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One fifth of the population of the United States belongs to the immigrant or second generations. While the US is generally thought of as the immigrant society par excellence, it now has a number of rivals in Europe. The Next Generation brings together studies from top immigration scholars to explore how the integration of immigrants affects the generations that come after. The original essays explore the early beginnings of the second generation in the United States and Western Europe, exploring the overall patterns of success of the second generation.
While there are many striking similarities in the situations of the children of labor immigrants coming from outside the highly developed worlds of Europe and North America, wherever one looks, subtle features of national and local contexts interact with characteristics of the immigrant groups themselves to create variations in second-generation trajectories. The contributors show that these issues are of the utmost importance for the future, for they will determine the degree to which contemporary immigration will produce either durable ethno-racial cleavages or mainstream integration.
Contributors: Dalia Abdel-Hady, Frank D. Bean, Susan K. Brown, Maurice Crul, Nancy A. Denton, Rosita Fibbi, Nancy Foner, Anthony F. Heath, Donald J. Hernandez, Tariqul Islam, Frank Kalter, Philip Kasinitz, Mark A. Leach, Mathias Lerch, Suzanne E. Macartney, Karen G Marotz, Noriko Matsumoto, Tariq Modood, Joel Perlmann, Karen Phalet, Jeffrey G. Reitz, Rubén G. Rumbaut, Roxanne Silberman, Philippe Wanner, Aviva Zeltzer-Zubida, andYe Zhang.
1 Dimensions of Second-Generation Incorporation: An Introduction to the Book Richard Alba Mary C. Waters 1
Part I Starting Points
2 Legalization and Naturalization Trajectories among Mexican Immigrants and Their Implications for the Second Generation Susan K. Brown Frank D. Bean Mark A. Leach Rubén G. Rumbaut 31
3 Early Childhood Education Programs: Accounting for Low Enrollment in Immigrant and Minority Families Donald J. Hernandez Nancy A. Denton Suzanne Macartney 46
Part II Major Case Studies
4 The Mexican American Second Generation in Census 2000: Education and Earnings Joel Perlmann 69
5 Downward Assimilation and Mexican Americans: An Examination of Intergenerational Advance and Stagnation in Educational Attainment Richard Alba Dalia Abdel-Hady Tariqul Islam Karen Marotz 95
6 School Qualifications of Children of Immigrant Descent in Switzerland Rosita Fibbi Mathias Lerch Philippe Wanner 110
7 Ethnic Community, Urban Economy, and Second-Generation Attainment: Turkish Disadvantage in Belgium Karen Phalet Anthony Health 135
8 The Second Generation in the German Labor Market: Explaining the Turkish Exception Frank Kalter 166
9 Capitals, Ethnic Identity, and Educational Qualifications Tariq Modood 185
Part III The Role of Local Context
10 National and Urban Contexts for the Integration of the Second Generation in the United States and Canada Jeffrey G. Reitz Ye Zhang 207
11 "I Will Never Deliver Chinese Food": The Children of Immigrants in the New York Metropolitan Labor Force Philip Kasinitz Noriko Matsumoto Aviva Zeltzer-Zubida 229
Part IV In Closing: Comparative Studies
12 Black Identities and the Second Generation: Afro-Caribbeans in Britain and the United States Nancy Foner 251
13 How Do Educational Systems Integrate? Integration of Second-Generation Turks in Germany, France, the Netherlands, and Austria Maurice Crul 269
14 The Employment of Second Generations in France: The Republican Model and the November 2005 Riots Roxane Silberman 283
About the Contributors 347