News: Reporting and Writing / Edition 1

News: Reporting and Writing / Edition 1

by Alfred Lorenz, Alfred L. Lorenz, John H. Vivian
     
 

ISBN-10: 0205139752

ISBN-13: 9780205139750

Pub. Date: 08/15/1995

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

In NEWS: Reporting and Writing, Lorenz and Vivian fully integrate coverage of writing for newspaper, radio, television, and public relations. NEWS is intended for beginning writing and reporting courses in departments of journalism or mass communication, whether they take an integrated media writing or straight-forward

Overview

In NEWS: Reporting and Writing, Lorenz and Vivian fully integrate coverage of writing for newspaper, radio, television, and public relations. NEWS is intended for beginning writing and reporting courses in departments of journalism or mass communication, whether they take an integrated media writing or straight-forward news-editorial approach.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780205139750
Publisher:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
08/15/1995
Pages:
608
Product dimensions:
7.01(w) x 9.14(h) x 0.94(d)

Table of Contents

1. Applying New Skills in Mass Media Careers.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The Excitement of News.
Journalists and Their Work.
Meeting Deadlines. Thinking Clearly. Serving Mass Audiences. Using the Language.
Mass Media Careers.
Public Relations. Advertising. Photography and Videography. Broadcast Production. Beyond the Mass Media.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Writing and Media Careers. Writing in Your Future.
For Further Learning.

2. Deciding What Makes News.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: An Alaska Tragedy.
The Importance of News.
Journalism and Democracy. Journalism and Individuals.
Hard News.
Spot Coverage. Depth Coverage. Enterprise Coverage. Public Relations and Hard News.
Soft News.
Defining Soft News. Balancing Hard and Soft News.
Looking for News.
Elements of News. News by Formula.
The News Audience.
Reaching the Audience. Talking with People. Writing to be Understood. Demographic Profiles. Composites. Content Surveys. Focus Groups. Changing Audience Values.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
The Wide Range of News. Identifying Elements of News.
For Further Learning.

3. Starting the Spot News Story.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The Lead.
Leads for Spot News Stories.
Hard Leads for Print Media Stories. Soft Broadcast Leads. Further Tips for the Ear.
Leads and the Elements of News.
Who Leads. What Leads. When Leads. Where Leads. Why and How Leads.
ThinkingYour Way to a Lead.
Sorting Through Information. Creating a Core Sentence.
Writing About the Simple and the Complex.
Single-Incident Leads. Multi-Incident Leads. Umbrella Leads. Hooking the Audience.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Writing Basic Leads. Writing Broadcast Leads. Writing Complex Leads.
For Further Learning.

4. Fixing Weak and Troubled Leads.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Weak and Troubled Leads.
Problem Leads.
Non-News Leads. Backing into the Story. Unwieldy Leads. Quotation Leads. Question Leads.
Formula Leads.
His or Her Way Leads. Good News, Bad News Leads. Wrong Place, Wrong Time Leads. Suspense Leads.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Finding Faults. Strengthening Leads.
For Further Learning.

5. Organizing the News Story.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Technology and News-Story Form.
The Inverted Pyramid.
Structuring the Story. Following Through. Writing Depth Stories. Avoiding Tangents. Ending the Story.
Subordinate Stories.
Sidebars. Points of Entry. Briefs.
Broadcast Stories.
Readers. Lead-Ins. Echoes and Stutter Quotes. Voice-Overs.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Organization. Endings. Sidebar. Broadcast Stories.
For Further Learning.

6. Incorporating Other People's Words.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The Reporter and the Psychoanalyst.
Basics of Quoting.
Quotes and Paraphrases. What to Quote. Where to Quote. Attribution. Attributives. Punctuation.
Quotes on the Air.
Attribution. Punctuation.
Some Pitfalls in Quoting.
Derogatory Terms. Dialect. Vernacular. Offensive Language. Plagiarism.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Using Quotes. Quoting in Style. Quoting for Broadcast.
For Further Learning.

7. Making Your Writing Likable.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Father Teufel's Lesson.
Creativity and Personal; Values.
Creativity in News Work. A Window to the Soul.
Telling the Story Unobtrusively.
Writing in the Third Person. Misguided Variations on First Person. Eyewitness Stories. Avoiding a Superior Stance.
Being Conversational.
Writing People Talk. Contractions. The Second-Person You.
Writing Informally Yet Authoritatively.
Shortened Names. Shortened Word Forms. People Words. Institutional Parentage.
Being Upbeat Yet Appropriate.
Alternatives to Negative Words. Present-Tense Intros.
Exhibiting Sensitivity.
Race and Ethnicity. Diminutive Words. Gender Sensitivity. Economic Implications.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Sidestepping the Egotistical I. Being Comfortable with Contractions. Being Conversational with Names. Opting for People Words. Offsetting Negativity. Avoiding Presumptuous Gender References.
For Further Learning.

