-22481-0

Chapter One


ABRAHAM, K. E. (1899-1974). Leader of India Pentecostal Church (IPC). K. E. Abraham was born in Puthenkavu, Kerala, India, on Mar. 1, 1899. His parents were members of the Jacobite (Eastern Orthodox) church. He accepted Jesus Christ as his Savior at the age of seven in a Sunday school class at a Mar Thoma church. (Mar Thoma churches in India were allegedly founded by Mar [Bishop] Thomas, who is believed to have brought Christianity to India and to have been martyred in Madras in the 1st cent. A.D.) Abraham started his career as a school teacher but was called into the ministry. On Apr. 20, 1923, he received the baptism of the Holy Spirit and began a Full Gospel ministry. Several churches were born through his sacrificial work. In 1924 the group of churches Abraham founded took on the name South India Pentecostal Church. For a time Abraham worked in cooperation with the Assemblies of God and Church of God missionaries, but in 1930 he decided to keep his work indigenous.

Although Abraham had been working as a Christian minister since 1923, he was not ordained until Mar. 6, 1930, by the leader of the Ceylon pentecostal movement, Pastor Paul, on a visit to Kerala.

As the number of churches increased all over India, the South India Pentecostal Church was renamed the India Pentecostal Church and was registered with the Indian government under that name in 1935.

Pastor Abraham started the Hebron Bible School in 1930; Zion Trumpet, a monthly magazine in the Malayalam language, in 1936; and a free English language school in 1939. The Bible school and the magazine still function.

Abraham wrote several books, among them The Tabernacle (in Swedish), The Baptism in the Spirit, Seven Paradises, IPC's Early Years, and Babylon the Great (all in Malayalam). His autobiography is one of the best primary sources of pentecostal history in India.

K. E. Abraham passed away on Dec. 9, 1974, and is buried near the IPC headquarters in Kumband, Kerala. His elder son, T. S. Abraham, is currently the general secretary of the IPC. His second son, the late Oommen Abraham, migrated to America, where he pastored several immigrant churches. He is credited with founding the largest Asian pentecostal conference in North America, the Pentecostal Conference of North American Keralites.

Bibliography: K. E. Abraham, A Humble Servant of Jesus Christ: Pastor K. E. Abraham's Autobiography (1965) H. G. Varghese, K. E. Abraham: An Apostle from Modern India (1974).

ABRAMS, MINNIE F. (1859-1912). Missionary to India, early pentecostal missiologist. Born in Wisconsin in 1859 to Franklin and Julia Abrams, Minnie Abrams was reared on a farm near Mapleton, MN. She graduated from Mankato Normal School and became a school teacher. She attended the University of Minnesota an additional two years before heeding the call to the mission field. In 1885 Abrams enrolled in the first class of the Chicago Training School for City, Home, and Foreign Missions, founded by Lucy Rider Meyer, a leader in the emerging Methodist deaconess movement. Abrams, inspired by J. Hudson Taylor, determined to be a "faith missionary," trusting God for her needs. Upon graduation, the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society commissioned her as a Methodist "deaconess-missionary." Abrams set sail for Bombay, India, in 1887, where she helped establish and supervise a boarding school for daughters of church members. Yearning to minister beyond the walls of the mission compound, Abrams studied the Marathi language to be able to engage in direct evangelism. After 10 years of waiting, she received permission to become a full-time evangelist.

In 1898 Abrams joined Pandita Ramabai at the Mukti Mission, a school and home for widows and famine victims. Abrams, influenced by Wesleyan and Higher Life teachings, sought restoration of apostolic power. Her faith was bolstered by reports of revivals in Australia in 1903 and in Wales in 1904-5. By June 1905 news of revivals with unusual spiritual phenomena in Welsh Presbyterian missions in India sparked revival at the Mukti Mission. A dormitory matron who believed she saw flames nearly doused a Mukti resident who had been Spirit baptized with "fire," and the mission became a center for repentance and revival. Abrams authored The Baptism of the Holy Ghost and Fire in the spring of 1906, describing the revival and its theological underpinnings. This first edition encouraged believers to seek the Spirit baptism for purity of life and power to evangelize. Several months into the Indian revival, instances of speaking in tongues were reported at Manmad in June 1906, in Bombay in July 1906, and at the Mukti Mission by Dec. 1906. Abrams taught that the gift of prophecy, not tongues, was for preaching, and that the former was the more valuable gift. In the second edition of her book, published in Dec. 1906, Abrams included the restoration of tongues. She sent a copy of her book to Maria Hoover (Mrs. Willis C. Hoover) in Valparaiso, Chile, a classmate at the Chicago Training School. Reports of the Mukti revival helped fuel the growth of "pentecostal Methodism" in that country.

