Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands, 8-10 September 1999 / Edition 1

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Overview

In the climate change discussion, non-CO2 greenhouse gases (NCGGs) received official political recognition for the first time in 1997, when agreement was reached on the Kyoto Protocol. As a result methane, nitrous oxide, HFCs, PFCs and SF6 now provide attractive options for detailing the national targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions meant to control climate change. This book is the second volume in this area and addresses three main topics.

Firstly, it documents progress with respect to our knowledge of the sources and sinks of NCGGs. Information on this subject is essential in order to reduce the uncertainties in national emissions inventories which serve as the reference values for commitments of countries in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol. Secondly, this volume deals with the control options for the NCGGs and contains a wealth of information in this area. Emerging technologies here provide business opportunities, in particular in connection with the flexible mechanisms for mitigation projects in developing countries which have been agreed in Kyoto. Thirdly, the book treats the policy implementation of mitigation options for greenhouse gas emissions. Tools for control policies, both on the national and international level, and for different sectors of industry are discussed. National integrated approaches, including the ones from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Netherlands Ministry of Environment which both sponsored the conference, provide guidance for defining the most effective greenhouse gases mitigation plans in different situations.

This volume is being published in support of the IPCC Process and will serve as a reference for IPCC's Third Assessment Report.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780792361992
  • Publisher: Springer Netherlands
  • Publication date: 3/31/2000
  • Edition description: 2000
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 604
  • Product dimensions: 9.21 (w) x 6.14 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Methane: emissions, reduction potential and policies
Nitrous oxide: emission inventories, options for control and their Implementation and resulting scenarios
Fluorine compounds: emissions inventories, options for control and their implementation and resulting scenarios
Linkages between Kyoto Protocol and Montreal Protocol
Welcome
Opening Address
Address on behalf of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
Address on behalf of the United States Environmental Protection Agency
Opening Statement on behalf of the European Commission
Atmospheric methane: trends and impacts 1
New estimates for emissions of nitrous oxide 45
Application and emissions of fluorocarbon gases 65
Quantification of methane emissions from latrines, septic tanks and stagnant, open sewers in the world 83
Influence of land use on long-term CH[subscript 4] uptake 89
Methane fluxes from the Pantanal floodplain in Brazil: seasonal variation 95
Methane emissions by grazing livestock: a synopsis of 1000 direct measurements 101
Verifying agricultural emissions of methane: air sampling from aircraft and mesoscale modelling 107
The impact of grassland conversion on CO[subscript 2] emission and CH[subscript 4] uptake 115
Methane fraction in carbon components in biogas from waste disposal sites in Japan and Southeast Asia 121
Methane budget in heavily polluted urban atmosphere derived from concentration and isotope data: a case from Central Europe 127
Diurnal and seasonal variations in CH[subscript 4] emission from various freshwater wetlands: effects of growth stage, plant-mediated transport and water table elevations 131
Modelling moisture and temperature effects on methane oxidation in soils 137
Methane concentrations 1990-1997: what do they tell? 139
Role of microbial iron reduction in paddy soil 143
A 125 year history of CH[subscript 4] emission factors variation and emissions from livestock and animal waste in Russia 145
New approach to an inventory of CH[subscript 4] and N[subscript 2]O emissions from agriculture in Western Europe 147
A regionalized, biophysically based model for the turnover of biomass and enteric methane emissions in the global food system 149
[delta][superscript 13]C patterns of CO[subscript 2] and CH[subscript 4] in peatlands: the role of diffusion/advection vs. microbial reactions 151
Emission estimates based on ambient N[subscript 2]O concentrations measured at a 200m high tower in the Netherlands 1995-1997 153
Should process soil models be admitted to estimate agricultural N[subscript 2]O emissions under FCCC? 159
Impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on N[subscript 2]O and NO emissions from forest soils 165
Impact of organic amendments on N[subscript 2]O production through denitrification in soil 173
Balancing the N[subscript 2]O budgets: constraints from two-isotope characterization 179
Isotopomer analysis of methane and nitrous oxide for the study of their geochemical cycles 185
Variation of N[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript 4] fluxes through two winter seasons in sub-boreal forests, Japan 189
Emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from different forms of pig Fattening 191
N[subscript 2]O flux from a forest soil located in an area of intensive animal breeding in Belgium 193
Nitrous oxide (N[subscript 2]O) emissions from vehicles 195