8. Building Color into News Stories.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Dave Hendrickson Tells About War.
Illustrating the Point.
Chow, Don't Tell. Value of Small Details.
Illustrative Quotations.
Quotes as Supporting Evidence. Follow-Up Technique.
Citing Examples.
Examples to Enliven. Backing Up a Point.
Illustrating by Comparing.
Analogies. Hypotheticals. So-That Constructions.
Anecdotes.
Stories Within Stories. Anecdotal Leads.
Sensory Appeals.
Beyond Skeletal Facts. Observation and Sensory Appeals.
Visual Detail.
Color. Texture. Being Cinematic. Misusing Evocative Detail.
Reporting with Sound and Smell.
Hearing the Details. Smelling the Details.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Visual Detail. Noting Colors.
For Further Learning.

9. Using the Language Effectively.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The Only Issue.
Good English is Good English.
Your Head Start on Writing News. Rules of the Road.
Basic References.
Grammar and Spelling. Stylebooks.
Journalistic Adaptations.
Departures from Standard English. Timespeak. Paragraph Length. Bulleted Lists.
Plain Words and Sentences.
Simple Words. Direct Sentences. Active Verbs. Expletive Constructions.
Spelling.
Virtues of Correct Spelling. Common Misspellings. Stylebook Spellings.
Avoiding Bogged-Down Writing.
Euphemisms. Jargon. Redundancy. Abstractions.
Numbers.
Indicators of Significance. Numbers in Context. So Numbers Don't Overwhelm.
Readability Formulas.
The Flesch Scale. Measuring Human Interest. Gunning's Fog Index. Critics of Readability Formulas.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Redundancies. Sentence Sequence. Expletive Constructions. Using Numbers.
For Further Learning.

10. Following Up and Expanding.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: After the Crack of the Bat.
Updating the Breaking Story.
Deadline after Deadline. Emphasizing New Developments.
Starting Follow-Up Stories.
Tie-Backs. Lead Sentence Construction. Broadcast Updating.
Weaving Background Throughout.
Background Breaks. Integrating Background. Over- Emphasized Background. Unavoidable Background Breaks.
Rethinking the Second Cycle.
Fresh Follow-Ups. Reworking a Story. No News Can Be News.
Anticipating Developments.
Getting a Running Start. B Stories and B Leads. New Leads. Inserts. Adds. Deletes. Write Throughs. Broadcast Advance Packaging.
Seeing Possibilities.
Localizing. Campus Localizing.
Being Analytical.
Writing Think Pieces. Being Interpretive.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Incorporating Background. Continuing Story. Commentaries.
For Further Learning.

11. Fitting into the Organization.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The News Day Begins.
Newspapers and Broadcasting Stations.
Management Structure. Newsroom Managers.
Newsroom Operations.
Differing Roles of News. Gathering the Day's News.
Newsgathering Agencies.
Associated Press. Cable News Network. Other Agencies.
Magazines.
Types of Magazines. Magazine Organization. News Magazines.
Public Relations.
The Public Relations Department. The Public Relations Agency. Public Relations Functions.
In the Workplace.
The Newsroom. Learning the Ropes. What Editors Want. What You Can Expect from an Editor. Working with Others.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
A View of the Work. Teaming Up. Managing the Organization.
For Further Learning.

12. Getting a Job.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Hoda Kotb Gets a Job.
What You Can Do in School.
First Things First. Doing an Internship.
Putting Yourself on Paper.
Writing an Application Letter. Preparing Your Résumé. Showing Your Work.
Getting a Foot in the Door.
Networking. The Guidance Interview. The Job Interview. Saying Thank You. The Tryout.
Pursuing Your Career.
Starting Out. Moving Up. Moving to a New Field.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
The First Job. Company Profile. Self-Assessment.
For Further Learning.

13. Writing and Rewriting for Public Relations.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: A Raid on a Sweatshop.
Types of News Releases.
Announcement Releases. Backgrounders. Position Papers. Tip Sheets. Requests for Coverage.
Preparing News Releases.
Writing News Releases. Following Style. Formatting for Print. Formatting for Broadcasting. Audio News Releases. Video News Releases.
The View from the Newsroom.
Rewriting the News Release. Ethical Considerations.
Public Service Announcements.
Writing the PSA. Adding Video to the PSA.
Newsletters.
Writing Newsletter Stories.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Writing Releases. Rewriting Releases.
For Further Learning.

