New York State Government: What It Does, How It Works


These and other important questions are explored in New York State Government. This second edition features a penetrating look at the new agenda likely to be addressed by New York's new chief executive in 2007 and beyond. With five new chapters, the book also examines the issue of the upstate economy. New York's complex array of local governments, and the role of debt and public authorities.

In New York State Government, readers learn about institutions - the state Constitution ...

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These and other important questions are explored in New York State Government. This second edition features a penetrating look at the new agenda likely to be addressed by New York's new chief executive in 2007 and beyond. With five new chapters, the book also examines the issue of the upstate economy. New York's complex array of local governments, and the role of debt and public authorities.

In New York State Government, readers learn about institutions - the state Constitution and the three branches of government - and the essentials of current and historic state policies in education, health care, transportation, economic development, the environment, taxes, and spending. The book reveals the dynamics of how elected and appointed officials make decisions, and how policies change in response to motivated leaders and the will of the people.

State governments across America face important new missions, ranging from protecting homeland security to providing health care. New York State, a leader in activist governance for more than two centuries, is a model for analyzing responses to those new challenges.

About the Author:
Robert B. Ward his present position as director of research for The Public Policy Institute of New York State

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
The treatment of each major top such as health, education, public safety, environment, jobs and welfare, and transportation?starts with historical development, critically important given the Empire State’s leading role in the making of America.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780914341895
  • Publisher: Rockefeller, Nelson A. Institute of Government, The
  • Publication date: 5/28/2002
  • Series: Rockefeller Institute Press
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Pages: 474
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.30 (d)

Meet the Author

Robert B. Ward is Director of Research at the Public Policy Institute of New York State.