A. G. Garr, a missionary visiting India in Jan. 1907 who had been to Azusa Street, taught that the uniform "Bible evidence" of Spirit baptism is tongues speech. In a 1908 letter published in Confidence (England), Abrams registered her disagreement with Garr's formula, noting that "while others of us feel that ... all may and should receive this sign, yet we dare not say that no one is Spirit-baptized who has not received this sign." Furthermore, she believed theological diversity on this issue should not bar fellowship: "We see the same gifts and graces and power for service in those who hold different beliefs, and, so far as I know, we are as yet working in love and unity for the spread of this mighty work of the Holy Spirit."

Abrams left India in 1908 for a promotional tour in America. She preached at Carrie Judd Montgomery's Home of Peace in Oakland, CA; Upper Room Mission in Los Angeles; Stone Church in Chicago; the regional camp meeting at Homestead, PA; and the headquarters of the Christian Worker's Union in Massachusetts. Desiring to push further into unreached northern India, Abrams formed the Bezaleel Evangelistic Mission, the only known pentecostal women's missionary society. She recruited six Spirit-baptized single women to accompany her on the return trip. Prior to returning to India, Abrams had a premonition that her missionary work would be ended within two years. Northern India's poor roads, heat, and resistance to the gospel caused Abrams to succumb to blackwater fever. She died on Dec. 2, 1912, two years to the day she had disembarked in Bombay on her return voyage.

Bibliography: M. F. Abrams, "Battles of a Faith Missionary," LRE (Mar. 1910) idem, "Brief History of the Latter Rain Revival of 1910," Word and Work(May 1910) .G. B. McGee, "Baptism of the Holy Ghost and Fire! The Revival Legacy of Minnie F. Abrams of India,” Enrichment (Summer 1998) .idem, "'Latter Rain' Falling in the East: Early 20th-Century Pentecostalism in India and the Debate over Speaking in Tongues," Church History 68 (Sept. 1999) "Minnie F. Abrams, of India," Missionary Review of the World (Feb. 1913). G. B. McGee; D. J. Rodgers

ACTS 29 MINISTRIES Acts 29 Ministries grew out of what was once known as the Episcopal Charismatic Fellowship (ECF). The ministry saw its genesis at a gathering of more than 300 Episcopal clergy at St. Matthew's Cathedral in Dallas, TX, in Feb. 1973. The meeting, the brainchild of Dennis Bennett and Wesley (Ted) Nelson, called together all Episcopal clergy interested in the charismatic renewal and enabled them to share the excitement produced by their common experience of the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Until that conference the extent of the outpouring of the Spirit in the Episcopal Church was largely unknown.

Speakers at the Dallas event included William C. Frey, Robert B. Hall, and George W. Stockhowe Jr. Most of the clergy attending were surprised and elated to find that they were not alone in their Spirit-filled experiences; the conference statement reflected this joy: "We were drawn together by a shared awareness ... and the power and love of the Risen Christ ... and the power and love of the Holy Spirit." It was during this conference that the ECF was established as the unofficial renewal agency of the Episcopal Church; Fr. Nelson was appointed president of the board of directors, and Robert H. Hawn Sr. was made executive secretary.

The Dallas conference also birthed something that would help define the ministry in the years to come-Acts 29 magazine. The conference report was issued in booklet form under the Acts 29 name. For the next decade, Acts 29 was printed as a newsletter. It served as the basic communication device for those who identified themselves as charismatics and members of the ECF nationwide. An effort at regionalized ECF activities languished for lack of clergy involvement.

The ECF was headquartered for three years in Denver, CO, and for two years after that in Winter Park, FL. During this time it launched a series of charismatic conferences around the country and became one of the sponsors for the large ecumenical conference held in Kansas City, MO, in 1977. This conference and others focused mainly on conversion to Jesus Christ, the gifts of the Holy Spirit, and daily life in the Spirit. They also served as an avenue for the clergy and laity who attended them to experience the baptism of the Holy Spirit.

In 1974 Tod W. Ewald was elected president of the executive board. At that time the ECF changed its thrust from leadership to servanthood. The decision was based on a belief that the ECF should not direct but rather assist the Episcopal Church in renewal. This, they believed, would prevent them from being perceived as an elitist organization. During its formative years, however, a commonly accepted vision for the ECF never emerged.