14. Reporting Accidents, Calamities, and Death.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Telling the Story of Tragedy.
The Basics of Coverage.
News and Non-News. Prime Sources. Do's and Don'ts of Coverage. Communications. Hospital Condition Reports. Public Relations Support. Casualty Lists. An Ethical Caution.
Covering Calamities.
Automobile Accidents. Fires. Industrial Accidents.
Telling the Story of Bad Weather.
Weather Terms. Radio and Television Coverage. Reporting Storms for Newspapers.
Writing Obituaries.
Death Notices. Obituary Styles for the Rich and Famous. Broadcast Obituaries. Sources. What to Include. AIDS. Suicide.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
An Auto Accident. A Hunting Accident. The Obituary.
For Further Learning.

15. Reporting Public Speech.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The President Gives a Speech.
Reporting Speeches.
How Speeches are Written. Backgrounding. Covering the Speech. Using a Prepared Text. Coverage Without a Text. Interviewing the Speaker. Writing the Speech Story for Print. A Note on Ethics.
Reporting Panels.
Covering the Panel. Writing the Panel Story for Print.
Reporting News Conferences.
Arranging the News Conference. Covering the News Conference.
Reporting Meetings.
Backgrounding. Writing the Meeting Story for Print.
Coverage for Radio and Television.
Setting Up for Radio and Television. Writing the Story for Radio. Writing the Story for Television.
Employing the Law to Cover Meetings.
Open Meeting Requirements. Federal Sunshine Act.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Writing the Speech Story. Writing the Meeting Story.
For Further Learning.

16. Preparing for the Interview.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: The Journalistic Interview.
Arranging the Interview.
Using the Telephone. Hard-to-Reach Sources. Setting Up the Questions. First Things First. Making a List. Going Tough or with Fluff.
Question Types.
Closed-End Questions. Open-End Questions.
Question Sequences.
Narrowing and Broadening. Mixing Sequences. Quintamensional Sequence. Direct-Focus Questioning. The Conversational Interview. Confrontational Questions. The GOSS Model. Exceptions to Value-Free Interviewing.
Seeking Information and Color.
How to Use Background. Working for Quotations and Anecdotes.
Dead-Ending an Interview.
Questions that Go Too Far. Asking for Insufficient Answers. Yeah, Well...Interviewing.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Arranging an Interview. Planning an Interview.
For Further Learning.

17. Conducting the Interview.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: In the Interview.
Conducting the Interview.
Telephone Interviews. Face-to-Face Interviews. Setting Time Limits. Establishing a Tone. Handling Sources. Interview Conditions. The Experienced Source.
Overcoming Interview Problems.
Inconsistencies. Sources on the Offensive. When a Source Lies. Caustic Interviews. When Your Mind Goes Blank. Reviewing Copy.
Interviews on the Air.
Spot Interviews. Depth Interviews. Dealing with the Scene Stealer.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Evaluating Interview Types. Interviewing Technique.
For Further Learning.

18. Gathering News with Documents.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: A Fire Story.
The Importance of Documents.
The News-Gathering Triad. Documents on the Beat. Documents in Investigative Stories.
Desktop References.
Telephone Directories. The Complete Desktop.
Newsroom References.
City Directories. Government Directories. Trade Directories. Other Newsroom Sources.
News Morgues and Libraries.
Clips. Indexes. Photo Libraries.
Dialing into Databanks.
Databanks and Spot News. Range of Databanks. Using Databanks. Stories from Databanks. The Internet as a Resource.
Documents for General Assignment.
Vital Statistics. Birth and Adoption. Marriage and Divorce. Death Certificates. Beyond Vital Statistics.
Problems with Documents.
Accuracy. Interpretation. Inherent Limitations.
Knowing Open-Record Laws.
Access Laws. Exceptions to Government Openness. Campus Records. Computer-Stored Documents.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Biographical Sources. Geographical Sources. Criss-Cross Directories. Vital Statistics.
For Further Learning.

19. Reporting with New Technologies.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Unsafe—-At Computer Speed.
Computer-Assisted Reporting.
The Tools. Probing Databases. Interviewing by Computer.
Computer-Assisted Public Relations.
Database Research. Electronic Newsletters. Desktop Publishing. Fax. Interactive Press Kits. Electronic Tools as Means, Not Ends.
Computerized Information Sources.
The New Life in Morgues. Bibliographies and Abstracts. Full-Text Databases. Government Publications. Public Records. Personal Information. Images. Garbage In, Garbage Out.
Commercial On-Line Sources.
Nexis. Dialog. Burrelle's Broadcast Database. CompuServe. America Online. Delphi. Prodigy.
Resources of Cyberspace.
The Internet for Journalists. Electronic Mail. Listservs. Usenet. Telnet. Gopher. World Wide Web. Wide Area Information Servers. File Transfer Protocol.
Media Marriages.
Print and the Computer. Print and CD-ROM. Broadcasting and CD-ROM. Print and Video. Audiotex. Other News-Delivery Links. Preparing for the Future.
Some Legal and Ethical Questions.
Quoting Public Postings. Opening Another Person's Mail. Copyright Infringement. Libel.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
For Further Learning.

