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Novell's NetWare 6 Administrator's Handbook is the Novell-authorized definitive quick reference for the NetWare administrator covering all the new features of the much-anticipated NetWare 6.
Preparing to install
There are four recommended tasks to prepare your network for NetWare 6:
* Back up your data
* Update eDirectory (if necessary)
* Update eDirectory schema (if necessary)
* Update Certificate Authority object in eDirectory
* To install a new server, run INSTALL from the root of the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM.
* NetWare 4.x or 5.x-To upgrade to NetWare 6 choose one of these options:
Perform an Accelerated Upgrade by running ACCUPG.exe from the root of the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM. This requires that you first copy the entire NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM to a NetWare server that will function as the Staging server.
Perform an In-Place upgrade by running INSTALL from the root of the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM.
Perform a server migration by installing and running NetWare Migration Wizard from a client workstation. This utility is available on the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM (\PRODUCTS\MIGRTWZD.EXE).
* NetWare 3-To upgrade to NetWare 6, perform a server migration by installing and running NetWare Migration Wizard from a client workstation. This utility is available on the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM (\PRODUCTS\MIGRTWZD.EXE).
* NT v3.51 orv4-To upgrade to NetWare 6, perform a server migration by installing and running NetWare Migration Wizard from a client workstation. This utility is available on the NetWare 6 Operating System CD-ROM (\PRODUCTS\MIGRTWZD.EXE).
Getting Ready for NetWare 6
Whether you are building a new network with NetWare 6 or installing it into an existing network, there are certain preparations you should make so the installation goes as smoothly as possible.
For those of you creating a new network from the ground up, you have the opportunity to do all the little things that will make that network easier to manage down the road. Carefully consider your choices of cabling, protocols, addressing, naming schemes, and access methods, because these are the network building blocks that are very difficult to change once they have been implemented. Factor in issues such as potential company growth, mergers or acquisitions, reorganizations, and all the other business considerations of the twenty-first century. If you don't, your network may lack the flexibility necessary to adapt to changes at the organizational level.
All of these factors will then have to be weighed against the realities of your budget. There will be inevitable compromises, but this type of advanced planning will make sure those compromises don't come back to haunt you once the network is running.
As a network administrator, you may already be familiar with the network planning process. However, if you are interested in learning more about good network design techniques, see Appendix B for some additional reference materials.
Server Hardware Planning
You will need to consider the following as you prepare the server hardware for the NetWare 6 installation:
* Processor speed: The server must have a Pentium II processor or higher. Novell also recommends Pentium III 700 MHz processors for multiprocessor servers. * CD-ROM drive: The server must have a CD-ROM drive that can read ISO9660 CD-ROMs. Novell also recommends using a CD-ROM drive that is compatible with the El Torito specification so that you can boot the server directly from the CD.
* Server memory: A NetWare 6 server should have a minimum of 256MB of system memory (RAM). Novell recommends 512MB memory for best operation.
* Types of storage adapters and devices: Know the name of the server's storage controllers (SCSI board, IDE controller, etc.) and the types of devices (hard disks, CD-ROM/DVD drives, tape drive, etc.) attached to those controllers.
* Size of hard disks: There are two considerations when determining the appropriate size of your server hard disk(s): The DOS partition and the NetWare partition. The DOS partition is a portion of the hard disk reserved for DOS system files, server startup files, and any other DOS utilities you want to store on the server. The server should have a DOS partition of at least 200MB, but a good rule of thumb is to start with the minimum and then add 1MB for every MB of server RAM installed. That way you will be able to do a core dump to the DOS partition if necessary.
The remainder of the disk is used for NetWare partition(s), which will store network data and applications. You should plan on a minimum of 2GB for your NetWare partition-for the SYS volume. Novell recommends 4GB to give additional room for network data and other applications. Your best bet is to overestimate wherever possible so you don't have to worry about adding disk space shortly after installing the server.
* Network adapters: Know the type of network adapters installed in the server and have a copy of the latest LAN drivers available. Also, you should note the adapter's settings and the frame type(s) associated with each board. The default frame type for TCP/IP is Ethernet II and the default frame type for IPX is Ethernet 802.2.
* Display and input devices: For working on the console, there should be a SVGA or better video adapter and monitor along with a standard keyboard and mouse (USB, PS/2, or Serial). However, for physical security reasons it's not a bad idea to remove the keyboard and mouse when not in use, thus removing one potential area for mischief.
* Server name: Determine the appropriate name for this server within the conventions of your overall network naming scheme. The server name can be between 2 and 47 characters in length and can incorporate alphanumeric characters, hyphens, and underscores.
* Special hardware configuration: If your server supports any special hardware configurations, such as PCI HotPlug or multiple processors, make sure to note any applicable drivers that will need to be loaded once NetWare 6 has been installed.
You will need to consider the following as you determine the size and type of volumes to create within your NetWare partition(s):
* Type of volume to create: NetWare 6 now uses NSS volumes as its default volume type. NSS volumes offer a large number of advantages over traditional NetWare volumes, and now support most of the traditional file system features. However, there are still a few features that are not available with NSS volumes, such as block suballocation, auditing, file name locks and data migration. Unless you need one of these features, it will make sense to leverage the many advantages of NSS volumes.
For more information on NSS features see Chapter 8.
* Size of SYS volume: The SYS volume is the storage location for all NetWare system files and products. As such, it is absolutely critical that your SYS volume not run out of space. NetWare 6 requires a minimum of 2GB for its SYS volume. Novell recommends 4GB to leave room for the installation of additional products.
