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Novell's CNA Study Guide Intranetware/NetWare 4 11 with CDROM
By Clarke, David James, IV
John Wiley & SonsCopyright © 1997 Clarke, David James, IV
All right reserved.
Chapter OneIntroduction to Netware 6
"The only way round is through."-Robert Frost
NetWare is still one of the world's most popular network operating systems. With NetWare 6, Novell has incorporated all the advantages of previous versions of NetWare and has added new features that build on its foundation to provide a distributed computing infrastructure. NetWare 6 increases productivity, reduces costs, and simplifies installing and maintaining your network.
Key to NetWare 6 is Novell Directory Services (NDS), now referred to as NDS eDirectory (we'll use NDS and eDirectory interchangeably throughout this book), which is a special-purpose name service that enables you to find and use network resources and data as a single integrated system. NDS provides this powerful operating system with the same speed and reliability that you've come to expect with NetWare 3, NetWare 4, and NetWare 5. NDS eDirectory reaches across all major platforms to provide a distributed directory service. No other directory can operate on as many platforms as NDS eDirectory. With the introduction of NetWare 6, you now have the ability to fully manage storage resources, security, and mixed-client environments with greater flexibility and scalability. NetWare 6 provides a reliable and secure foundation necessary for the eBusiness world.
Many corporations over the years have embraced and implemented NetWare as an integral part of everyday business computing solutions. Today, local and wide area networks are running business-critical applications once considered the sole domain of mainframe computers. More and more businesses are finding that they can operate more efficiently and cost-effectively on NetWare networks and still receive the same security and administrative benefits of larger systems.
With the advent of NetWare 6, NetWare has become even more powerful, scalable, and flexible, widening its lead over any other directory-based network operating system available. NetWare 6 is still the same powerful network operating system that NetWare has always been, but it has new features and services that make it more than just a local area network. For example, the need to connect remote and disparate devices to the network has increased dramatically over the past two years. The need for additional storage has also increased dramatically as more users need access to corporate information. Novell has met these challenges with the release of NetWare 6.
This book focuses on NetWare 6, but also includes information on NDS eDirectory, which is the backbone of NetWare 6. NDS eDirectory reaches across all major platforms to provide client integration, security, and scalability. Novell has even made huge strides lately in the file system with its introduction of iFolder, which enables you to synchronize, back up, and access your files and applications anywhere and at any time.
The following paragraphs summarize the essence of what NetWare 6 is and what it can do for you. But, you'll want to read subsequent chapters for more detailed information about this new, powerful operating system.
Non-Stop Access to Your Files
With NetWare 6 there is no longer a need to be near your data files in order to access them. New to NetWare 6, iFolder provides the capability to synchronize, back up, and access your files and applications anywhere and at any time.
Printing Via the Internet
Novell has always been a leader in providing networked printing capability. NetWare 6 brings even greater functionality to printing by utilizing Internet printing using the Internet printing protocol (IPP). Any printer can be transformed into an IPP printer and users can utilize the Web server aspects of the software to access any printer on the network. A user can also send a print job via HTTP and SSL encryption in a secure and safe manner.
Greater Storage Capability
Novell's Storage Area Network (SAN) technology provides high-speed storage performance for NetWare servers. SAN technology allows you to dramatically expand the storage capability of your network. NetWare 6 includes free cluster software for up to two systems. Up to 32 NetWare servers may be formed into a cluster. These clusters can all be managed by the NetWare 6 operating system.
Novell Storage Services allows for unlimited disk volumes that can be up to 8TB (terabytes) in size. NSS uses a 64-bit interface and can keep track of huge numbers of objects in your network. The NSS file system keeps track of volumes, partitions, and the files differently and uses more server memory than before.
Easy Network Management NetWare 6 improves upon such tools as ConsoleOne and other java-based utilities to allow an administrator to easily manage any size network. Adding NetWare Remote Manager gives administrators greater flexibility for manager servers across an entire enterprise.
Directory Services for Security and Management
eDirectory continues to evolve with greater scalability and greater management features, which makes its use in enterprise environments and e-business easier and more completely possible. Much will be discussed in this book with regards to eDirectory, its design, its installation, and its maintenance.
eDirectory provides management and security for network resources as well as a strong foundation for eBusiness.
Before understanding what NetWare 6 is, it helps to understand the purpose and function of a network operating system. From this starting point, we will begin a comprehensive look at the NetWare 6 operating system and its many features.
Network Operating Systems
A network consists of resources, such as servers, workstations, printers, bridges, routers, gateways, and other peripheral computer equipment (CD-ROMs or jukeboxes, modems, and so on).
The network operating system (NOS) is software that communicates with each of these devices to form an integrated system. Some of the resources tied together by NDS eDirectory are shown in Figure 1.1.
The primary role of the NOS and all the other resources on the network is to build an infrastructure that distributes information among all the network devices. The network components are the server and the client, and now include external storage and other mobile computing devices. The architecture that distributes the processing between these machines is called distributed processing. The following sections describe the server, the client, and how processing can be distributed between each.
