Next Generation SONET/SDH: Voice and Data / Edition 1by Stamatios V. Kartalopoulos
Since the early 1990's the SONET/SDH standard has been very successful in high speed optical communications and it has now paved the way to ultra-high bandwidth data transport. Previously the primary objective of SONET was synchronous traffic with an expected high quality of service whereas asynchronous traffic (data) was of secondary concern. The rapid increase in… See more details below
Since the early 1990's the SONET/SDH standard has been very successful in high speed optical communications and it has now paved the way to ultra-high bandwidth data transport. Previously the primary objective of SONET was synchronous traffic with an expected high quality of service whereas asynchronous traffic (data) was of secondary concern. The rapid increase in data traffic has demanded a data network with better QoS and higher data rates, in the range of 2.5 - 10 Gb/s, which are in closer alignment with SONET. At the same time data has been penetrating into the synchronous network, creating a demand for a more flexible and data-friendly standard. With SONET already in place with it's tremendous investment in equipment and infrastructure and personnel training-has led to the new network that combines the best of both worlds, the next generation of SONET/SDH.
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Table of Contents
1 Synchronous Hierarchical Networks.
1.2 Switching Hierarchy.
1.3 Digital Subscriber Lines.
2 Synchronous Optical Networks SONET/SDH.
2.2 SONET Frames.
2.3 Virtual Tributaries.
2.4 STS-N Frames.
2.4.1 Concatenation and Super Rates.
2.4.3 Mapping by Layer.
3 Asynchronous Data/Packet Networks.
3.2 Data Traffic Concepts.
3.2.1 Natural Information Rate.
3.2.2 Packet Networks.
3.2.3 Timing Aspects.
3.3 Review of Data Networks.
3.3.3 Switched Multi-megabit Data Services.
3.3.4 Frame Relay.
3.3.5 Internet Protocol.
3.3.6 IP Telephony or Voice over IP.
3.3.5 FAX over IP.
3.4 Point-to-Point Protocol.
3.5 8B/10B Block Coding Overview.
3.5.1 Example, 3B/4B Block Coding.
3.6 Fiber Channel.
3.9 Gigabit Ethernet.
3.10 Resilient Packet Ring.
3.12 Ethernet over LAPS over Legacy SONET/SDH.
3.13 IP over LAPS over SONET/SDH.
3.14 MPLS, MPλS and GMPLS.
3.16 ATM over SONET/SDH.
4 The Generic Framing Procedure.
4.2 Frame Multiplexing.
4.3 Client Payload Multiplexing.
4.4 GFP Frame Structure.
4.5 Error Control.
4.5.1 Header Error Control.
4.7.1 Frame Structure Payload.
4.8 Idle GFP Frames and Multiplexing.
4.9 GFP Modes.
4.9.1 The Frame-Mapped GFP (GFP-F).
4.9.2 GFP-F Encapsulation—Examples.
4.9.3 The Transparent-Mapped GFP (GFP-T).
4.9.4 GFP-F Encapsulation—Examples.
4.9.5 GFP-F and GFP-T Comparison.
5 Next Generation SONET/SDH.
5.2 The Next Generation SONET/SDH.
5.3 Contiguous Concatenation.
5.4 Virtual Concatenation.
5.6 Concatenation Efficiency.
5.7 Data over Next Generation SONET/SDH.
6 Next Generation Optical Networks.
6.2 Next Generation Optical Rings.
6.3 Shared Rings.
6.5 Network Management.
6.6 Bandwidth Management.
6.7 Wavelength Management.
6.8 Service Restoration.
7 Other New Optical Networks.
7.1 The Optical Transport Network.
7.1.1 FEC in OTN.
7.1.5 The Optical Channel.
7.1.6 Optical Channel Carrier and Optical Channel Group.
7.1.7 Nonassociated Overhead.
7.1.8 Mapping in OTN.
7.1.9 Mapping GFP Frames in OPU-k.
7.2 Next Generation SONET/SDH and OTN.
7.3 OTN Summary.
8 NG-S over DWDM, OTN over DWDM, and Experimental Networks.
8.2 OTN over DWDM.
8.3 Experimental Networks.
8.3.1 Ethernet Passive Optical Networks.
8.3.2 CDWM E-PON.
8.3.2 The Wavelength-Bus.
8.3.3 High-Performance Parallel Interface.
8.3.4 Other Parallel Optical Buses.
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