A new direction did emerge in 1977. At this time the ECF executive board ratified the vision that they should be dedicated to fostering parish renewal, believing that if charismatic renewal was ever to be useful to the church, it should be the catalyst for the renewal of individual parishes. This move from personal renewal to corporate renewal bore fruit in subsequent years. Thus, the role began to shift toward a leadership more proactive in the process of renewal; in 1977 Everett L. (Terry) Fullam, who had been present at the Dallas meeting, was elected president of the executive board.

In 1978 two other changes took place. First, ECF's name was changed to Episcopal Renewal Ministries (ERM) to reflect the actual ministry in which the organization was engaged and to avoid the misunderstandings and multiple meanings of the word charismatic. Second, when Fr. Hawn resigned to become part of a religious community, the ERM executive board appointed Charles M. Irish to succeed Hawn as the ministry's national coordinator. He assumed this work while continuing to serve as rector of St. Luke's Episcopal Church in Bath, OH.

In 1979, 14 conferences on parish renewal were conducted throughout the U.S. Scores of similar conferences were conducted in subsequent years. This not only launched ERM into the parish renewal ministry but also established a model that spread throughout a number of denominations both in the U.S. and abroad.

As part of its emerging role, ERM changed from serving a constituency of like-minded people to serving the entire Episcopal Church. Its motto became: "Dedicated to the renewal of people and parishes through Apostolic teaching, biblical preaching, historic worship and charismatic experience."

By 1977 only a handful of Episcopal parishes had been fully affected by the charismatic renewal-these were so-called lighthouse churches. Many Episcopalians, converted and filled with the Holy Spirit, found that they were unwelcome in their own parishes and thus discovered new homes in pentecostal and charismatic churches.

The efforts of ERM toward parish renewal helped change this, and by 1988 more than 400 of the 7,800 parishes in the Episcopal Church were fully involved in renewal. In addition, another 800 were beginning to change. Laity involved in renewal were estimated to number more than 300,000 In 1986 Fr. Irish resigned from St. Luke's Church to become the first full-time national coordinator for ERM. It was at this time and through the encouragement of Truro Episcopal Church in Fairfax, VA, that the ministry moved its national headquarters to Fairfax. By this time ERM's work expanded to include clergy placement, conference planning, networking of clergy, parish renewal, and distribution of books and tapes. ERM also helped sponsor the second North American Congress on the Holy Spirit and World Evangelization, held in New Orleans, LA, in 1987.

In 1990, seeking a more permanent home, ERM purchased the Evergreen Conference Center in Evergreen, CO, which enabled the ministry to host conferences in a retreat environment in the Rocky Mountains. The center also served as the administrative headquarters of the ministry.

Fr. Irish retired as national coordinator in 1992. Charles B. Fulton Jr., then rector of St. Peter's Church in Jacksonville, FL, was chosen to succeed Fr. Irish. One of his first decisions was to relocate the ministry one last time, to Atlanta, GA, since most Episcopalians live east of the Mississippi River. The Atlanta location also placed the ministry in a thriving metropolitan setting with a transportation hub. This would become increasingly important in the coming years as ERM became strategically identified as a conference-based ministry.

In 1994 the ministry called Fred L. Goodwin to the staff as rector of national ministries. His primary function was to oversee the development of new curriculum, as well as to increase the reach of the ministry through its conferences. That year also saw a notable change in Acts 29, as the magazine became a full-color publication.

The year 1997 saw two key changes. First, the ministry changed its name to Acts 29 Ministries. At the same time the board adopted a new vision statement: "A premier Christian resource force for evangelism, discipleship and ministry in the power of the Holy Spirit." Thus, the ministry no longer saw itself simply as a factor for renewal in the Episcopal Church; rather, it took on the challenge to become a force for the work of Jesus Christ through the power of the Spirit even beyond the bounds of the Episcopal community. In 1997 the ministry planned and executed more than 140 events that ministered to more than 20,000 people.


Excerpted from The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements Copyright © 2002 by Zondervan]. Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

List of Articles . . . .vi
Preface xv
Introduction xvii
Editors and Contributors xxv
Abbreviations and Acronyms .xxix
Part I: Global Survey 1
Part II: Global Statistics 283
Part III: Dictionary . . . .303
Timeline .1227
Picture Sources .1235
Indexes . .1237

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