Nitrous Oxide and Climate Change

Nitrous Oxide and Climate Change

by Keith Smith
     
 

ISBN-10: 1844077578

ISBN-13: 9781844077571

Pub. Date: 07/28/2010

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

Nitrous oxide, or N2O, is the third most important of the greenhouse gases in global warming terms, after carbon dioxide and methane. This is because, although it only comprises 320 parts per billion of Earth's atmosphere, it has a global warming potential nearly 300 times that of carbon dioxide. The largest source is agriculture, driven mainly by the

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Overview

Nitrous oxide, or N2O, is the third most important of the greenhouse gases in global warming terms, after carbon dioxide and methane. This is because, although it only comprises 320 parts per billion of Earth's atmosphere, it has a global warming potential nearly 300 times that of carbon dioxide. The largest source is agriculture, driven mainly by the use of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. The other major diffuse source derives from release of NOx into the atmosphere from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, as well as ammonia from livestock manure. Some N2O also comes directly from combustion, and from two processes in the chemical industry: the production of nitric acid, and the production of adipic acid (used in nylon manufacture).

Action is being taken to curb the industrial point-source emissions of N2O, but measures to limit or reduce agricultural emissions are inherently more difficult to devise. As we enter an era in which measures are being explored to reduce fossil fuel use and/or capture or sequester the CO2 emissions from the fuel, it is likely that the relative importance of N2O in the 'Kyoto basket' of greenhouse gases will increase. This is not only because of the technical problem of controlling agricultural emissions; expansion of cropland, to feed the increasing global population and to produce biofuels, is expected to result in more nitrogen fertilizer use, and thus N2O emission, worldwide.

The aim of this book is to provide a synthesis of scientific information on the primary sources and sinks of nitrous oxide, and an assessment of likely trends in atmospheric concentrations over the next century and the potential for mitigation measures.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781844077571
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis
Publication date:
07/28/2010
Edition description:
1
Pages:
240
Product dimensions:
6.30(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction Keith A. Smith 1

2 Microbial Terrestrial Pathways to Nitrous Oxide Elizabeth M. Baggs Laurent Philippot 4

3 Marine Pathways to Nitrous Oxide Hermann W. Bange Alina Freing Annette Kock Carolin R. Löscher 36

4 The Global Nitrous Oxide Budget: A Reassessment Keith A. Smith Paul J. Crutzen Arvin R. Mosier Wilfried Winiwarter 63

5 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Nitrogen Cycle in Arable Agriculture: Estimation and Mitigation A. F. (Lex) Bouwman Elke Stehfest Chris van Kessel 85

6 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from the Nitrogen Cycle in Livestock Agriculture: Estimation and Mitigation Cecile A. M. de Klein Richard J. Eckard Tony J. van der Weerden 107

7 Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Land-Use and Land-Management Change Franz Conen Albrecht Neftel 145

8 Indirect Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Nitrogen Deposition and Leaching Of Agricultural Nitrogen Reinhard Well Klaus Butterbach-Bahl 162

9 Abiotic Nitrous Oxide Sources: Chemical Industry and Mobile and Stationary Combustion Systems Peter Wiesen 190

10 Conclusions and Future Outlook Keith A. Smith 210

Contributors 218

Acronyms and abbreviations 222

Index 224

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