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Table of Contents

Ch. 1 Introduction: A Day in the Life 1
A Broad Impact 4
Why This Book? 5
A Key Question: What Does State Government Do? 6
Government Responds 8
Ch. 2 The Constitution 11
Changes Over Time 12
The National Context 13
New York's First Constitution 15
The 1821 Constitutional Convention: Historic Changes 16
More Power to the People: The 1846 Convention 17
Development of the Modern Constitution: 1894-1938 18
The Constitution at the Turn of the 21st Century: A Bill Of Rights - Right at the Start 20
Structure of State Government: The Legislature 25
Structure of State Government: The Governor 26
The Comptroller and Attorney General 29
Structure of State Government: The Judiciary 32
What Government Must, May, and Cannot Do 32
Has the Time for Major Change Passed? 37
Ch. 3 The Governor and Other Statewide Elected Leaders 41
A Powerful Executive 42
Who Becomes Governor of New York? 47
What Does the Governor Do? 48
Enacting Laws: Constitutional Powers, Political Influence 49
The Power of the Spotlight 54
The Administrator-in-Chief 55
Limits to Executive Authority 58
The Governor's Staff: The "Second Floor" 59
Governor's Legislation 61
Assessing Governors 62
The Lieutenant Governor 65
Beyond the Governor 68
The Comptroller 69
The $112 Billion Job 72
The Attorney General 75
Ch. 4 The Legislature 79
The Basics 81
From Royal Control to the Will of the People 82
"One Man, One Vote" 85
The Powers of the Legislature 90
Limits on Power 93
How Do The Houses Work? 95
How a Bill Becomes a Law: The Basics 98
The Role of the Leadership 98
The Committee System 102
The Minority: An Important Voice 104
A "Professional" Legislature 108
Conference Committees: What Was Old is New Again 109
Who Are They? Members of the Legislature Today 110
Representative Democracy = Politics 113
Getting Elected 115
Ch. 5 The Judiciary 117
State Courts: The Mainstream of the U.S. Judiciary 119
Structure of the Courts 120
The Constitution on the Courts 121
An "Absurdly Complex" System 124
The Trial Courts 125
Appellate Courts 128
The Court of Appeals 129
Powers of the Courts 131
Checks on the Courts' Powers 133
The Judges 135
The People's Courts: The Juror's Role 137
Ch. 6 Appointed Officials, Administrative Law, and the Bureaucracy 141
Policy, Powers, and People 142
The Power of Appointed Officials 143
Patronage, or Performance? 144
State Agency Powers: Regulation 147
Regulating Business Relationships 148
Public Service Commission 148
Banking and Insurance Regulation 150
Authority Under the Law 154
Regulating the Regulators: SAPA 157
Rulemaking 158
Executive Chamber Oversight of Regulations 161
Adjudication 162
Licensing 163
Beyond SAPA 164
From SAPA to GORR 165
Regulatory Agencies and the Courts 166
Ch. 7 The Workforce 169
Who Are the State's Workers? 169
The Legal Environment: Yesterday and Today 172
The Taylor Law 175
Resolving Disputes Under the Taylor Law 177
Bargaining Units and Unions 178
Repairing a "Calcified" Civil-Service System 179
Employee Relations in the 21st Century 181
Ch. 8 State Government's Biggest Job: The Budget 183
Who Are the Players? 184
What's in the Budget: The Spending Side 185
Priorities Change 186
How to Measure the Budget? 188
The Executive Budget Process 189
How the Process Unfolds 192
The Legislature's Role 194
A Contentious Process 195
A 27-Month Budget Process 196
Recent Reforms to the Budget Process 198
Where Does the Money Come From? 199
Cutting Taxes 201
More Than Meets The Eye 203
The Role of Borrowing 205
Who Decides, and How? 206
The Balance of Power 208
How New York Compares 209
Why Is Government in New York More Expensive? 211
Budget Watchdogs 212
Ch. 9 Health and Mental Hygiene 215
A Multi-Tiered System 217
Where It Began: Public Health 218
State Government's Growing Involvement 219
A Broad Range of Powers 220
Regulating and Providing Health Care 222
Medicaid 223
Expanding Services, and Growing Costs 225
Political Support 228
Hospital Funding and Long-term Care 228
Medicaid Managed Care 229
Expanding Health Coverage 231
Regulating Health Services 231
Health Department Institutions 232
Vital Statistics and Other Responsibilities 234
Mental Hygiene 235
Mental Health 239
Mental Retardation 240
Alcoholism and Substance Abuse 241
Overseeing Quality of Care 242
Ch. 10 Education 243
Overview of Education Policymaking 244
The Regents: Broad Powers 245
The Constitution and the Board of Regents 246
Early Public Education in New York 248
Academics: Curriculum, Teaching, and Assessment 252
Operational Mandates 256
Charter Schools 257
School Finance 259
Private Schools and Home Schooling 264
The Lottery and Education 265
Higher Education 266
Creating SUNY 268
SUNY University Centers 271
City University of New York 272
Influences on Education Policy 273
Regulation of Professions 275
Serving Individuals with Disabilities 276
State Museum and Archives 277
Ch. 11 Transportation, Economic Development, and Public Authorities 279
Early Transportation and the Great Canal 280
Growth and Decline of the Canal System 282
Changes in Administrative Structure 283
The Modern Department of Transportation 283
The Thruway 287
Mass Transportation 288
Airports and Other Responsibilities 290
Economic Development 291
The Business Climate 293
The "Coupon" Strategy 295
A Major New Incentive Program 297
What Works in Economic Development? 297
New York's Advantages and Competitive Challenges 299
Public Authorities 300
Ch. 12 Labor and Family Assistance 305
An Overview 306
Helping the Poor: Early Efforts 307
State and County Governments Get Involved 309
Cash Assistance 310
The Road to Welfare Reform 312
The Role of the State Constitution 314
The Changing Politics of Welfare 315
Welfare Reform in New York 316
After Reform 318
A New Administrative Structure 320
A State and Local System 322
Office of Children and Family Services 323
Child Care 324
Protecting Children 325
Foster Care 325
Adoption 326
Labor Policy in New York 328
Labor Starts to Gain Power 329
Early Legislation 331
The Triangle Fire Leads to More Laws 332
Labor's Modern Political Involvement 333
The Labor Department Today 335
Unemployment Insurance 336
Job Services 337
Regulating Wages 338
Workers' Compensation 339
Ch. 13 Public Protection 343
Crime in New York 346
The Penal Law 347
Evolving Concepts of What the Law Should Proscribe 349
The Police 351
The State Police 353
Other Police and Peace Officers 356
Prosecution and the Courts 357
Protections for the Accused 358
The Role of the Attorney General 361
Disposition of Offenders and Sentencing 362
The Prisons: Punishment and Rehabilitation 363
Development of Prisons in New York 364
Modern Administration of Corrections 366
Attica 367
Recent Changes in Corrections 370
Probation and Parole 372
Younger Offenders 373
Tougher Punishment, More Programming 374
Commission of Correction 377
Help for Crime Victims 378
Homeland Security 378
Ch. 14 Environment and Parks 381
Long Before Earth Day 382
'Make It a Forest Forever' 383
The Conservation Department 385
The Emerging Issue of Environmental Quality 386
DEC and the Environmental Conservation Law 387
DEC Today 390
Lands and Forests 397
Conservation Officers and Forest Rangers 398
Related Agencies 399
The Adirondacks: A Special Case 399
Environmental Progress 400
Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation 401
Origins of the State Parks System 404
Historic Preservation 406
A Broad Agenda 406
Ch. 15 The People's Government 409
Voting 410
Political Parties 412
Lobbying 414
Regulation of Lobbying 416
New Rules for Lobbying 417
A Variety of Interests in Albany 419
Campaign Contributions 421
What Purpose Do Political Contributions Serve? 422
What Can a Citizen Do? 423
The Role of Interest Groups 424
Strategies for Influencing Policy 425
Accountability 427
Open Government 427
The News Media 430
Performance Measurement in New York 432
Does Measurement Improve Performance? 434
Performance Measurement on the Rise Nationally 435
Ch. 16 Federalism: What Is the Role of State Governments? 437
Federalism Today 439
Why a Federal Form of Government? 439
Still Important 441
The Future of Federalism 443
App A Legislative Case Study: Domestic Relations Law 445
Index 451
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