20. Using Your Powers of Observation.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: An AWOL Soldier.
The Importance of Being There.
Eyewitness Reporting. Seeking Revealing Detail. Writing for the Senses. Enhancing Detail. Choice of Vantage.
Applications of Observation.
Part of a Reporter's Repertoire. Observation for Depth Stories.
Observation for Advanced Reporting.
Participatory Journalism. Immersion Journalism. Significant Immersion Programs.
Preparing for Observation.
Observation for Spot and Depth Stories. Choosing a Vantage. Resisting Herd Journalism. Choosing a Role. Cover to Avoid Detection.
Documenting the Experience.
Noting the Details. Note Taking Beyond Quotations.
Note-Taking Techniques for Observation.
Employing Your Senses. Photographic Eye and Ear. Keeping Notes Sparse. Being Self-Conscious. Predetermining Your Focus. Avoiding Prestructuring.
Special Problems in Note Taking.
Note Taking as a Participant. Necessity of Documentation. A Question of Misrepresentation.
Difficulties of Observation.
Heisenberg Indeterminacy. Becoming Trapped. Physical Danger. Going Native.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
A Basketball Game. Marine Boot Camp.
For Further Learning.

21. Covering a News Beat.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: North Dakota Shootout.
Covering News with Beats.
Being Entrusted with a Beat. Economics of a Beat System. Categories of Beats.
Learning a Beat.
In-House Orientation. Documents for Orientation. Definitive Documents. Competitive Coverage. Meeting Regular Sources.
First Days on the Beat.
Media Relations Services. Making Introductions. Building Source Confidence.
Being There.
The Value of Regular Checks. Being Everywhere.
Public Relations and Beat Reporting.
In-House Public Relations Beats. Issuing News Releases. Special Projects.
Hazards of Beat Reporting.
Too Close to Sources. Too Comfortable with the Routine. Myopia. Jargon.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Designing a News Beat. Creating Story Ideas. Building a Beat System. Media Relations and Reporters. Public Relations Reporting.
For Further Learning.

22. Knowing the Legal Implications.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Anita Brewer and Elvis.
The First Amendment and News Law.
The First Amendment. News Law.
Avoiding Actionable Libel.
Libel as a Risk. Checklist for Actionable Libel. Presence of a Defamation. Libel and Identification. Public Performance. Public Person. Legislative Sessions. Court Sessions. Truth as a Defense. Attribution and Libel. Deadlines and Libel.
Respecting Privacy Rights.
Privacy versus Free Inquiry. A Right to Privacy. Controlling Publicity.
Giving Credit.
Copyright Rules. Obtaining Permission. Piracy of News. Deadline Pressure.
Shielding Sources.
Protecting Confidentiality. State Shield Laws. Newsroom Searches. Voluntary Disclosure.
Broadcast News Regulation.
Exemptions for Bona Fide News. Slanting the News. Staged News. On-Air Decency.
News Law and Public Relations.
News Releases. News-Media Inquiries. House Organs.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Names in Crime News. Employee Newsletter.
For Further Learning.

23. Recognizing Some Realities About News.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: Skepticism About News.
Reporters and Their Judgment.
Autonomy on the Job. Gatekeeping.
The Limits of Resources.
News Hole. News Flow. Staffing Stories. Embellishments.
Nonjournalistic Agendas.
Chains of Command. Advertiser Pressure. Direct Pressure.
Competitive Pressure.
Scooping and Being Scooped. Newsthink.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
Turning Down a Gratuity. Sacred Cows.
For Further Learning.

24. Being Right Journalistically and Morally.
Learning Goals.
Chapter Opener: One City Editor's Baptism.
Approaches to Communications Ethics.
Codes of Ethics. Four Ethical Theories.
The Communicator's Loyalties.
Loyalties to the Public. Loyalties to Subjects and Sources. Loyalties to Employers and Colleagues.
The Communicator's Values.
Striving for Competence. Being Fair.
Telling the Truth.
Faking Stories. Other Journalistic Lies. Plagiarism. Deception. Truth-Telling in Public Relations.
Respecting Privacy.
Sexual Matters. Illness.
Protecting Sources.
Four Landmark Cases.
Conflicts of Interest.
Freebies. Involvement in Politics. Family Ties. The Lure of Money. Other Personal Gain.
Coming to Ethical Decisions.
A Six-Step Process.
Chapter Wrap-Up.
Study Questions.
Putting Your Learning to Work.
How Professionals Act. When Personal and Professional Clash.
For Further Learning.

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