* Size of additional volumes: It is usually a good idea to reserve the SYS volume for NetWare files and create additional volumes for network applications and data. NSS provides disk pools that can span physical drives. Multiple volumes can reside inside each disk pool. Once created, these additional volumes can be used in any way you see fit. You can organize data in volumes based on who needs access, on the type of name space required for the files, or on how you want the data distributed across the network. Remember to keep volume names consistent with your global naming strategy.
* File compression: File compression is now available on both NSS and traditional NetWare volumes. You can choose to implement File Compression at any time, but once installed it cannot be removed without recreating the Volume.
* Block suballocation and block size: These are only applicable to traditional NetWare volumes. A block is a unit of space set aside for file storage. Block size is determined by the overall size of the volume, as shown in the following table.
VOLUME SIZE BLOCK SIZE
0 TO 31MB 4KB 32 to 149MB 8KB 150 TO 499MB 16KB 500MB to 1999MB 32KB 2000MB and greater 64KB
Block suballocation permits you to subdivide a storage block so that multiple small files can share a single block. To conserve disk space on traditional volumes, block suballocation is enabled by default. However, if your server will store primarily large files, you can disable block suballocation to eliminate the additional management overhead.
Your biggest considerations as you decide which protocols to run on the NetWare 6 server will be:
* What is already out there?
* How will network usage evolve in the future?
The world has already decided that its primary network protocol is IP, due to its exclusive use on the Internet. However, NetWare's original IPX protocol is still in wide use and is easier to configure and manage than IP. Beyond that, there are some additional protocols and protocol configurations that should be considered prior to implementation.
* Internet Protocol (IP): Novell made the move to IP as its default protocol with the release of NetWare 5, and if your network is connected with any external network or the Internet you will be using IP to make that connection. An IP network requires some advanced planning in order to be sure that all devices will be able to communicate, particularly if you are connecting your network to the outside world, as demonstrated in the following table.
Server IP address Each device on an IP network must have a unique address. If you are connecting to the Internet, you can reserve a unique address, or block of addresses, through the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC).
Server subnet mask The subnet mask identifies a portion of the network. Subnet masks allow you to divide your network into more manageable segments.
Default router address This entry determines where packets with an unknown network address will be sent. The default router is often that which connects your network to the Internet. If you want to specify a specific default router, make sure you have that information prior to the NetWare 6 installation.
DNS information If you want to use Domain Name services on your network, you need to know your network's domain name as well as the addresses of any name servers you want to use. Configuring DNS on NetWare 6 is covered in Chapter 4.
* Internet Packet Exchange (IPX): IPX is a Novell proprietary protocol that became a de facto standard due to NetWare's market acceptance. It is a very easy protocol to install and configure, but with the advent of the Internet, business realities have pushed it into the category of legacy protocol at this point. However, if you have a small or isolated network, IPX may still be a viable option for you.
Server internal IPX Each server on an IPX network must have a unique network number internal net number. This number can be randomly generated during installation or you can specify it manually.
You can choose to install both IP and IPX protocol stacks on your NetWare 6 server in order to support both legacy applications and external connectivity. However, this solution adds significant administrative overhead since both environments have to be managed separately. Furthermore, since IP and IPX services cannot interact, you may run into trouble accessing IPX services from an IP segment and vice versa.
* Compatibility Mode: Novell created Compatibility Mode (CM) to assist network administrators in making the transition from IPX networks to IP networks, since many legacy network applications were dependent on IPX. CM makes it possible to run IPX-dependent applications to receive the information they need in an IPX format, even though the network is running IP.
Compatibility Mode The CM driver acts as a virtual network adapter, (CM) driver to which IPX can be bound. The CM driver can then internally route IPX packets and deliver IPX-based information to IPX applications running on the server. IPX services reach IPX clients by being encapsulated within the equivalent IP packets.
SLP In order to properly handle IPX-based routing and service advertisement, CM relies on the IP-equivalent Service Location Protocol (SLP). Make sure SLP is configured on your network if you want to use CM.
Migration agent The migration agent makes it possible for external systems to interact with the internal IPX network created by the CM driver. The migration agent tunnels IPX packets through the IP network so IP and IPX systems can interact, or IPX segments can communicate across an IP backbone.
NetWare 6 no longer installs Compatibility Mode by default. If you need to configure Compatibility Mode on your network, see the NetWare 6 on-line documentation for more information.]
Excerpted from Novell's NetWare 6 Administrator's Handbook by Kelley J.P. Lindberg Jeffrey L. Harris Excerpted by permission.
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Part I: Getting Started.
Chapter 1: NetWare 6 Installation.
Chapter 2: NetWare Clients.
Chapter 3: Novell Management Tools.
Chapter 4: NetWare 6 Server Management.
Chapter 5: Novell eDirectory Management.
Chapter 6: Users and Network Security.
Chapter 7: NetWare Printing Services.
Part II: Providing Tranparent.
Chapter 8: File Storage and Management.
Chapter 9: NetWare 6 Web Servers.
Chapter 10: NetWare File Access.
Part III: Enabling Constant Availability.
Chapter 11: NetWare Multiprocessor Support.
Chapter 12: NetWare Cluster Services.
Appendix A: eDirectory Reference Materials.
Appendix B: NetWare Basics and Planning Worksheets.
Appendix C: Disaster Planning and More Information.
End-User License Agreement.