A reversed trend in emissions of SF[subscript 6] to the atmosphere? 199
Atmospheric perfluororcarbons: sources and concentrations 205
Long-term evolution in the loading of CH[subscript 4], N[subscript 2]O, CO, CCl[subscript 2]F[subscript 2], CHClF[subscript 2] and SF[subscript 6] above Central Europe during the last 15 years 211
Inventory of non-CO[subscript 2] GHG and first estimates of emissions of New Gases in Russia 217
Halocarbon Greenhouse Gas emissions during the next century 223
Regional emission scenarios for HFCs, PFCs and SF[subscript 6] 231
Long-lived halogenated compounds in the stratosphere 239
Modelling the effects of ozone changes on climate 241
Greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel use in Asia 247
Effective emission indices (EEI) of the subsonic air transport exhausts and estimations of their world inventories 255
Uncertainties in photochemical gird modeling of ozone 259
Global warming potential and global warming commitment concepts in the assessment of climate radiative forcing effects 265
Climatology and environmental significance of the surface ozone over the north-western region of Russia 271
Study of ozone and temperature variations in the troposphere and stratosphere due to anthropogenic perturbations 273
Atmospheric pollutants responsible for acid rains: a mathematical model for transport 275
NO and N[subscript 2]O emissions from upland soils with the application of different types of nitrogen fertilizer 277
Mitigating methane emissions from rice fields in Asia 283
Reduction of N[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript 4] emissions by designing agricultural production processes - potential and limitations 291
The emission flux and mitigation options for N[subscript 2]O and CH[subscript 4] from wheat fields under different rotation systems in Central China 295
Interaction of soil carbon sequestration and N[subscript 2]O flux with different land use practices 303
Reducing landfill methane emissions through biological pretreatment of waste 313
Assessment of mitigation options in greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture 321
Control and reduction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions within animal husbandry and manure application 323
Abatement and utilisation of methane 325
How to mitigate methane emission from coal mines in China 331
Greenhouse gas elimination and heat recovery from dilute methane emissions by using a catalytic flow reversal reactor technology 339
Adipic acid industry - N[subscript 2]O abatement: implementation of technologies for abatement of N[subscript 2]O emissions associated with adipic acid manufacture 347
Selective catalytic reduction of nitrous oxide with hydrocarbons using a SO[subscript 2] resistant Fe/zeolite catalyst 359
Catalytic decomposition of N[subscript 2]O over Co, Cu, and Rh-ZSM-5 activited by repeated heat-treatment and ion exchange 365
Reduction of perfluorinated carbon compound emissions from primary aluminum production 369
Emission reduction of non-CO[subscript 2] greenhouse gases used as refrigerant 377
An integrated approach to achieve low environmental impact in the special hazards fire suppression industry 385
Life cycle assessment: electricity supply using SF[subscript 6]-technology 391
Integrating sustainability into design of alternatives for CFCs 399
Process development for the selective hydrogenolysis of CCl[subscript 2]F[subscript 2] into CH[subscript 2]F[subscript 2] 405
GHG mitigation technology performance: evaluations underway at the GHG Technology Verification Center 411
Suitability of non-energy greenhouse gases for emissions trading 417
Contribution of CH[subscript 4] to multi-gas emission reduction targets: the impact of atmospheric chemistry on GWPs 425
Global methane and nitrous oxide emissions: options and potential for Reduction 433
Multiple gas control under the Kyoto Agreement 447
Economic evaluation of strategies to avoid the emissions of greenhouse gases from farming systems 455
Greenhouse gas emission accounting 461
The potential for cost-effective reductions of non-CO[subscript 2] greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. 469
Patient care issues in HFC emissions policy 477
HFC emissions strategy for foams - what can be learned from CFCs and HCFCs? 485
NH[subscript 3] abatement in Europe and the impact on greenhouse gas emissions: an analysis with RAINS 491
Uncertainties in the calculation of agricultural N[subscript 2]O emissions in The Netherlands using IPCC guidelines 493
Non-CO[subscript 2] greenhouse gas policy and quality of emissions estimates 499
Good practice in greenhouse gas emission inventories: agricultural emissions of methane and nitrous oxide 507
Sensitivity study of the inverse modelling of non-CO[subscript 2] greenhouse gas emissions in Europe 515
Goals and preliminary results of the project on greenhouse gas emissions monitoring in Novgorod region, Russia 523
The Colombian greenhouse gases inventory 1990: results and uncertainties 529
Evaluating uncertainties in the national greenhouse gas inventories 535
US actions to reduce emissions of Non-CO[subscript 2] gases 539
Portugese industry under the Kyoto Protocol 547
Cost saving in meeting the commitments of the Kyoto Protocol through the abatement of non-CO[subscript 2] greenhouse gas emissions 555
Emission reduction potentials for HFCs, PFCs and SF[subscript 6] in Germany 561
N[subscript 2]O emission inventory and the abatement technologies in Japan 567
Authors Index 575
Subject Index 579
Participants List 589
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