The server is the primary component in the distributed processing model. The server is the physical hardware device that runs the network operating system. In turn, the network operating system (NOS) is the software program that enables the local resources of the server to be shared among the network users. The NOS controls the following resources of the server:
* File system (disk drives)
* CPU scheduling
* Input/output to shared network devices (CD-ROM, modems, and so on)
* Workstation connectivity and access to file system resources
* Loading and distributing application programs (including NDS eDirectory)
Figure 1.2 shows the local server resources that are managed by the NOS.
The NOS software either runs as a dedicated machine or can be distributed equally across all nodes on the network. A NOS that makes use of workstation-to-workstation communications in a peer-to-peer environment is an example of a distributed NOS. A NOS whose primary software runs on a dedicated hardware platform is a centralized NOS. NetWare 6 is an example of a centralized NOS in which the central node is called the server.
The portion of the NOS that connects the workstations to the server is called the client software. The client software runs on the workstations and is the consumer of services provided by the NetWare server. It also enables the workstation to load applications or share resources from the server. Figure 1.3 illustrates the relationship between the NOS running at the server and the client software running at the workstation.
Workstations that load the client portion of the network operating system are often referred to as clients. NetWare 6 has greatly expanded on the concept of a client connecting to a server. As covered in this book, you can access information through various forms of a client or use no client at all. A Web browser can be used as a client. Also, the Apple iMac requires no client but connects to a NetWare 6 server out of the box through native protocols. NDS servers also act as clients of other NDS servers in the tree but not in the same way as a workstation. An NDS server may communicate with other NDS servers during login or when searching for a particular piece of directory information.
Distributed processing occurs when the NOS coordinates the processing in a decentralized fashion. Applications running on the network are a type of distributed processing. For example, each workstation requests its own copy of an application from the operating system. The application is then loaded and run entirely on the workstation. The workstation runs the application independently, and the network operating system simply coordinates access to the shared resources. In the network, application processing can be distributed (client-based) or centralized (server-based) or both (client/server-based). Each of these methods offers advantages and disadvantages that make them right for certain applications and wrong for others.
The types of applications that run entirely on the workstation are called client-based applications. For example, all the clients may use the same word processing application, but separate copies of the application are executed in each workstation. A copy of the application is transmitted from the server to the client but is executed at the client workstation. In general, applications that are keyboard and display intensive with minimal disk I/O are well suited for the client.
Spreadsheets and word processing programs are examples of client-based applications because they are heavy users of the display and keyboard with infrequent disk or file access. There is no benefit in running any part of these applications outside the workstation once the program has been loaded into workstation memory from the server. Figure 1.4 illustrates client-based application processing in which the application is loaded from the server.
Applications that do all the processing locally at the server are known as server-based applications. These applications are usually specialized applications that execute only on the server. For example, backup/restore software needs to read the file system and write it to the local tape device (on the server) and may not need to transfer data across the network. Other types of backup software run as clients on a server and transfer files from other servers. Another example is network management software that controls or monitors the operation of the operating system. In addition, NetWare Loadable Modules are primarily server-based applications, although some have a client counterpart that does some of the processing. Figure 1.5 illustrates server-based application processing.
Client/server-based applications split the responsibility of the processing between the client and the server. The client and server work together to execute the application even though it is running on different machines. The fact that the parts of the application are running on different machines is entirely transparent to the user. The software that runs on the server is called the back end and manages the shared information. The client portion of the application is called the front end and allows communication and access to the server (or back end). Figure 1.6 illustrates client/server application processing.
An example of a newer client/server-based application is Novell's iFolder application. It consists of three components that work together. The first component, the iFolder client, allows access to current files on a personal computer. The iFolder client performs synchronization whenever it's connected to the network to keep all files up to date. The second component, the iFolder browser plug-in, provides secure authentication links to a central iFolder server. And the third component, the iFolder server, provides the necessary infrastructure for secure file synchronization and access. For more information on installing and configuring this product, refer to Chapter 20.
What Is NetWare 6?
NetWare 6 offers the widest range of distributed applications or network services in the industry. In Figure 1.7, you can see that NetWare 6 provides file, print, directory service, database, communication (includes host connectivity), messaging, network management, software distribution, imaging, Web services, and telephony.
These network services are provided to users regardless of their type of desktop. The goal of NetWare has always been to tie different users running Windows, OS/2, Macintosh, UNIX, or Windows NT/Windows 2000 into a distributed information system, as shown in Figure 1.8.
NetWare 6 enables these diverse workstations to access NetWare services and perform distributed processing in their native environments. Figure 1.9 shows how users can choose the desktop system that best fits their needs and still share services and information with other network users using different platforms.
In addition to the integration of desktops, NetWare 6 also integrates larger host computers from vendors such as IBM, Digital, and Hewlett-Packard. Regardless of where information is located on the network, users can access host-based resources and information from their desktops.
Applications that can benefit from client/server-based implementation are database, communications, and transactional applications that require frequent access to disk storage. Consider a database that searches, sorts, generates reports, and so forth. The database will perform better if you place the database engine on the server (where disk I/O is intensive) and process the data entry and user interface at the client. The client simply passes the data request to the database engine, which performs the action and responds accordingly.
Another example would be an e-mail system in which the user reads and composes mail messages at the client and then passes the responsibility for delivery to a server process.
Excerpted from Novell's CNA Study Guide Intranetware/NetWare 4 11 with CDROM by Clarke, David James, IV Copyright © 1997 by Clarke, David James, IV. Excerpted by permission.
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