Nuclear Risk in Central Asia / Edition 1

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There are a significant number of nuclear and radiological sources in Central Asia, which have contributed, are still contributing, or have the potential to contribute to radioactive contamination in the future. Key sources and contaminated sites of concern are: (1) The nuclear weapons tests performed at the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in Kazakhstan during 1949-1989; (2) Safety trials at STS, where radioactive sources were spread by conventional explosives; (3) Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) within STS and outside STS in Kazakhstan, producing crater lakes and waste storage facilities etc.; (4) Technologically enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) due to U mining and tailing. As a legacy of the cold war and the nuclear weapon programme in the former USSR, thousands of km2 in the Central Asia countries are contaminated; (5) Large amounts of scale from the oil and gas industries contain sufficient amounts of TENORM; (6) Nuclear reactors, to be decommissioned or still in operation; (7) Storage of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive wastes.

The NATO Environmental Security Panel has recognized key hazards of concern: Natural Hazards, Human Induced Environmental Hazards, and the Degradation of the World's Natural Resource Base. Thus, nuclear and radiological risks are well within the scope of NATO ESP. Nuclear and radiological risks and potential transboundary contamination represent an international challenge, and are highly relevant for Central Asia. Therefore, the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW): “Nuclear Risks in Central Asia” was organized as a top-down initiative, and the papers from this ARW are compiled in this book.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents, Preface, Acknowledgement, National Nuclear Centre solving Radiation Safety Problems in Kazakhstan; K.K. Kadyrzhanov.- Radioactive Particles Released from Different Nuclear Sources – With focus on Nuclear Weapons Tests; B. Salbu.- Phenomenology of Underground Nuclear Explosions in Rock Salt; Yu.V. Dunbasov.- Radiation and Hydro-Chemical Investigation and Monitoring of Transboundary Rivers of Kazakhstan; K.K. Kadyrzhanov et al.- Tritium in Streams, Well Waters and Atomic Lakes at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: Present Status and Future Perspectives; P.I. Mitchell et al.- Safe Management of Residues from Former Uranium Mining and Milling Activities in Central Asian Iaea Regional Technical Cooperation Project; P.W. Waggitt.- Rehabilitation of Uranium Mines in Northern Tajikistan; M.M. Yunusov.- A Rational Approach to Bridging the Nuclear Technology Usage and Nuclear Education Gap; S.N. Bakhtiar.- Strontium-90 Contamination within the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: Results of Semirad1 and Semirad2 Projects – Contamination Levels and Projected Doses to Local Populations; N.D. Priest et al.- The Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and On the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management: An Instrument to Achieve a Global Safety; P. Risoluti.- Reduction of Risks from Lira Underground Nuclear Facilities at Karachaganak Oil-And-Gas Complex; T.I. Ageyeva.- The Net Effect of the Armenian Nuclear Power Plant on the Environment and Population Compared to the Background from Global Radioactive Fallout; K. Pyuskyulyan et al.- Assessment of Risks and Possible Ecological and Economic Damages from Large-Scale Natural and Man-Induced Catastrophes in Ecology-Hazard Regions of Central Asia and the Caucasus; A.N. Valyaev et al.- Distribution of Natural and Technogenic Radioactivity in Soil Samples from Foothill and Mountain Areas in Central Tajikistan; A.A. Juraev et al.- Quantitative Assessment of the Man-Induced Uranium in the Tail Disposalof Kara-Balta Mining Plant; V.M. Alekhina et al.- Study Of the 222Rn Distribution above the Tail Disposal of KBMP (Kyrgyz Republic) and Its Possible Transfer to Adjacent Territories; I.A. Vasilev et al.- Study of Transborder Contamination of the Syr-Darya and Amu Darya Rivers and their Inflows; B.S. Yuldashev et al.- The Navruz Project: Cooperative, Transboundary Monitoring, Data Sharing and Modelling Of Water Resources in Central Asia; H.D. Passell et al.- Several Approaches to the Solution of Water Contamination Problems in Transboundary Rivers crossing the Territory of Armenia; G.M. Aleksanyan et al.- Study of the Ecological State Of Rivers Kura, Araks and Samur on Azerbaijan Territory; R. Mamedov, G. Magerramov.- Ecological Considerations related to Uranium Exploration and Production; P.G. Kayukov.- Joint Norwegian and Kazakh Field Work in Kurday Mining Site, Kazakhstan, 2006; G. Strømman et al.- List of Contributors.

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